History of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 1898

 

"THE EVENTS of the memorable half century which the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition commemorates, are interwoven with the history of the nation and are of surpassing importance. The mighty West affords striking evidences of the splendid achievements and possibilities of our people. It is a matchless tribute to the energy and endurance of the pioneer, while its vast agricultural development, its progress in manufactures, its advancement in the arts and sciences, and in all departments of education and endeavor, have been inestimable contributions to the civilization and wealth of the world.

Nowhere have the unconquerable determination, self-reliant strength and sturdy manhood of our American citizenship been more forcibly illustrated. In peace or war, the men and women of the West have ever been in the vanguard. I congratulate the management upon its magnificent enterprise, and assure all who participate in this undertaking of the deep interest which the Government has in its success."

WILLIAM MCKINLEY

 

DEDICATED TO THE ACTIVE MEN OF THE WEST WHOSE ABILITY, ENERGY, AND SELF-SACRIFICING FIDELITY TO PUBLIC DUTY MADE POSSIBLE A STUPENDOUS ACHIEVEMENT

 

GRAND COURT LOOKING WEST,

 

PREFACE

FROM the moment the success of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 1898 was assured, there was manifested a popular desire that a history of the great project be published. Every officer and nearly every director felt that a permanent record of the grand achievement should be made, not only to preserve a faithful portrayal of its artistic triumphs, but also to contain a chronicle of the deeds of the men of the West who planned, fashioned and conducted to its consummation one of the greatest public enterprises known to the annals of the Trans-Mississippi region.

At a meeting of the Board of Directors, October 7, 1898, Gen. Charles F. Manderson offered a resolution, which was adopted, providing that material for a history of the Exposition he collected and that the sum of $10,000 be appropriated with which to defray the expense of publication. The resolution authorized the President to appoint a Committee on History, composed of three members of the directory. This committee was empowered to employ a suitable person as historian: to disburse the fund as needed; to approve the manuscript and illustrations prepared for publication, and to fix the quality of binding. It was provided, further, that a copy of the history be placed in the Omaha Public Library; one in the library of the University of Nebraska; one in the library of the Omaha High School, and one in the library of Creighton College.

President Wattles appointed to membership on the Committee on History three directors, viz., Gen. Charles F. Manderson, Chairman; Charles W. Lyman and Isaac W. Carpenter. The committee entered upon the discharge of its duties, but was soon restrained from further action by a writ of injunction based upon the claim that the articles of Incorporation did not specifically grant authority to publish a history. The claim was contested, but the court issued a writ of permanent injunction.

The Board of Directors met June 30, 1902. Chairman Lindsey of the Executive Committee made a report showing a small cash balance remaining on hand; that the Executive Committee recommended that said balance be paid to the Secretary as additional compensation for services rendered, and for the preparation of a "statement of the organization, operation, management and results of the Exposition, which statement shall be submitted by him to a committee consisting of Gen. Charles F. Manderson, Chairman; Isaac W. Carpenter, Charles W. Lyman. Carroll S. Montgomery and Edward Rosewater, to be revised and approved by said committee." The report of   the committee was unanimously adopted. Secretary Wakefield made a compilation of the salient facts of the subject consisting largely of a series of reports of departmental managers, transcripts of reports of proceedings of the meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of Directors, and a chronicle of the events incident to the programs of special days. The compilation proved invaluable in the preparation of this history.

A determination to publish a history of the Exposition was not reached until the fall of 1907—nine years after the close of the gates. The matter came up in an incidental way at a complimentary dinner at the Omaha Club tendered by President Wattles to the directors of the Exposition. Very naturally, the guests indulged in a recital of anecdote and reminiscence relating to the Exposition season, which led to many expressions of a desire that a history be published. General Manderson, Chairman of the Committee on History, was asked to take the preliminary steps in arranging for the preparation of a history, leaving to individuals the option of subscribing funds with which to meet the necessary expense. Upon request, James B. Haynes formulated an outline of proposed chapters, which was submitted to the committee, the sketch being approved. Pursuant thereto the history was written. An important part of the work was written by George E. Bidwell, a director, who had been appointed to the vacancy in the Revision Committee caused by the death of Edward Rosewater. Mr. Bidwell wrote Chapters II and III and he also compiled Part II. The chapter on Architecture was largely prepared by C. Howard Walker and Thomas R. Kimball, Architects-in-chief of the Exposition. The remaining chapters were written by Mr. Haynes, who planned the entire work. Most of the photographs were furnished by Frank A. Rinehart, who was official photographer of the Exposition. About a dozen of the illustrations were made from photographs kindly loaned by E. L. Lomax, General Passenger Agent of the Union Pacific Railway; a few small cuts were made from photographs taken by E. E. Muffitt, by whose courtesy we were permitted to use them.

CHARLES F. MANDERSON, Chairman.

ISAAC W. CARPENTER,

CHARLES W. LYMAN,

CARROLL S. MONTGOMERY,

GEORGE F. BIDWELL.

Committee on History.

 

CONTENTS

PART

CHAPTER PAGE

I. PROGRESS OF THE WEST ............................... 11
II. BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF COMPLETED EXPOSITION (MAP) ..... 29
III. HISTORIC EVENTS OF THE EXPOSITION SEASON ......... 55
IV. ARCHITECTURE AND ELECTRICAL ILLUMINATIONS ........ 105
V. GOVERNMENT BUILDING AND EXHIBITS .................. 143
VI. STATE BUILDINGS AND EXHIBITS ..................... 157
VII. INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITS AND BUILDING ............. 189
VIII. DESCRIPTION OF GENERAL EXHIBITS ................ 197
IX. INDIAN ENCAMPMENT ................................ 219
X. CONVENTIONS AND CONGRESSES ........................ 235
XI. SYNOPSIS OF REPORTS OF DEPARTMENTAL MANAGERS ..... 243
XII. MIDWAY PLAISANCE AND MUSIC ...................... 291
XIII. PROMOTION ...................................... 269
XIV. ORGANIZATION AND REORGANIZATIION ................ 285
XV. WHAT OMAHA DID ................................... 293
XVI. THE CURTAIN FALLS ............................... 323

PART II

I. PROCEEDINGS OF SPECIAL DAYS ....................... 331
 

CONQUEST OF THE PRAIRIE

 

PROGRESS OF THE WEST

"The mission of the Exposition is to communicate to mankind the impulses to which it owes its origin."

—John J. INGALLS.

DURING the prosperous years antedating the Chicago World's Fair, when the West made unexampled progress, there was an oft-expressed desire that an interstate exposition might be held in Omaha. The suggestion contemplated only a sectional exhibit of the products and industries of Nebraska and adjoining States, and was born of a knowledge of the wealth-producing power of this region, and of an urgent call for the spreading of that knowledge throughout the East. The World's Fair of 1893 was a revelation to the people of the nation. Its unprecedented success inspired leading men of population centers in the West to project similar enterprises in spite of the depressing effects of a financial panic then felt throughout the whole country. California erected a mid-winter exposition, a State enterprise, which opened its gates in San Francisco in January, 1894. Kansas City began to advocate the holding of a mid-continent exposition. Denver proposed to hold a Western States' exposition, and raised a large fund for the purpose, but upon further consideration postponed work to a future date, intending to celebrate the purchase of Louisiana Territory from France. Texas planned to have a Western and Southern States' exposition at Galveston. Minneapolis and St. Paul contemplated a Northwestern States' exposition. and had begun the work of a promotion.

Public-spirited men of Omaha took note of the progress of the agitation for a Western exposition, and determined to protect Omaha's interests in the matter. In the fall of 1894 the Trans-Mississippi Congress held its annual session in St. Louis, composed of representative men of Western States, who   assembled to discuss measures designed to promote the commercial and material interests of the region they represented. Its delegates held credentials from governors of States and from mayors of the larger cities. The Nebraska delegation in that Congress presented a formal invitation to the Congress to meet in Omaha the following year, which was accepted. Late in November of 1895 the Congress assembled in Omaha. The Nebraska delegation named a committee of five to prepare proposed resolutions to be presented to the Congress, the object of which was to obtain official approval of the proposal to hold an exposition at Omaha intended to measure the progress of the Trans-Mississippi States. Hon. William J. Bryan, chosen as the spokesman of the committee, introduced the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted:

Monarch of the Plains

"WHEREAS, We believe that an exposition of all the products, industries and civilization of the States west of the Mississippi River, made at some central gateway where the world can behold the wonderful capabilities of these great wealth-producing States, would be of great value, not only to the Trans-Mississippi States. but to all the homeseekers in the world; therefore,

"Resolved, That the United States Congress be requested to take such steps as may be necessary to hold a Trans-Mississippi exposition at Omaha during the months of August, September and October, in the year 1898. and that the representatives of such States and Territories in Congress be requested to favor such an appropriation as is usual in such cases to assist in carrying out this enterprise."

In the assembly which adopted the resolution after debate there were delegates from Minnesota, Missouri, Colorado and Utah. Returning to their respective homes they reported the adoption of the resolution, which was enough to check the efforts then being made in some of those States to gain recognition for an exposition city. Thus the Trans-Mississippi Congress paved the way for the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition which was held at Omaha from June to November, 1898.

 

The Bryan resolution set out in broad terms the object and scope of the proposed exposition. Later on, upon the organization of the corporate body, the projectors reiterated the purposes of the enterprise and expanded the limits of territory which it was intended to represent "to any State or Territory in the United States," and contemplated exhibits by the federal government and by foreign States, "for the purpose, particularly, of exhibiting to the world the products, industries and capabilities of the States and Territories west of the Mississippi River."

President Wattles, in a public address, referring to the objects of the exposition, said: "The Commercial Congress which authorized this exposition wisely conceived its object to he the advancement of the commercial interests of the West. It is a demonstration of the marvelous resources of the great West."

In his oration, which marked the ceremonies of the opening day of the exposition, John N. Baldwin made use of these words: "The purpose of this exposition is to display the products, manufactures and industries of the States and Territories west of the Mississippi River. The territory embraced is two-thirds of the area of the Union."

The first occasion for a ceremonial was the laying of the cornerstone of the Arch of States' entrance, originally intended to be a permanent structure built of stone from each of the Trans-Mississippi States and Territories.

Thus from the record we are enabled to see the original scope of the Exposition, and while Eastern and Southern States and foreign nations, together with our newly-acquired insular possessions, being invited to participate, installed exhibits and erected buildings, yet the prime object of the projectors was "to demonstrate to the world the products, industries and civilization of the States west of the Mississippi River." In furthering such object the people of the whole West soon made known their willingness to participate, and in every way possible to aid the men who had assumed the enormous burden involved in building the Exposition. The West, conscious of its strength and of its wealth-producing resources not yet developed, was of one mind as to the wisdom and necessity of making an extraordinary effort to attract the attention of the people of the East by a colossal object-lesson of the marvelous development of the natural resources of the country between the Great Lakes and the Rocky Mountains since the close of the Civil War.

President McKinley, in his telegram to the Exposition builders on the opening day, gave evidence of his sympathy with the objects sought to be attained. He said: "The events of the memorable half-century which the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition commemorates are interwoven with the history of the whole nation and are of surpassing importance.   The mighty West affords most striking evidence of the splendid achievements and possibilities of our people. It is a matchless tribute to the energy and endurance of the pioneer, while its vast agricultural development, its progress in manufactures, its advancement in the arts and sciences and in all departments of education and endeavor have been inestimable contributions to the civilization and wealth of the world."

William McKinley

Our President realized, as did the projectors of the Exposition, that its mission was to illustrate the achievements and possibilities of the people of the West. The completed Exposition gave indisputable evidence that its mission was successful.

It would be interesting and profitable in this connection to make a brief study of influences and forces which operated for more than a generation in   fixing the foundations of greatness; in promoting the growth and upbuilding of the West, and in facilitating the march of progress of its people. It may be worth while to glance at the prime factors which entered into the development of Nature's storehouse, by which were produced conditions making an Exposition possible, for in the last analysis the unrivaled success of the Omaha Exposition is found to be due primarily to the accumulated wealth of Western States which was derived from natural products of the earth in one form or another. Chronicles of the West confirm the fact that the beginning of every settlement depended upon the success of efforts to till the soil. Pioneers from Eastern States ascended the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers and their tributaries, bringing horses, plows and seed-corn, venturing all they possessed upon the chance of success of the first crop ever planted in those fertile valleys. That eminent Nebraskan, the late J. Sterling Morton, who was the foremost patron of agriculture in the West, discussing the part played by tillers of the soil in laying the foundations of this State, said: "All wealth and true capital must arise from agricultural development. Out of the soil alone is all true and substantial independence to be derived. Agriculture is the basis upon which the superstructure of commerce is reared. Everywhere throughout the West were brawny arms lifted up to strike the earth, that a stream of plenty and contentment might flow forth and bless the country."

In all of the prairie States the breaking-teams with the big sod-plows were in the van of industry. Thousands of men, attracted by the reports of discoveries of gold and silver in the mountains, traversed and examined the plains, finding that much of the land lying within the boundaries of the so-called Great American Desert was tillable. In this way the historic migration of pioneers to Pike's Peak, following Col. William Gilpin's discovery of gold on Cherry Creek (Denver) in 1858, revealed to the world the limitless possibilities of agriculture west of the Missouri River. Missourians began to settle in Kansas, where they devoted all their energies to plowing and planting corn. Their success was heralded throughout the East, where companies were organized to form colonies. and their success in Kansas led to the organization of many similar companies in the Northern States. Many of these colonists settled in Minnesota, Iowa and Nebraska, and by the close of the war there began a mighty inrush of discharged soldiers and other ambitious men into the prairie States. The discovery of gold in the Black Hills in the early '70's caused another notable migration of men, which attracted the attention of the country to the vast reaches of farming land in the Dakotas and in Nebraska. So it was when silver and gold were discovered in the mountains of Montana. The precious metals have proved to be magnets which drew the people into remote sections of  

The Trans-Mississippi States and Territories
  the wilderness, invariably resulting in the discovery and settlement of large areas of farming lands in various sections of the West. It may be important to note the fact, in passing, that the men who pioneered the West in whatever pursuit were native Americans who had inherited from their forefathers the true national spirit. They wrested Texas from Mexico only to turn it over to the protection of the American flag, as they did in the conquest of California. They braved the dangers of the Oregon trail and established settlements on the lower Columbia, where they planted the American flag on territory over which Great Britain had asserted a right of sovereignty for nearly fifty years. So it was with the early history of every Western State. Invariably the founders of these new commonwealths were native Americans determined to take part in the great movement of territorial expansion in the region west of the Mississippi River.

Coincident with the rush of settlers into the West from nearly all of the Eastern States in the years during and after the close of the Civil War, came liberal homestead laws passed by Congress under the policy of "free homes for the million." These laws, together with the advent of the railroads west of the river, gave a fresh impetus to immigration. The Government awarded land grants to the pioneer railroads in some of the prairie States, which led to an era of unexampled railroad building and consequent development of agricultural resources. After the pioneers had given testimony to the men of the East that the possibilities of development of natural resources were beyond computation, it would seem that the energy and power of the whole nation were exerted to provide the means of settling the region whose wonderful progress was illustrated by the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. No factor in this era of marvelous progress was comparable with that of the railroads. In 1860 there were but 2,100 miles of railway west of the Mississippi, and less than thirty miles of completed track west of the Missouri River. In 1870, in seven States between the Great Lakes and the mountains, there were 10,466 miles of track. In 1898 the mileage of railroads west of the Mississippi River was over 80,000, costing over two billion dollars.

The new lands of America have, from the year of the completion of the first railroad, waited for transportation facilities, which, when they came, seemed to run in advance of material progress. Development of the land depended largely upon the railroad, which not only increased the population, but afforded a means of reaching the best markets for the products of the farm. The railroads induced foreign emigrants to settle in the West, showed them the land and convinced them of its possibilities, in many cases furnishing seed-wheat and choice breeding stock free. The railroad, at this early day, became at once the explorer, carrier, provider and, in some cases, the tutor in that epoch of prairie sod-breaking when men were skeptical of the   stories of the fertility of the soil. The railroads were extended out into the uninhabited prairie or the trackless forest, inviting population to follow, assuming the role of immigration agent, sending out far and wide into the highways and byways of America and Europe, bidding the people to come in and settle upon the lands that had thus been opened up to them. The story of the work of the railroads, in developing the wheat industry of Minnesota and the Dakotas, is of itself a chapter of absorbing interest, for it is typical of the part played by every railroad in the West in fostering and developing the agricultural resources of the country.

AGRICULTURE

One of the chief objects of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition was to show the progress of the development of agriculture. The extraordinary exhibits of productiveness were intended to convey a clear idea of the wealth-producing power of the farms and ranges attained up to the year 1898.

A Prairie Dug-Out

Estimates based upon the most reliable returns available place the annual value of products of the area described at a thousand million dollars, derived from cultivated farms, aggregating sixty-seven million acres. These broad prairies, at one time said to be incapable of cultivation, in 1898 produced twelve hundred million bushels of corn, three hundred and fifty million bushels of wheat, two hundred and twenty-three million bushels of oats and thirty million tons of hay, in value aggregating six hundred million dollars. Other products raise the grand total of $755,200,242. There were nine million horses and mules, thirty-two million cattle, fifty-one million hogs and sheep, the value of the annual product of live stock being twelve hundred million dollars. The annual wool product was estimated at seventy million pounds.

In considering the chief factors which contributed to make the prairie States the granary of the world, it is necessary to mention the self-binding reaper and harvester which appeared in 1876, for it is said to have advanced the frontier line of civilization many miles each year. It is not too much to say that the successful introduction of the reaper into the grain fields of this country added millions of dollars to the value of our annual harvest by enabling us to secure the whole product and to enlarge the area of our wheat   fields with certainty of being able to gather the crop. The introduction of labor-saving farm machinery of every description had tremendous influence in increasing total production of grain. The same may be said of the scientific experiments made by the Government, as illustrated in its splendid exhibit at Omaha. In 1862 Congress granted land to each State, proceeds of sale of which to go to agricultural and mechanical colleges. These institutions have had their part in promoting agriculture.

An Indian Village

Up to the year 1890 the value of farm property had reached fabulous proportions. Government statisticians reported the aggregate value of farm property in twenty States and Territories west of the Great Lakes at $7,185,588,223. The figures for 1900 show an increase in ten years of over 25 per cent. Perhaps tit would be fair to add 20 per cent to the above sum in order to reach an estimate of the total value of farm property at the date of the Omaha Exposition, which would give us the colossal sum of $8,622,705,867. This is more than the total of farm property in all the States and Territories in 1860.

 

MINING

A large share of the rapid progress of the West within the era outlined at the beginning of this chapter is due to the development of mineral resources. As was the case in California in '49, the discovery of rich deposits of precious metals in the Rocky Mountain States attracted thousands of prospectors and miners, who began to lay the foundations of the mining industry, which has grown to enormous proportions. The Western States produce practically all of the precious metals found in the United States. In 1860 so few people were living in these mountain

Placer Mining
States that the census takers did not count them. The rush of prospectors into Colorado had begun a year or two before, but little had been done in founding the mining industry. in that State, which is the largest producer of minerals among the States and Territories. Little was then known of the valuable mineral deposits of Wyoming, Montana, Utah, Idaho and South Dakota, although a few prospectors had by that time located claims and some sensational discoveries had been made. Note has been taken of the first discovery of gold in Colorado in 1858, but the inrush of prospectors was delayed until the following summer. The world-famed placer diggings of Alder Gulch, Montana, were discovered in 1859, destined to produce, all told, gold valued at sixty-five million dollars. Some years later the Mormon settlers in Utah began to prospect for gold and silver with great success, attracting thousands of emigrants, some of whom joined prospectors from Montana and penetrated the mountains of Idaho, where rich mineral deposits were found.
Miner's Cabin
Early in the '70's gold was discovered in the Black Hills of South Dakota, which attracted the attention of the whole country for a time. These several discoveries produced an immense migration into those regions, and by 1870 they contained a population of 145,000. From that time the growth of the mining industry in the West has been phenomenal. The aggregate amount of wealth produced is so large that it   almost challenges belief. Progress made in Colorado is illustrated by the fact that in 1891 the total revenue derived from the mines was thirty-three and a half million dollars. In 1899 the State produced gold and silver valued at $$5,284.327. At that time the total bullion produced was over three hundred million dollars. Utah produced in 1877 gold, silver, copper and lead valued at $7,237,833; in 1891 the output had grown to $12,265,112, and in 1898 the total production of those materials in Utah was valued at $9,347,826. The oldest mining camp in that State has produced fifty million dollars in gold, silver and lead. The value of gold and silver produced in Montana in 1899 was $25,571.090 Up to 1892 Butte alone had produced, all told, gold, silver, copper and lead valued at over two hundred million dollars. During the Exposition year Idaho produced gold and silver valued at $6,869,105; South Dakota $6,657,751; California about seventeen million; Oregon and Washington nearly three million; Arizona nearly five million and Nevada over three million.

Every one of the mining States produces a large variety of valuable minerals, one State having 208 different kinds. All produce coal in greater or less quantity. One State has the greatest onyx mine in the world; another has the largest deposits of marble; another embraces a region of country in the hills, a hundred miles square, which is the richest in the world, containing the largest and most easily worked mass of low-grade ore yet discovered; another State has a mountain of iron ore, the largest single deposit in the world.

In 1899 the total product of gold in the States west of the Mississippi River was valued at $71.053.400; and of silver $70,806,626. Those States produced that year coal weighing two hundred and twenty-seven million tons, iron ore weighing nearly twenty-five million tons and over fifty-seven million barrels of petroleum. The value of the coal was over thirty million dollars and the value of copper and other minerals produced that year was about one hundred million dollars.

MANUFACTURES

It was inevitable that the vast storehouse of materials needed by the people would give rise to a great manufacturing industry throughout the West, especially in those States having an abundant supply of fuel. The wonderful development of natural resources ushered in a remarkable era of manufacturing west of the Great Lakes, due partially to the discovery of new sources of metals, coal, petroleum, and to the vast forests north and south, which produced an unlimited amount of building materials; and due in some measure to the rapid growth of transportation facilities by, rail and  

A Primitive American
by water, and to an ambition to become independent of the East in the production of many articles of common use. Therefore, since the Civil War, the center of manufacturing has steadily moved westward. For twenty years prior to the Omaha Exposition there had been great industrial expansion in the West, and the increase of population was so rapid that consumption kept pace with the annual product, while the number of persons employed in manufacturing, mechanical and mining industries had increased materially. The period cited was most prolific of inventions, which gave an unprecedented impetus to the manufactures.

In order to illustrate the rapid growth of industries of the twenty years ending with 1900, the value of the annual product of a number of representative Western cities is given as follows:

1880. 1900.
Denver .............................. $ 9,367,749 $ 41,368,698
Des Moines .............................. 4,220,709 10,488,189
Kansas City ............................. 6,382,681 36,527,391
Minneapolis .......................... 29,973,476 110,943,043
Omaha ................................... 4,280,866 43,168,876
St. Louis ........................... 114,333,375, 233,629,733
St. Paul ............................... 10,268,363 38,541,030
Salt Lake City ........................... 1,610,133 6,109,409
San Francisco ......................... 77,801,949 133,069,416

In twenty States and Territories west of the Great Lakes the aggregate value of manufactured products had reached fabulous proportions in 1900, the increase in ten years being about 75 per cent. No other part of the country enjoyed so large a percentage of increase. The figures of the United States census afford a basis for a fair estimate of the total value of manufactured products in the region outlined for the year 1898, the State of Illinois leading all the others. The territory embraced extends from the Gulf to the Lakes and westward to the Pacific Coast. This vast domain produced, during the exposition year from native raw materials, manufactured articles aggregating in value the sum of $2,535,159,961.

 

These figures are indicative of the limitless resources of the country and the great possibilities of the future. To exploit these facts and to disseminate them throughout the world, the Trans-Mississippi Exposition was projected. They tell a marvelous story of progress and development never before attained in this or any other country.

AGGREGATE WEALTH

Some years ago a Nebraska statesman said: "We are riding upon the head wave of American enterprise, but our descendants, living here a century hence, will he in the center of American commerce—the mid-ocean of our national greatness and prosperity." There is nothing more interesting in the world of modern effort than the solid achievements of the men who are building up the West and who are making of it a great empire. It was Americans and sons of Americans who first settled up the West and put their stamp upon its institutions. Invariably the foreigner came in later and together they took up the work of producing wealth. The results of their labors can not be measured in dollars and cents alone, but in that branch endeavor they have made wonderful progress. Soon after the year of the Omaha Exposition was gathered the facts figures for the federal census of 1900, and the best statistics obtainable are thus given: In twenty-two States and Territories of the West the aggregate value of real property was $17,176,560,181, while the value of all property reported had reached the colossal sum of $29,082,817,660. This exceeds the total estimated wealth of the

A Pawnee Brave
 
Chief Red Cloud
  whole country as reported in the census of 1870. It was produced and accumulated by a population of 21,404,103.

In passing, it may be well to make brief reference to the preponderance of values of agricultural products over and above the aggregate value of the products of the mines. While these are the prime sources of wealth and the West owes its greatness to both, it is interesting to observe that the part played by the prairie States in the production of wealth is much larger than that of the mining States wherein agriculture was not yet fully developed. Covering the territory for which these estimates are made. the aggregate value of the products of the farm during the year of the Exposition was $755,200,242; while the mines produced $271,859,026.

From these evidences of material progress the reader may derive an insight into the wealth-producing power of the country which projected the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. While the province of an exposition is to illustrate the resources of the region it represents, it must show also the capabilities of the people in the arts and industries, and illustrate in many ways the state of civilization attained by the people who developed the conntry, It must show what had been done in the field of science. invention. education, religion, culture, society, fine arts, music, etc. Perhaps the thousands of visitors who viewed the educational exhibits did not realize the fact that the Exposition represented one hundred and twenty-one universities and colleges, sixty-two thousand school houses and nearly six million school children. There was no exhibit on the grounds which made evident the fact of the existence of forty-five thousand religious organizations with a membership of three and a half million worshipers, who had erected forty-four thousand church edifices in the Western States, yet these figures give the true measure if of the progress of religion and education since the advent of the pioneer missionary, whose virtues are extolled in the annals of the founding of civilization west of the Great Lakes. Interesting as were the exhibits of the work of the pupils of the public schools as indicating the character of instruction, the showing made of the work done in the colleges in teaching horticulture and agriculture was one of highest importance, as it illustrated the value of scientific instruction as applied to the practical work of agriculture, fruit-growing and forestry. These items are given in order to throw a new light upon the Western farmer, who had for years devoted his spare time to the study of scientific methods of tilling the soil. The work accomplished by Western agricultural experiment stations was set forth in the exhibits to great advantage, as was that of a vast number of agricultural societies and farmers' institutes, which for twenty years had grown rapidly in number and influence.

 

One of the most important lessons of the Exposition was that which taught the masses the great value of the application of art to the products of industry. A great deal had been written about industrial art, but there was little to be seen in the way of its product. In the Exposition enough was shown to emphasize the importance of cultivating artistic knowledge in industrial callings. The exhibits illustrated the fact that art played an important part in promoting industrial development, and gave proofs that Western people were keenly alive to the value of instruction in the fine arts, and appreciated the influence of art as applied to the products of industry generally.

The spirit of the West has ever been manifest in all the great undertakings of the people. The constant effort seemed to be to build firm foundations for future greatness, and while the chief concern of all was the development of natural resources in order that wealth and strength might be gained, yet there has ever been present in the minds of men who laid the beginnings of communities and fostered the growth of States, an expressed desire to encourage every agency for the cultivation of good morals and the refinement of society. The history of frontier mining camps confirms this salient fact, for the better element of men invariably gained the ascendency in every settlement, however remote, with the result that the rough and dissolute characters who dominated the camps in early days were either subdued by hemp or forced to move on. The annals of Virginia City and Leadville need only to be cited to illustrate the certain tendency of Americans to compel observance of the laws of well-ordered society, and to pave the way for the civilizing influences of the East, under which they were reared. As a consequence of the national spirit of the people, the West founded a great system of education through laws which set apart a portion of the public lands for purposes of endowment of universities, high and common schools, mechanical and agricultural. colleges. These means of affording classical, technical and primary instruction were provided for, as a rule, in one form or another, at the earliest practicable day in the life of new communities. Some of the mountain States founded schools of mining with a degree of success no less marked than that of the agricultural colleges of the prairie States. It is not too much to say that the intellectual life of the West kept pace in point of development with agencies employed in the pursuit of wealth, and while the Exposition may not have illustrated in full degree the advancement of society in moral and spiritual attainments,it did display many exhibits which made evident the fact that the people of the West had a due appreciation of the value of intellectual development; of art in various forms of expression; of the growth and encouragement of religion; of every   means of social culture and refinement: of fostering benevolent and charitable institutions, and the Exposition sought to make these facts apparent, not only by the display of exhibits, but by means of numerous congresses and conventions, each of which contributed its share of testimony to prove the deep interest felt by the people in all efforts made to improve moral and educational standards.

 

BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF COMPLETED EXPOSITION

CHAPTER II

The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition was located on a plateau of ground with an area of one hundred and eighty-four acres, irregular in shape, and well within the city limits of Omaha, twelve minutes from the business center of the city by either of three lines of electric trains. It was made up of three tracts, known as the Kountze tract, a parallelogram, two thousand five hundred and ninety feet in length, six hundred and eighty feet in width, area forty-three acres, its longer axis being east and west, bounded on the east by Sherman Avenue with its electric car line, on the north by Pickney Street. On this tract was located the Grand Court, embracing the main exhibition buildings. Adjoining this tract on the east was the so-called Bluff tract, with area of thirty-eight acres, three thousand four hundred and forty-seven feet in length, nine hundred and fifty feet in width near its southerly extremity, tapering to a point at its northerly extremity, its longer axis being at right angles to the Kountze tract, bounded on the east by the main line of the Missouri Pacific Railway Company; on the west was the so-called North tract, irregular in shape, with an area of eighty-seven acres, its longest axis both north and south and east and west being about two thousand feet in length—bounded on the east by Sherman and Commercial Avenues, with their electric car lines; on the north by Ames Avenue, with its electric car line, and on the west by Twenty-fourth Street,  

Map of Trans Mississippi and International Exposition Grounds Walker & Kimball Architects in Chief
  with its electric car line. On this tract were located the Live Stock Exhibit, the West Midway and various concessions. The contiguity of these three tracts being broken, various smaller tracts of a total area of sixteen acres were acquired to provide avenues of communication between them.

This aggregation of grounds included an extreme length north and south of a trifle over a mile, and an extreme width east and west of about three-quarters of a mile, yet the grouping of the various classes of buildings and exhibits, and the location of the various classes of entertainment with the Grand Court and the Government building as the radiating center of attraction, were such that the visitor was conscious of no weariness in seeking to avail himself of every opportunity to surfeit himself with knowledge and amusement.

As will appear elsewhere in this history, and in a more appropriate setting, the Trans·Mississippi territory of the United States, while at the zenith of its marvelous development of empire, had suffered a grievous set-back during the years immediately preceding the inception of this great Exposition by reason of unprecedented drouth and failure of crops. The State of Nebraska, which had stood in the foremost rank with the States in development. also appeared to be the central zone of adversity. Its metropolis, Omaha, to whose destiny fell the creation and carrying out of the exhibition of the marvelous development of the first half·century of the existence of the Trans-Mississippi territory, seemed to be the center of adversity of her State. The upwards of two millions of persons passing through the gates of the Exposition and viewing from every standpoint the grandeur of the creation as an entirety, could have had no conception of the actual conditions prevailing when the genius of its management first took hold of the enterprise. The historian must be true to his trust. It was then regarded as a melancholy fact that the blocks of beautiful city lots which became the site of this great Exposition had been. during the years of depression, relegated to the culture of corn, that their owners might tide themselves over the financial shoals to the new era of prosperity and advancement which the true Westerner could always see behind the darkest clouds. And from these fields of corn the transformation into the beauteous scenes of the Exposition took place.

To prepare the reader for a proper conception of the various elements which contributed to the grandeur and beauty of the entire scene, it may be stated here that a radical departure was made from the almost universal practice in the creation of previous expositions in many details. The concentration of the groupings of the various features of exhibits and amusements has just been referred to. An element of uniformity in height of buildings and the rectangular form of the main buildings, without detracting from the widest field for display of genius in details of facade and ornamentation,  

GRAND COURT, LOOKING WEST
  contributed not a little to the glory of the scene as an entirety. In the field of electric illumination the radical departure from the use of the arc light to that of the incandescent lamp added greatly to the success of the creation. Other equally radical departures from former practice were made with great risk and much concern, but out of it came cordial congratulation, and the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition has become a recognized model for emulation. Be it remembered that local Omaha genius was very largely the source of the originality which prevailed in every department of the Exposition.

The main entrance to the Exposition grounds was through the Arch of States, located at the intersection of Twentieth Street with the north line of Pinckney Street, being midway of the south line of the Kountze tract. The original conception of this Arch of States was to construct it of materials contributed by each of the Trans-Mississippi States, but from various causes the carrying out of this plan failed, though it was one of the most noticeable in the group of structures. It was fifty feet in width, twenty-five feet in depth and sixty feet in height to the top of the parapet. In form it was that of a triumphal arch. the opening being twenty feet in width and thirty-five feet in height to the keystone. It was decorated with a frieze composed of the coats-of-arms of the Trans-Mississippi States, the whole being surmounted by sculptured figures bearing the shield of the United States. The gay effect of streamers flying from the top of this arch formed a brilliant object, which attracted attention from points of view throughout a wide area.

Entering the grounds through this arch, the visitor found himself transported to a fairyland of splendor far beyond any conception of his childhood days. While modern ingenuity had produced many spots appropriately termed fairylands, Venice being the crowning ideal of most travelers in home and foreign lands, yet there were those who had looked upon them all who expressed the opinion that this creation surpassed in beauty of setting and harmony of outline anything hitherto achieved. From a vantage point of view above the south viaduct over Sherman Avenue, looking west, immediately in the foreground one saw the Grand Court. in the center of which, longitudinally, was set the canal or lagoon. This was the arena which the architects chose for a display of the highest artistic effects. The canal was is two thousand feet in length. one hundred and fifty feet in width at its east end and through the major portion of its length, broadening at its west end into a trefoil or three-lobed lake of four hundred feet across. The east end was known as the Harbor, whence passengers embarked in Venetian gondolas of picturesque style of construction, propelled by typical gondoliers, who perfected the transposition into fairyland by adding the music of their native songs to the rhythm of their swaying bodies in the manipulation of the  

SCENE OF THE LAGOON
  propelling oars, The descent from the level of the Grand Court to that of the havens of the gondolas was by means of steps of masonry. The canal was spanned by an artistic bridge across its longitudinal center, forming an avenue of communication between the north and south sides of the Grand Court, with arches for the passage of the gondolas navigating the water beneath. Swans and other water fowls added to the picturesque beauty of this lagoon.

The west end of the lagoon was known as the "Mirror." In the center of the "Mirror" was an electric fountain designated "Nautilus." An unknown writer has described it as "Neptune sitting on high, viewing his realm with regal dignity. Before him riot his captive waters in holiday attire, assisted by the rainbow subjects of a rival sovereign. Innumerable sprays of vari-colored crystal fluid dart forth in rapid sequence, now bursting into flaming red, then quieting to subdued mother-of-pearl, and again offering a bouquet of myriad shades to the water-god."

Government Building

Cutting off the horizon of vision to the west, the stately Government building stood, facing the "Mirror." It, like any of the Exposition, would, if set down by itself in almost any spot in the world, attract attention for its grandeur, stateliness and architectural beauty. It was constructed of the Ionic order of architecture, arranged in three sections, the center or main section having a frontage of two hundred and eight feet, flanked on either side by a side section with a frontage of one hundred and forty-eight feet, constituting an entire frontage of five hundred and four feet. The main section was fifty-eight feet in height to top of balustrade over cornice and fifty feet in depth. The side sections were one hundred feet deep and forty-four feet in height to top of balustrade. The main entrance was flanked on either side by pavilions capped by richly decorated domes. The main building was surmounted by a colossal dome capped by an heroic figure representing "Liberty Enlightening the World," the torch of the figure being one hundred and seventy-eight feet above the ground. It was confessedly the finest exposition building the United States Government had ever constructed.

 

AGRICULTURE, MACHINERY AND ELECTRICITY BUILDING

 

One of the happy features of the architecture of the Exposition now presents itself, as our line of vision radiates eastward from the Government building disclosing a system of vine-shaped columns treated in the Pompeian manner connecting all the main buildings surrounding the Court of Honor, providing visitors with a restful protection from the heat of the summer sun as well as from the discomfort of rainy weather. These colonnades lead us from the Government building in a graceful curve parallel to the lobes of

Fountain of Neptune in Basin
the "Mirror" on either side to the Palace of Agriculture on the north side and to the Palace of Fine Arts on the south side of the Court.

The Palace of Agriculture was four hundred feet in length, one hundred and forty-feet in width, and forty-eight feet in height. It was of the Renaissance or classic style of architecture, the decorations and ornaments, modeled from the agricultural products of the Trans-Mississippi territory, being festoons of corn and other cereals, and even the common market-garden products being given proper place in the decoration.

Directly opposite the Palace of Agriculture and also facing the lagoon stood the Palace of Fine Arts, in shape a parallelogram, two hundred  

SECTION OF COLONNADE
  forty feet in length, one hundred and twenty-five feet in width, and thirty-nine feet in height. Its architecture was unique in detail but in perfect harmony with the general lines of all the main buildings. It took the form of two separate, symmetrical, domed buildings,connected by a peristylium or open court surrounded by colonnades. The sculptor again crowned the pediments and flanking buttresses with groups and figures representing the various arts, and holding out for those who won them the emblems of success.

Next adjoining the Palace of Fine Arts on the east was the Arch of States, already described. Directly opposite the Arch of States and on the north side of the Court of Honor was the Administration Arch, connected with the Palace of AGriculture on the west by a continuance of the Pompeian Colonnade, which had its beginning at the Government building on either side. The Administration Arch was fifty feet square and one hundred and fifty feet in height. It formed a central figure in the group of buildings facing the canal by reason of its height. Like all other buildings grouped around the Grand Court, it was designed in "free classic," but the French Renaissance stood out more prominently in this building than any other. An open space between the roof and the main cornice formed a point of observation above the roofs of the other buildings.

Adjoining the Administration Arch on the east and connected with it by a continuance of the Pompeian colonnade in graceful and restful curves was the Palace of Manufactures. It was three hundred feet in length, one hundred and twenty-five feet in width and forty feet in height. The Greek Ionic style of architecture characterized its lines. The order of heroic proportions was carried out with great artistic care in every detail. The principal feature of the canal facade was a circular dome one hundred and fifty feet in circumference, rising to a height of seventy-five feet, which was supported on a circular row of Fluted Ionic columns, the space enclosed by them being open, forming a grand, open, domed vestibule for an approach to the building. The inner dome was richly designed with ribs and panels, and was highly decorated, while the outer was formed by a series of steps rising in the form of a cone to the apex, which was crowned by a richly decorated base for a flagstaff. The outer row of dome columns was detached and the entablature was broken around them at the base of the dome, while over each column was a statue and pedestal having as a background the stylobate of the dome. This treatment was very monumental in effect, and while in good taste and harmonious with the architectural style, it was, at the same time, like so much of the genius displayed in the Exposition, original and interesting. Over the doorway leading from the vestibule into the building were three large panels between the pilasters to receive paintings emblematical of the character of the exhibits displayed therein. Flanking the central dome were beautiful  

GRAND COURT, LOOKING WEST
  Ionic colonnades which formed covered ways along the entire facade, terminating at the corner towers. Over these colonnades were balconies, capable of receiving large numbers of people, and opening from the interior galleries of the building, affording a fine point from which to obtain an elevated view of the canal and the beauties of the Grand Court.

Directly opposite the Palace of Manufactures and facing the south side of the Grand Court was the Palace of Liberal Arts. This building was two hundred and eighty feet in length, one hundred and twenty-five feet in width and thirty-six feet four inches in height. Its design was of the French Renaissance school of architecture, its harmony and proportion being regulated by the other main exhibit buildings surrounding the Grand Court. Above the pediments at each corner of the building were octagonal bases on which stood groups of statuary, each group composed of four heroic figures, the

West End Colonnades
main one representing the Liberal Arts supported by two kneeling figures suggesting industrial art, while in front of all was a smaller figure supporting a shield on which the attributes of pottery and wrought iron were inscribed. The frieze all around the building was ornate, supported by colonnades of Ionic type and contained the names of patrons of the Liberal Arts.

Adjacent to the Palace of Manufactures on the east and connected with it by a continuation of the Pompeian colonnade was the Palace of Mines and Mining. It was of the Greek Ionic style of architecture, four hundred feet in length, one hundred and forty feet in width and forty-eight feet six inches in height. The principal feature of the lagoon facade was a circular dome one hundred and fifty feet in circumference, rising to a height of seventy-five feet. The facade was accentuated at the center and on the ends with pavilions sixty-four and forty feet respectively, thereby obtaining sufficient variety of mass. The solidity of these pavilions and their strong perpendicular lines and shadows gave a strong contrast of light and shade. The center entrance was twenty-four feet wide and thirty-four feet high, very rich in decoration,  

ARCH OF THE STATES AND FINE ARTS BUILDING
  flanked on either side by coupled columns and their accompanying pilasters, standing six feet from the walls. The main cornice broke around a projection of columns supporting pedestals for groups of statuary twelve feet high. The center of the pavilion was crowned by a colossal group of statuary. Single statues were also placed between columns resting on stylobate, which was projected out to receive them. The spandrels above the arch were decorated with bas-reliefs. The end pavilions with their entrances were crowned with shallow domes.

Directly across the Grand Court and facing the north side of the canal was the Palace of Machinery and Electricity, connected with the Palace of Manufactures by a section of the Pompeian colonnade. This palace was three hundred feet in length, one hundred and forty feet in width and thirty- one feet eight inches in height. The design was governed by the general conditions requiring harmony with the other buildings. The architecture was modern Renaissance. There were triple entrances on the main floor level in the center of the main front, and similar groups in the centers of the east and west fronts, with four emergency exits in the north wall. In front of the building, flanking both sides of the main entrance. was an open portico sixteen feet wide along the front elevation of the building. The center entrance feature projected beyond the portico, thus forming the grand entrance vestibule.

Adjoining the Palace of Machinery and Electricity on the east, and situated in the northeast corner of the Kountze tract, was the Boys' and Girls' building, so called by reason of the cost of its construction having been paid from funds contributed by the school children of Trans-Mississippi territory. It was not one of the main exhibit buildings, but was given a place in the Grand Court as a worthy tribute to the sacrificing and enthusiastic loyalty of the children, on whose shoulders would rest in their generation the great responsibility of carrying on the development of science, industry and art, which this Exposition was to exhibit, as the result of the development of the two generations who had brought out of the "Great American Desert" what we were now to behold. The Boys' and Girls' building was of most pleasing design, the ground plan being in the form of a letter T. the stem of the letter forming the rear portion of the building. The main portion of the building was one hundred feet in length and fifty feet in width, the stem running fifty feet to the rear.

In the southeast corner of the Kountze tract and adjoining the Palace of Mines and Mining on the east was the Auditorium or Music Hall. It was one hundred and fifty feet in length, one hundred and fifteen feet in width and thirty-seven feet in height. Architecturally. it was in keeping with the general style of the buildings surrounding the Grand Court, but no attempt  

SECTION OF JUBILEE DAY CROWDS
  at elaborate display of art or decoration was made, its purpose being to furnish accommodation for concerts, congresses of various kinds, and other public meetings. Its seating capacity was eleven hundred.

We have now, in our view from the vantage point above the south viaduct over Sherman Avenue, taken immediately upon entering the Exposition grounds, covered so much of the beautiful scene as came within the view to the west, which could only include the Grand Court. Let us change our view and look to the east. We have thus far feasted our vision upon a scene incomparable in beauty and almost beyond adequate description, but as we turn and bring within the horizon of our vision the scene toward the east, though we lose sight of the splendor of the Grand Court, we gaze upon another rare scene entirely different in every detail but hardly less difficult of description. We now look upon the so-called Bluff tract as the foreground, and beyond the picturesque valley of the mighty Missouri River, reaching to the horizon to the north and to the south, and beyond the river the bluffs of the State of Iowa, where the councils with the tribes of Indians who possessed the territory fifty years ago were held. Our view at the present time, however, must be confined to the transformation wrought within the boundaries of the Bluff tract.

Elsewhere in this history it will be recorded that the transformation of the Bluff tract from its original landscape of corn stubble to the grand and beauteous scene which we now behold, began in November, 1897, less than seven months ago, for we are now gazing upon the scene of the opening day of the Exposition, June 1, 1898. While there was no special publicity given to the thought at the time, there was no feature of the Exposition speaking so eloquently for the fertility of the soil, the energy and genius of its people and the possibilities of the future of the Trans-Mississippi empire, as did the transformation of this Bluff tract of Missouri River silt from a field of corn stubble to this perspective of grand avenues, shaded by stately trees and surrounded by beautiful shrubs and flowers, in such a brief period of time. The skeptical visitor from the East who, perhaps, had spent a lifetime in effort to accomplish something approaching this in beauty and effect around his home mansion on the edge of his estate, in the stony soil of his native State, could hardly realize what had been done here, and many of his kind do not believe it to be the truth even to this day. The rugged bluff and monotonous vista of level soil had disappeared under the artistic touches of the landscape gardener, and had been succeeded by long, cool stretches of turf, miles of neatly graveled walks and drives and a wilderness of trees and shrubs I and flowers suggestive of tropical luxury. The most of this, in fact, had been accomplished since the last snow had melted and trickled down the bluff to swell the turbid current of the river below, for little could be done during the   months of the winter. The trees were as luxuriant and the turfs and flowers as inviting as though years had been spent in their cultivation, and the visitor wondered whether most to admire the setting or the gem. It required three thousand trees and nine thousand shrubs to carry out this feature, and these were chiefly varieties native to Nebraska. Twelve hundred shade trees were planted along the walks and drives. The stretches of green turf were broken by miles of gravel walks laid out in artistic pattern around the buildings and

East End Terrace
grass plots. The aggregate length of these walks was fifteen thousand two hundred and four linear feet exclusive of the Grand Plaza, which had an area of eight thousand four hundred and eighty-four square yards. An irrigation system of above twelve thousand linear feet of pipe was necessary to supply the moisture needed to create and maintain this picture through the torrid months of the summer. Over one hundred thousand plants and flowers, in addition to a vast number of vines for decorative effects, were necessary to perfect the scheme. These were matured in the green-houses constructed for the purpose upon the grounds during the previous winter. Upwards of sixty beds of various patterns filled with a score of different varieties of lilies,   geraniums, oleanders, dahlias, cannas and arbutus, were laid out in the grass plots in the southerly half of the tract.

Inspired by the metamorphosis wrought in the Bluff tract, ex-Senator Ingalls said: "Of all those vast movements of the human race in its westward path across the continents and seas, from the Tigris and Euphrates, around the globe, none have surpassed in dramatic circumstances and immensity of results, that tremendous migration, which, in less than the lifetime of a single generation, has transformed the dominion of the desert into the garden ground and granary of the earth. These peaceful hosts, armed with the alphabet and the plow, have conquered a domain whose extent makes the conquests of Caesar and Napoleon insignificant. Overcoming the obstacles of nature with irresistible energy they have added to the productive area of the republic a territory greater than France and Germany combined, and to its wealth and resources an aggregate that arithmetic can not compute. To celebrate these

Viaduct Towers.
triumphs, to commemorate an historic epoch, and to inspire mankind with continued devotion to the ideas that have made such annals possible, was organized the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition. History records the wonders of Egypt, its temples and palaces, its statues, pyramids and cities, its wealth and learning and glory, surviving the wrecks of thirty centuries. These were the result of the labors of a few million slaves, with rude implements, upon the narrow margin of fertility along the Nile and its delta, not exceeding in area one-tenth part of the State of Nebraska. The imagination is baffled in contemplating the future of that region, whose genesis is told by the Omaha Exposition, when the toil of intelligent freemen supplemented by machinery and new discoveries and inventions shall have completely developed its unmeasured resources."

The most noticeable feature in this beautiful panorama was the Palace of Horticulture, which occupied a position about in the center of that portion of the Bluff tract south of our view-point. It was three hundred feet in length, seventy feet in width and twenty-nine feet in height. Rising above the center   was a beautiful dome covered with glass, one hundred and ten feet in height. Above the dome was an open observatory balcony from which a grand view of the cities of Omaha, South Omaha and Council Bluffs could be obtained.

One of the most interesting features of the landscape was the aquatic basin in front of the Palace of Horticulture, which was filled with an extensive and valuable collection of pond lilies, with some magnificent specimens of the Victoria Regina.

Immediately south of and opposite the center of the Palace of Horticulture was a unique cottage office building, small in size but filling out a wide diversity of modern methods to render business transactions convenient and comfortable.

North of the Palace of Horticulture and occupying the four corners of the quadrangle between it and the Grand Plaza were the State buildings of Nebraska, Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois. All of these buildings were most creditable contributions of their respective States to the architecture of the Exposition. Naturally, Nebraska was the largest and most costly of the group. It was distinctive in character, classic in architecture, and was one hundred and forty-five feet in length, ninety feet in width, with a central dome sixty feet in diameter, rising to a height of eighty-five feet, as its most conspicuous feature. The Iowa building was a showy as well as tasty edifice, it with wide portico, and presented in its architecture an inviting and hospitable appearance. Wisconsin and Illinois exhibited the hospitable good-will which characterizes the West, and applied for and received full recognition, responding in the full spirit of the Trans-Mississippi States. Appropriately grouped along the easterly and westerly sides of the Bluff tract, on either side of the quadrangle south of the Grand Plaza already described, were the State buildings of New York, Georgia, Minnesota, Kansas and Montana. Also the Pottawattamie County building, the headquarters of Council Bluffs, the Nebraska sod house, a building erected entirely of sod brought in from the prairies of Nebraska and typical of the early history of the original settlers of the Trans-Mississippi territory, the Chinese building and the exhibit buildings of the Omaha Bemis Bag Company, Montgomery Ward and Company and the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company.

This brings us from the south end of the Bluff tract up to the Grand Plaza, which was immediately east of the southerly or main viaduct over and across Sherman Avenue. It was in effect an out-door auditorium with seating capacity to the limit of its area, on the extreme east of which was a large stage or platform backed by a high sounding-board. Here were given each afternoon and evening during the Exposition, weather permitting, concerts by the largest and best musical organizations in the country, such as Theodore Thomas' Orchestra, The United States Marine Band, The Mexican   National Band, and others of equal merit and popularity. The management of the Exposition gave to the daily musical programs a prominent place, which resulted in bringing visitors to the Exposition together twice each day, to mingle not only with one another, but to come in touch with the people of Omaha who had borne the burden of the creation of the Exposition, and the friendships thus formed on the Grand Plaza during the Exposition have in thousands of cases grown and cemented themselves to the lasting benefit of individuals as well as that of the States.

East End of Grand Court

Changing our point of view to the north, we look upon a scene as different in character from that which has just engaged us, as the latter differed from the splendor of the Grand Court. We are now in position to appreciate the wisdom of the management in the distribution of space to the various features of entertainment and amusement. We are also able to comprehend the maximum of exhibits and entertainment provided in a minimum of space, thus placing the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition far in the lead of all Expositions in respect to arrangement of its grounds as to make for the visitor a restful rather than a tiresome excursion, enabling him to enjoy   every feature. We have already found the Grand Court with its canal and main exhibit buildings so arranged as to provide a maximum of study and pleasure, with a minimum of weariness. So with the landscaping effects and beauty of the southerly major portion of the Bluff tract. Turning now to the north we view the playground of all nations, with the accompanying pandemonium. Immediately in the foreground was the so-called East Midway stretching to the northerly limits of the Bluff tract, thence turning to the west into the West Midway, which occupied the southerly portion of the

East End Grand Court at Night
so-called North tract. First of all, immediately below our point of view at the east end of the Grand Court, are the two great Restaurant buildings, one on either side of the viaduct and on the east line of Sherman Avenue. These were models of architecture, two stories in height, with roof gardens, where the multitudes could always find an abundance of the best of food to meet the necessities of every class, from the highest appointed banquet to the simple luncheon of a roll and coffee. Here was served the luncheon and dinner to the President of the United States, his cabinet, staff and the diplomatic corps. served with all the appropriate appointments, and here also the most humble   could be served with simple taste. Adjoining the Restaurant on the north was the Moorish Village housed in a palace, affording a specimen of fine Moorish architecture with Oriental dome and towering minarets, which attracted attention from every point of view within the range of vision, just beyond was the Streets of Cairo, where the visitor dropped into the midst of an Egypt as realistic as anything to be experienced after sailing the length of the Mediterranean. The babel of tongues and the almost human appeal of the camel to mount his back for a ride in the imaginary desert of his native land gave a clear perception of the real Egypt. Opposite these on the East Midway were the Japanese Tea Garden and German Village, the Old English Fair, the Baby Incubator, the Mammoth Whale, and various concessions ministering to the hungry and thirsty, but it should be stated here that no spirituous liquors were sold within the gates, nor was any place of amusement allowed to present any feature which could be criticized for a lack of moral tone. The closest scrutiny was exercised over the moral atmosphere of every feature of the Exposition by those highest in authority, as well as those who were charged with carrying out the detail.

From a position over the North Viaduct across Sherman Avenue, looking west over the West Midway, we find in the foreground on the right the Giant See-Saw, an immense stack of machinery constructed on the same principle as the plaything of childhood, but with a capacity of taking a crowd of people into the comfortable little houses on either end and lifting them two hundred feet from the ground, from which point a bird's-eye view of the three cities and the surrounding country could be had. Immediately to the left was the "Shoot the Chutes" sporting ground, which every visitor felt impelled to try at least once, and many enjoyed frequent trips. Next came the Scenic Railway, with its plunges through tunnels, over mountains and down into valleys, always returning to the starting point without any apparent motive power. Beyond was the Wild West Show, the Old Plantation, the Cyclorama of the battle between the Monitor and Merrimac, the Streets of All Nations, with the only "Ah Khoun" in charge. Hagenbach's Wild Animals, Glass Blowers, The Fall of Babylon, with countless other concessions of greater or less degree, capable of furnishing amusement to the taste of every visitor, regardless of whence he came or whither he was traveling.

Some distance to the northwest was the largest of the Exposition buildings, that of Transportation and Agricultural Implements. Being contiguous to the main line of the Missouri Pacific Railway, it was convenient to the system of railway tracks necessary to provide for placing the exhibits upon the ground. This building was four hundred and thirty feet in length and three hundred feet in width, thus covering above three acres of ground. Its   characteristic architecture was half timber, half plaster, with its whole surface marked off into panels by an interesting network of framing timbers, posts. brackets and braces. Still beyond the Transportation building to the northwest was the Live Stock exhibit, which equaled any ever given, both as to variety, quality and quantity, as well as to the number of high premiums awarded to the value of the same. South of the Live Stock exhibit and west of the Transportation building was the Encampment of Indians, the most unique in history, as for many reasons it had never before been attempted,

Fine Arts Building at Night
and for equally as many reasons can never be reproduced. It receives special consideration in another chapter.

We have, in a cursory way, covered the area of the Exposition grounds, and the day being far spent we will retrace our steps. Arriving at our former position over the South Viaduct at the east end of the Grand Court, we can not refrain from pausing again to feast our eyes on the beauteous landscape to the south, grown even richer in its varied hues. And turning again to the West the Grand Court seems to have taken on more grandeur since we left it. We are full of praise beyond utterance and prepare still further to retrace   our way to the entrance gate, when the Government building suddenly becomes outlined against the darkening sky with lines of light, as does the Palace Of Fine Arts and the Palace of Agriculture, the Administration Arch and Arch of States, Liberal Arts and Manufactures, Mines and Mining, Electricity, the Auditorium, the Colonnades, the Restaurants, the Canal, the Fountain "Nautilus," the Palace of Horticulture, the State buildings, the Bluff tract, the Midway with all its multitudinous attractions. Suddenly a dazzling finger of light carries the eye back to the starting point. There the ray of a powerful searchlight is seen shooting from the torch in the hand of the heroic statue of "Liberty Enlightening the World," which surmounts the Government building, and the picture of fairyland is made complete.

 

OPENING DAY TRANS-MISSISSIPPI AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION

 

HISTORIC EVENTS OF THE EXPOSITION SEASON

CHAPTER III

THE Exposition of 1898 marked a new epoch in the life of the Trans-Mississippi States. Of itself it was an extraordinary event in the progress of the West. Moreover. it was made the fitting occasion of numerous lesser events, which served to magnify and round out the Exposition, winning for it a permanent place in the annals of the prairie States, whose complete history can never be written without a chronicle of the achievements of the West as illustrated at Omaha in 1898. Other chapters of this work are devoted to descriptions of many extraordinary features of the great enterprise. This chapter is a review of a number of the more important events incident to the special days which were set apart as marking celebrations of extraordinary character. Arbor Day was one of these, and while it was celebrated more than a year prior to the opening of the gates, it was chosen as a fitting day for the ceremonies incident to the laying of the corner-stone of the Arch of the States-April 22, 1897. This was the first ceremonial of the Exposition.

Arbor Day in Nebraska means more to its citizens than to those of other States, by reason of the fact that the late Sterling Morton, its founder, was one of her foremost citizens. His memory is cherished because of the great service he rendered to his State and country. Arbor Day in 1897 marked the sixty-fifth anniversary birth. His motto—"Plant Trees"— has been heeded universally.

Upon this occasion the weather was propitious—warm and clear, following a rain the previous night. The elements seem to have conspired to make the event memorable. Nature's generous contribution to the success of the ceremonies was regarded as a favorable omen.

 

G. W. WATTLES President

ALVIN SAUNDERS Vice-President

ARBOR DAY—April 22, 1897

The column was formed on Farnam Street, near the City Hall, and about 1:00 p. m. the procession moved to the Exposition grounds in the following order:

FIRST DIVISION.

Platoon of Police.
Grand Marshal, Major R. S. Wilcox.
Board of Governors, Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben as Aides.
Seventh Ward Military Band.
Directors of Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition.
Mayor and City Council.
Board of Fire and Police Commissioners.
Continental Drum Corps.
Patriotic Sons of America.
Elks.

SECOND DIVISION.

R. M. Stone, Marshal.
Omaha Military Band.
Omaha Guards.
Commercial Club.
Board of Education.
Board of Park Commissioners.
Board of Trade.
A. O. U. W. Band.
High School Cadets.
Gate City Lodge, Ancient Order of United Workmen.
Letter Carriers.

THIRD DIVISION.

W. R. Bennett, Marshal.
Y. M. C. A. Band.
Thurston Rifles.
Advertising Men's Club.
Builders' and Trades' Exchange.
Woodmen of the World.
Oakleaf Circle, Woodmen of the World.
Gate City Band.
Council Bluffs Cadets.
Council Bluffs Knights of Pythias.
Knights of St. George.
Ancient Order of Hibernians.
 

HERMAN KOUNTZE Treasurer

C.S. MONTGOMERY General Counsel

FOURTH DIVISION.

H. E. Wheelock, Marshal.
Steinhauser's Band.
Dodge Light Guards.
Ak-Sar-Ben Lodge, Ancient Order of United Workmen.
Union Pacific Lodge, Ancient Order of United Workmen.
Maple Camp, Modern Woodmen of America.

FIFTH DIVISION.

Twenty-second Infantry Band. Freemasons,

SIXTH DIVISION.

Private Citizens in Carriages.

On reaching the site of the Arch of States at Twentieth and Pickney Streets at 2:30 p. m., officers and members of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Nebraska marched between long lines of the parade to the platform where the exercises were to take place. A great concourse of people had assembled. It was a city holiday.

Grand Master Charles J. Phelps conducted the ceremonies, assisted by Deputy Grand Master J. B. Dinsmore. Grand Secretary W. R. Bowen, Grand Treasurer Christian Hartman, Grand Senior Warden F. H. Young, and Acting Grand junior Warden George W. Lininger. The wine and oil used for the ceremony were brought from Jerusalem by Past Grand Master George W. Lininger, of Omaha. The stone was inscribed "Laid by the Masonic Fraternity, April 22, 1897, M. W. Charles J. Phelps. G. M."

 

John A. WAKEFIELD Secretary

ZACHARY T. LINDSEY Chairman of Executive Committee and Manager Department of Ways and Means

At the conclusion of the ceremonies the Grand Master delivered the implement of the profession of builders to Architect-in-Chief Thomas R. Kimball exhorting him to supervise well the construction of the buildings, and then announced that the corner-stone had been well laid and all in due form.

The President of the Exposition, Gurdon W. Wattles, then formally introduced the various speakers of the day. Addresses were delivered by Hon. William J. Broatch, Acting Mayor of the City of Omaha, Lieutenant-Governor Harris of Nebraska, and the Hon. Sterling Morton, of Nebraska City, Nebraska, ex-Secretary of Agriculture of the United States.

(These addresses, so far as the manuscripts were obtainable, will be found in their appropriate place in Part II.)

OPENING DAY—June 1, 1898

Next in importance among the historic events of the Exposition may properly be noted the Opening Day. The great work of construction had been completed, and true to the sterling principles of business, characterizing the truly great men who formed the Executive Committee which carried the burdens of the great enterprise, and almost unprecedented in the history of previous great expositions, the gates were thrown open to the public on the  

EDWARD ROSEWATER Manager Department of Publicity and Promotion
F. P. KIMBALL Manager Department Buildings and Grounds
appointed day and at the appointed hour. Seeming impossibilities had been overcome and all obstacles swept away.

In anticipation of this great day the principal officials and many prominent citizens of the nation were formally invited to attend. The invitation was as follows:

FORMAL INVITATION

Although commemorating no single event in the history of the region lying west of the Mississippi River, the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition has been projected as a demonstration of the marvelous resources of the Great West. In grateful recognition of that spirit of progress, which, in the brief period of half a century, has transformed a wilderness into twenty-four States and Territories, embracing more than two-thirds the area, nearly one-fourth of the wealth and one-third of the population of our country the whole world has been invited to participate with us in a display of the arts, industries, manufacturers and products of the soil, mine and sea.

The attention of civilization has been called to this display, not merely in the spirit of emulation, but in gratitude to those intrepid pioneers who bravely faced dangers and overcame obstacles that the course of Empire might not be impeded in the westward march. It is a memorial to the indomitable courage and perseverance of that sturdy vanguard, no less than as an illustration of the achievements of their successors, that the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition will open its gates from June 1st until November 1st, 1898. In the name of the entire West. I most cordially invite your cooperation and the honor of your presence. With profound respect, I am,

Your obedient servant,

GURDON W. WATTLES,

(SEAL) President.

 

E. E. BRUCE Manager Department of Exhibits

A. L. Reed Manager Department Concessions and Privileges

Special invitations were sent to many to attend the opening exercises. The day dawned bright and clear, and the beautiful sunshine and balmy air were regarded as good omens of future success. This was the day to which the officials of the Exposition had looked forward with hope and courage for many weary months, and now as they gazed at the gathering throngs and the c magnificent buildings, practically complete, fully realizing the magnitude of their undertaking and the sacrifices this day with all its triumphs had entailed, a feeling of thankfulness and satisfaction came to them all. With glad hearts and smiling faces the officials entered upon the duties of the day, strong in the belief that financial success must follow the artistic success now so clearly in evidence.

The opening ceremonies were planned to occur at twelve o'clock, noon, when the President of the United States would set the machinery in motion W by electric current transmitted from the executive mansion in Washington, and formally declare the Exposition open to the world. At 10:30 a. m. a line of parade was formed in the city, the right of the column resting on Sixteenth and Douglas Streets, and moved to the Exposition grounds in the following order:

FIRST DIVISION.

Mounted Police.
Platoon of Police.
The Trans-Mississippi Troopers as Escort to the Parade.
Grand Marshal T. S. Clarkson.
 

W. N. BABCOCK Manager Department of Transportation

FIRST DIVISION—Continued.

Aides T. C. Shelly. George W. Holbrook, Will H. Thomas.
State University Cadets, Major Charles H. Trice commanding.
Council Bluffs High School Cadets, Lieut. Campbell, U. S. A., commanding.
Webster Zouaves, Captain G. W. Sues commanding.
Clarkson Camp, Sons of Veterans, South Omaha, Captain J. F. Etter commanding.

SECOND DIVISION.

Assistant Marshal W. G. Shriver.
Aides J. A. Kuhn, A. B. Smith, R. W. Richardson, D. M. Haverly.
Randolph (Iowa) Band, J. F. Greene, Leader.
Officers of the Exposition.
Speakers and invited guests in carriages.

THIRD DIVISION.

Assistant Marshal Dudley Smith.
Aide George S. Wright.
Cosmopolitan Band, George W. Green, Leader.
The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, escorting.
"The Travelers' Protective Association of America, Joseph Wallenstein, President. Bechtold's Band.
Camp 120, Modern Woodmen of America, Captain Martin.
Camp 1454, Modern Woodmen of America, Captain Ferris.
Camp 4044, Modern Woodmen of America, Captain Rosenberg.
Other uniformed civic societies.

FOURTH DIVISION

Major R. S. Wilcox, Assistant Marshal, and Aides.
Pawnee City Band.
The Board of Governors and Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben, mounted.
The South Omaha Equestrian Club.

The parade, nearly two miles in length, reached the grounds at eleven o'clock a. m. and swelled the thousands already gathered about the speakers' stand, which had been erected temporarily at the extreme eastern end of the Grand Court. The program of the day was as follows:

Music—"Jubilee Overture"...........................................Weber U. S. Marine Band, William F. Santleman, Leader.
Prayer—Rev. Samuel J. Niccolls, of St. Louis.
Address—Gurdon W. Wattles, President of the Exposition.
Music—Song of Welcome, sung by Trans-Mississippi Exposition Chorus, 150 voices. Words by Henry W. Blossom, Jr., of St. Louis. Music by Mrs. H. A. Beech, of Boston, Willard Kimball, Director, accompanied by United States Marine Band.
 
Address—Hon. John L. Webster, Omaha.
Address—Hon. John N. Baldwin, Council Bluffs, Iowa.
Music—Fantasia—"The Voice of Our Nation" .......................... U. S. Marine Band
Address—Governor Silas A. Holcomb, Nebraska.
Starting of the machinery in motion by the President of the United States from the Executive Mansion, Washington.
Music—National Hymn—"America." Trans-Mississippi Exposition Chorus, U. S. Marine Band and Audience.

At 12:15 p. m., Director Santleman of the United States Marine Band raised his baton, and the first notes of the jubilee Overture were wafted out upon the breezes. The music of this famous organization was much appreciated and applauded. The program of the day was then carried out amid great enthusiasm. The words of the Song of Welcome and Ode to the Exposition were as follows:

Welcome, thrice welcome, to the people of our land;
Welcome to the people, the people of the world;
Here, North and South and East and West, united hand in hand,
Have reared a city and their flag unfurled.
Welcome, welcome, welcome, to the people of the world!

Here, science weaves her wonders, her wonders for the mind;
Here stands arrayed the golden pride, the golden pride of art;
And Commerce hath searched the world to rind
The treasure's rare and many, of many a far-off mart.
Welcome, welcome, welcome to the people of the world!

Welcome, thrice welcome to the people of our land;
And to the people of the world, all hail!
And so forever may this splendor in their memories stand
Undimmed, although its builded fabric fail.
Welcome, welcome, welcome to the people of our land!
Welcome, and to the people of the world, all hail!

Senator William V. Allen of Nebraska was to have made an address on this great day, but he was unable to be present, for reasons given in the following letter, which was read by Hon. Gilbert M. Hitchcock during the exercises:

WASHINGTON, D. C., May 28, 1898.

Hon. Gurdon W. Wattles, President Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, Omaha.

DEAR SIR: It has become apparent that it will be impossible for me to be present at the opening of the Exposition. I regret this extremely, as it has been my desire to be present, if possible, on that occasion. Having had intimate connection with the promotion of the enterprise from its inception, I have taken a deep interest in its success, believing that it will furnish our people a desirable and peculiar means of education, and that it will be highly valuable in attracting attention to Nebraska in a way that could not be done otherwise. I do not doubt the Exposition will be successful, and that hundreds of thousands of people will by it be attracted to Omaha and the State at large, who would otherwise know   little of the State and city, and that everyone who may visit Nebraska during the Exposition will be amply well satisfied. With our great natural resources, beautiful summer scenery, and the health-giving qualities of our climate, Nebraska, could not otherwise than prove attractive to visitors, apart from what may be seen at the Exposition. Our possibilities as a State are almost boundless, and at present inconceivable. The Nebraska of fifty years from now will present one of the greatest and richest agricultural communities of the world.

But, much as I would like to be with you, and much as I have desired and intended, if possible to be, I feel that I could not excuse myself for leaving my post of duty at this time, when Congress is engaged in discussing ways and means of raising money with which to successfully prosecute the present war against Spain. We are altogether too long derelict

Marine Band—Grand Plaza
in our duty to Cuba. Within less than one hundred miles from our shores, the extermination of one million five hundred thousand people by starvation, of old men, boys, women and children, including sucklings, went on unchecked until one-third of the population of Cuba have died by that means. We could no longer justify ourselves in the eyes of the Christian and civilized world by declining to take immediate cognizance of the conditions there prevailing and live up to our high professions of humanity by intervening in the war between Spain and her Cuban subjects. We, of all nations of the western hemisphere, have the power to say to Spain that she shall not depopulate Cuba by starvation for aspiring to gain the liberty we ourselves enjoy and hold to be the rightful heritage of all.

From the start I have advocated Cuban liberty, even at a time when it was not popular in the Senate to do so, and having been a pioneer in the cause, I could not feel that my duty was discharged unless I remained at my desk in the Senate until the ways and means of raising the necessary money to prosecute the war successfully have been fully determined.

 

GRAND COURT AT NIGHT

 

I trust that I may be permitted to spend a portion of my summer vacation at the Exposition, and contribute my full share to its success; and if at any time it all be deemed desirable by the management for me to deliver an address I will gladly do so. I trust that you will me the honor of announcing, during the exercises, the fact that I am detained by my duties at Washington.

Expressing the hope and the full confidence that the Exposition will be preeminently successful, and that ere the summer is gone the War With Spain will have been successfully terminated, and Cuba, Porto Rico and Philippines male free, and Spain forever driven from her last foothold in territory on this continent, I am, very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

WILLIAM V. ALLEN.

(The invocation and addresses on the occasion will be found in their proper place in Part II.)

At the conclusion of the addresses, a direct wire from the executive mansion in Washington to the platform on which these exercises were held having been secured, Manager W. W. Umsted, of the local office of the Western Union Telegraph Company, took the following message from the President of the United States, which was read by Governor Silas A. Holcomb of Nebraska:

The cordiality of the invitation extended to me to be present at the opening of your great Exposition is deeply appreciated, and I more deeply regret that public duties prevent me from leaving the Capital at this time.

The events of the memorable half century, which the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition commemorates, are interwoven with the history of the nation, and are of surpassing importance. The mighty West affords most striking evidences of the splendid achievements and possibilities of our people. It is a matchless tribute to the energy. and endurance of the pioneer, while its vast agricultural development, its progress in manufactures, its advancement in the arts and sciences and in all departments of education and endeavor have been inestimable contributions to the civilization and wealth of the world.

Nowhere have the unconquerable determination, self-reliant strength and sturdy man-hood of our American citizenship been more forcibly illustrated. In peace or War the men and women of the West have ever been in the vanguard. I congratulate the management upon its magnificent enterprise and assure all who participate in this undertaking, of the deep interest which the Government has in its success.

WILLIAM MCKINLEY.

The following excerpt from dispatches from Washington pictures the scene at the White House at this hour of the official opening:

Conditions were well nigh perfect when at 1:30 o'clock today, Washington time, corresponding to 12:30 o'clock, Omaha time, President McKinley pushed the button, formally opening the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition. Around the Chief Executive were grouped many of the foremost men in public life: men who have been molding public opinion for a quarter of century. It was an inspiring scene; this culmination of many anxious moments of personal sacrifice it the part of those who have given time and money to so gigantic an undertaking that out of it might come a better appreciation of the forces dominating that vast territory which extends from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, from the frigid North to the Gulf of Mexico. In his short term in the presidential chair,   Major McKinley has shown patriotic devotion to the whole country, and, wherever possible in his active, busy life, has lent his presence and his help to enterprises of both local and national character.

In order to conform to the arrangements, the hour of formally recognizing the Trans- Mississippi and International Exposition as open was deferred until 1:30 o'clock, at which time there were assembled in President McKinley's reception room the following distinguished party: Senators Allen and Thurston, Representatives Mercer, Stark, Sutherland, Maxwell and Greene, Mrs. Sutherland and daughter, Mrs. Greene and daughters, Mr. Bert Wheeler, all of Nebraska; Representative Fleming of Georgia, Representative Johns of North Dakota, and Senator William B. Allison of Iowa.

Considerable delay was experienced by Captain Montgomery in getting a wire west of Chicago direct to the Exposition grounds, but finally the welcome sound "Omaha" came to the alert telegrapher, and there were Hashed these words by Montgomery:

"This is the White House, Washington. When this key closes, the President will close it."

"Everything is ready, Mr. President," said Captain Montgomery, and the Chief Executive, gracious in manner, stepped to the key of the instrument, and, depressing it with his right hand, closed the circuit. Those in the room stood during this ceremony, a ceremony perhaps of little interest in general, yet of paramount interest to those gathered in the cool reception room. At 1:53 o'clock, Washington time, the President announced that his part of the ceremony was done and that the Exposition was formally opened.

There was clapping of hands. Congratulations and thanks were extended to the President for his patience and affability, and for taking so much time from the affairs of the nation in order to give the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition the benefit of his benediction and good wishes. Immediately after the pressure upon the button, the President's message of congratulation was sent, which was followed by congratulatory telegrams transmitted by members of the Nebraska delegation, terminating a most auspicious event.

After the congratulatory dispatch of the President had been sent, Executive Clerk Montgomery sent the following telegram to President Wattles:

"The members of the Nebraska delegation, assembled in the Executive Mansion, beg leave to extend their congratulations upon the auspicious beginning of so vast an enterprise as the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, and regret their inability to be present and personally to participate in its accomplishment."

WILLIAM V. ALLEN.

JOHN M. THURSTON.

D. H. MERCER.

SAMUEL MAXWELL.

W. A. STARK.

R. D. SUTHERLAND.

W. L. GREENE.

Thus was concluded the formal exercises of Opening Day. Following these exercises the official guests were entertained at luncheon at the Markel Café.

At four o'clock an official public reception was held in the United States Government building at the west end of the main porch. At eight o'clock p. m. a concert was given in the Auditorium by the Theodore Thomas Orchestra, assisted by the Exposition chorus. At nine o'clock p. m. a grand   illumination of fireworks was given in the North tract, east of the Transportation and Agricultural Implement building, and thus the first day of the Exposition passed into history.

The total admissions on Opening Day were 27,998.

NEBRASKA DAY—June 14, 1898

This was the day selected by the Nebraska State Commission for the formal dedication of the Nebraska building. The day was a typical Nebraska June day, with clear sky, cool southerly breeze, invigorating and joyous. Special trains on all the Nebraska railroads brought thousands of visitors from the interior and remote parts of the State. The program of exercises for the day was a follows:

Invocation ............. Chancellor McLean(University of Nebraska.)
Music—Song—"The Union of States We Hail" ..................... York Glee Club
Presentation of Building to the Exposition—Judge William Neville.
Address—Governor Silas A. Holcomb, Nebraska.
Poem—"Nebraska"—Mrs. Idael MacKeever, Stromsburg.
Address—President Gurdon W. Wattles.
Address—Hon. William J. Bryan.
Music—Vocal Solo—"The Little Old Sod Shanty on the Plains"—Prof. Morte Parsons, Omaha (Words and music by himself.)
Address—Hon. William F. Gurley, Omaha.
Music—York Glee Club.
Address—Hon. Constantine J. Smyth, Attorney General of Nebraska.

William J. Bryan

After these exercises were concluded, the Commissioners and honored guests were served with luncheon at the Markel Cafe. The afternoon and evening were spent in enjoyment of the exhibits, the amusements of the Midway, the electric illuminations and the fireworks.

WISCONSIN DAY—June 18, 1898

Though Wisconsin was not one of the Trans-Mississippi States, she entered into the spirit of the Exposition with enthusiasm, and selected this date for the beautiful building which she had cased to be erected side by side with Nebraska, Iowa and Illinois.

 

"BUFFALO BILL" ADDRESSING NEBRASKA PIONEERS

 

The Wisconsin Exposition Commissioners present were: John C. Koch, of Milwaukee, President; E. C. Clas, of Milwaukee, Treasurer and Architect of the building; J. E. Hansen, of Milwaukee; C. H. Baxter, of Lancaster; G. H. Grenback, of Madison; H. D. Fisher, of Florence; Fred Kickhefer, of Milwaukee; Mrs. Angus Cameron, of LaCrosse; General John Hicks, of Oshkosh; Mrs. Leonard Lottredge, of LaCrosse. The Commissioners and invited guest gathered at the building at eleven o'clock a.m. and the following program of exercises constituted the celebration of the dedication of this building:

Music—U. S. Marine Band
Address—President John C. Koch.
Response—President Gurdon W. Wattles.
Music—"The Bismarck March," by Mr. William A. Haas.
Oration—Hon. William C. Quarles, Milwaukee.
Original Poem—Mrs. John Goodby.

At two-o'clock p. m. exercises were held in the Auditorium by the women of the

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS

Many of the delegates to the National Federation of Women's Clubs, which was held in Denver on June 20, 21 and 22, stopped at Omaha en route, and the Omaha Women's Club took this occasion to celebrate their visit to the Exposition. In many respects this meeting was one of the most notable ever assembled in Omaha. It included many of the most talented and progressive women of the nation. The large Auditorium was comfortably filled when the hour arrived for the opening of the exercises. Mrs. Winona B. Sawyer, of Lincoln, Nebraska, President of the BOard of Lady managers of the Exposition, presided, and introduced the exercises with some well-chosen remarks.

The program was as follows:

Prayer—Miss Margaret J. Evans of Minnesota, Dean of Carlton College.
Music—The Lorelei Quartette, Omaha.
Address of Welcome—Mrs. Draper Smith, President of Omaha's Woman's Club.
Address—President Gurdon W. Wattles.
Response—Mrs. Helen Henrotin, Chicago, President of General Federation of Women's Clubs.
Music—"Love in Springtime"...........................................Arditi Master Horace Sims, the Boy Soprano of Milwaukee.
Address—"A Phase of Education"...............................Mrs. Mary E. Mumford, Philadelphia
Address—"Art in the Home, the School and the Country"....Mrs. Herman Hall, Chicago
Music—"A Summer Midnight"...............................Mrs. Thomas Kelley, Omaha
Address—"Club Courtesies"..............................Mrs. Kate Tannatt Woods, Salem, Mass.
Music—"Stay With Me"..............................................Lorelei Club
Address—"The Keystone of the Education Arch"...Mrs. Ellen A. Richardson, Boston, Mass.

In the evening, at eight o'clock, further exercises were held in the Auditorium, at which numerous addresses were given.

 

ILLINOIS DAY—June 21, 1898

Illinois was another of the States east of the Mississippi River which entered into the spirit of the Exposition with all the enthusiasm of the Trans- Mississippi States; in fact, next to Nebraska, appropriated the largest sum for participation in the Exposition. Her building attracted much attention, and was one of the favorites in the group of State buildings. An annex to the building was erected and maintained as an art gallery for the Columbian Exposition pictures painted by John R. Key.

The celebration in connection with the dedication of the Illinois building became an historic one, as will appear in the narrative. Nebraska had become the home of a multitude of sterling men from Illinois, and Omaha boasted p of more than her proportion, which created a strong family feeling between the two States. A number of the men officially connected with the Exposition were formerly more or less identified with Illinois. Secretary John A. Wakefield, Manager Freeman P. Kirkendall of the Department of Building and Grounds, Vice-President Alvin Saunders, Manager William N. Babcock of the Department of Transportation, and Directors Euclid Martin and Lucius Wells, all hailed from Illinois in the early days of their business careers.

Some time previous to the time announced for the commencement of the exercises the people gravitated toward the Illinois building, and its wide porches, rotunda and parlors were soon crowded. As fast as they came they were supplied with badges of white ribbons on which was printed "Illinois Day, June 21, 1898, Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, Omaha, Neb." Many of the people who came from Illinois to take up their home in Nebraska and neighboring States took advantage of the opportunity to renew old acquaintances with the visitors, and an hour was spent very pleasantly in social intercourse. The members of the Illinois Commission who had come early to the grounds, the visiting delegations from the Chicago commercial organizations and large numbers of people from all sections of Illinois had gathered at the building when the hour arrived for the exercises to begin. The entire party passed in a body to the Auditorium, and on arrival there found the large building well filled. The interior was hung with bunting, which lent an air of gayety to the scene and improved the acoustics of the building. Palms and other foliage plants gave the stage a pleasing appearance. The Apollo Musical Club of Chicago occupied seats at the back of the platform.

At 11:30 a. m. the official party made its appearance at the north door and marched down the main aisle to the stage, preceded by the official flag Illinois, borne by J. Mack Tanner, Private Secretary to the Governor. Governor and Mrs. Tanner led the way, followed by Governor Holcomb of   Nebraska; President Clark E. Carr, of the Illinois Commission; Chairman W. H. Harper, of the Executive Committee; the speakers of the day, members of the Illinois Commission with their wives, delegates from the Union Age Club of Chicago, the Stock Exchange, Board of Trade, Nation Business League, Chicago World's Fair Directory, members of the Nebraska Commission, members of the Executive Committee of the Exposition, members of the Bureau of Entertainment, and the official staffs of Governor Tanner and of Governor Holcomb, all in full uniform. The staffs of the Governors and the Trans-Mississippi Troopers were seated in the center of the house, immediately in front of the platform.

The program of exercises for the day was as follows:

Music—"The Stars and Stripes Forever"
Prayer—Chancellor McLean, University of Nebraska.
Address—Hon. W. H. Harpers, Chairman Illinois Executive Committee.
Address—Col. Clark E. Carr, President Illinois Commission.
Address—Governor John R. Tanner, Illinois.
Music—Apollo Club.
Address—President Gurdon W. Wattles.
Address—Governor Silas A. Holcomb, Nebraska.
Address—Ex-Governor Joseph L. Beveridge, Illinois.

When all were seated the Marine Band made its way to the stage amid a burst of applause. At twelve o'clock the band formally opened the exercises with Sousa's stirring march.

(The addresses made on this occasion will be founded in their appropriate place in Part II.)

Following the address of Governor Tanner, which was full of patriotic sentences, with appropriate allusions to the war with Spain, then being carried on, ensued one of the most dramatic scenes ever witnessed at an Exposition. Colonel Carr introduced Hon. Melville E. Stone, Manager of the Associated Press, who had received and read to the audience a bulletin he had just received announcing that General Shafter, with his army, had arrived off Santiago in safety. The crowd went wild with enthusiasm in an instant. Men and women jumped to their feet and wild cheers rent the air, while the flutter of dainty white handkerchiefs and the waving of hats, canes and umbrellas filled the air. While the cheering was at its height the stirring strains of "The Star Spangled Banner" rose above the glad shouts, ad the enthusiasm of the audience knew no bounds. Men and women mounted the seats and waved their arms in the air as though carried away, and the music was almost drowned beneath the flood of glad acclaims. The Audience soon joined in the music.,however, and the shouting gave place to singing as the whole audience joined in the stirring war-song.

 

The enthusiasm did not wane with the cessation of the song. The Apollo Club sang "Illinois," and as soon as this was concluded, without pause, the Club sang "America," the audience rising to join in the song, and again the big building rang with a volume of sound which threatened to burst the walls.

When the enthusiasm had slightly subsided, Colonel Carr announced that as the Marine Band was compelled to leave for Washington on the afternoon train, it would be asked to play at this point, instead of later in the exercises, as was originally intended.

Government Building At Night

The "Voice of Our Nation," an arrangement of national and patriotic airs and folk songs by Director Santelman, was selected by the leader, and as the familiar strains rose upon the air the audience was again electrified. People jumped to their feet and cheered madly as "Yankee Doodle," "Star Spangled Banner," "Dixie' "The Knight's Farewell," and other popular airs were played in quick succession. Such enthusiasm is rarely witnessed in any assembly, and the applause which followed the conclusion of the selection was continued unabated as the band played "Auld Lang Syne" for an encore and then withdrew.

 

The program was then taken up where it had been interrupted, and President Wattles' address followed.

Two weeks later, on the memorable fourth day of July, the program of the day was interrupted in the same manner as is above chronicled by a bulletin from the front of General Shafter's army, announcing that terms of unconditional surrender of the Spanish army to General Shafter's forces had been submitted as an ultimatum. The scenes of tumultuous enthusiasm were repeated, forming a striking partnership between War. The Exposition and Peace. During the memorable Jubilee Week of the Exposition three months later, President McKinley, General Miles and General Shatter stood before the enthusiastic multitudes of visitors at the Exposition and told the story of the victories in the war with Spain, as they had personally had to do with their accomplishment.

KANSAS DAY—June 22, 1898

The dedication of the Kansas building was the event of Kansas Day. Situated on the southerly portion of the Bluff tract, it was the center of attraction and was crowded with visitors of the Sunflower State when the party of State officials and members of the Kansas Exposition Commission reached the building at eleven o'clock a.m. The interior of the building was handsomely decorated with bunting, potted plants and cut flowers. The program was as follows:

Trumpet Call—Trumpet Corps. Boys' First Regiment of Topeka.
Music—"The Flag Without a Stain" .............................. Male Quartette, Topeka
Address of Welcome—Vice-President J. E. Frost, of the Kansas Commission.
Response—President Gurdon W. Wattles. Song—"Nature's Adoration" ..................................... James W. Moore, Topeka
Address—Hon. Silas Porter. Wyandotte.
Song— Quartette.
Taps—Boys' Trumpet Corps.

It was a great day for Kansas, in that it brought that State and its great men as well as its cosmopolitan population into close touch with each other and with her sister State, Nebraska, and the multitudes of people from every State and land under auspices unparalleled in the experience of most of them in connection with the wonderful sights of the Exposition. After the exercises of the day were completed, the remainder of the day was spent in an attempt to take in all the wonders of the great show.

 

FLOWER DAY

 

IOWA DEDICATION DAY—June 23, 1898

The interests of the States of Iowa and Nebraska are so interwoven by the two great cities Council Bluffs and Omaha, united by the bridges spanning the Missouri River, which only technically divides the two States and the two cities, that Iowa Day became a united Iowa and Nebraska Day at the Exposition. The weather was the typical corn weather which makes the face of each citizen of the two States, in annual competition with each other for third place in the list of corn-producers of the world, gleam with satisfaction. "It is mighty good corn weather," was the salutation between the celebrants of this day, much as "How" is the universal salutation between the American Indians when they meet. While the Iowa and Nebraska farmers were sweltering in the effulgence of the sun on Iowa Day, they knew that their corn was growing so fast that their hired men could hardly sleep nights from the noise of the cracking soil in which the roots were working double time, sending the sap up the stalks to feed the great ears forming in their fibre. The merchants and professional men were equally contented in contemplation of what the big crop means to the corn States. So Iowa Day was a big day.

The Iowa building, somewhat after the refreshing style of the French chateau, was one of the finest on the Exposition grounds. It was situated directly west of the Nebraska building on the Bluff tract, in the center of the group of State buildings, fronting east and overlooking the beautiful valley of the Missouri River and the bluffs on the Iowa side of the river, back of its own city of Council Bluffs. The peculiarity of the building was its great semi-circular veranda in front, concave in form, extending outward as if to embrace, and each of the two arms terminating in a large pagoda, a unique but comfortable arrangement, because airy and convenient, affording every facility for music and public-speaking. The building proper was two stories in height. A feature of the interior was the fine tapestry paintings representing Iowa rural scenes of various stages of farming. Another feature was the huge organ built by Paul E. Cerruti, of Mason City, who, when a boy in his teens. played the organ of the celebrated cathedral in Milan, Italy.

As the day advanced the crowd increased, and by the time the exercises were to commence the building was filled to overflowing, not an inch of standing-room remaining, except such as had been reserved for the speaker and the guests of honor for the occasion. The main room and rotunda were especially attractive. Foliage, plants and cut flowers were on every side.

At two o'clock Governor Leslie M. Shaw, escorted by the members of the Iowa Exposition Commission, entered the grounds. They were met by the Atlantic City Band and escorted to the building, the exercises commencing without delay. The speakers and distinguished guests occupied seats on the   wide veranda in front of the center of the building, and back of them were grouped the Dubuque Choral Club. Seated on the platform were the speakers. of the day, Governor Holcomb, of Nebraska; Adjutant-General Barry, Ex-Governor Alvin Saunders, Colonel Brownlow, of the Post Office Department; Capt. W. W. Cox, Secretary of the Government Board of Control; members of the Exposition Committee and several members of the Iowa Commission. Fully three thousand people were assembled in honor of the occasion, and the fluttering of the gay ribbons of the feminine portion of the audience, the many flags hung from cornice and pinnacle, together with the profusion of cut flowers, lent an air of gayety and festivity to the scene which made a beautiful sight. The program of exercises was as follows:

Music—Overture ................... .................................... Atlantic City Band
Invocation—Rev. L. P. McDonald, Council Bluffs.
Song—"The Land We Love" .................. Q ............. Sung by Dubuque Choral Club Words by Rev. L. M. Waterman, Dubuque. Music by Prof. W. H. Pontius.
Address—President S. H. Mallory, Iowa Commission.
Address—Hon. S. B. Packard, Ex-Governor of Iowa.
Address—Governor Leslie M. Shaw.
Address—President Gurdon W. Wattles.
Song—Dubuque Choral Club.
Exposition Ode—H. M. Beyers.
Oration—Hon. John N. Baldwin, Council Bluffs.
Song—"The Battle Hymn of the Republic" ........................... Dubuque Choral Club
Address—Governor Silas A. Holcomb, Nebraska.

Upon conclusion of the exercises the honored guests were entertained at luncheon at the Markel Café, spending the evening enjoying the fireworks. and the scenes on the Grand Court and in the Midway.

POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY DAY—June 23, 1898

The affectionate relations of sisterhood between the Twin Cities, Council Bluffs and Omaha, were demonstrated and illustrated on Iowa Day by dedicating a part of the day to Pottawattamie County, of which Council Bluffs is the county seat. Council Bluffs indicated early in the history of promotion of the Exposition that she desired to become a part of the great enterprise, and to join her twin sister Omaha in making it a great success. To this end she desired to establish a home for her people on the Exposition grounds, and brought that desire to fruition by constructing a wigwam known as "The: Pottawattamie County Wigwam," which was dedicated on the afternoon of Iowa Day immediately preceding the exercises of the State Day. It was constructed on the Bluff tract in close proximity to the Iowa building, and was one of the most unique structures on the Exposition grounds. While not claiming any architectural beauty, it was a faithful representation in   mammoth proportions of the tepee or dwelling tent of the noble Red Man of the Plains. The entire construction of the wigwam was placed in the hands of a special committee of the Association, of which Victor E. Bender was Chairman and Dr. M. Barstow, Prof. J. C. Hisey, Leonard Everett, M. Wollman, O. P. Wickham, H. W. Bender, A. C. Graham and Colonel W. F. Baker were the other members. To the untiring energy of the President of the A Association, A. C. Graham, who personally superintended the building of the wigwam from the laying of the foundation to the last touches of the decorations, was due the successful completion of this most unique structure.

Pottawattamie County Day

The Executive Committee of the Council Bluffs Association consisted, of the following citizens: Victor Jennings, W. S. Beard, Victor E. Bender, George Carson, H. I. Forsythe, Samuel Haas, J. C. Hisey, E. Hellenbeck, C. H. Judson, W. A. Maurer, N. M. Pusey, H. W. Sawyer, I. M. Treynor, M. Wollman, Leonard Everett, George F. Wright, J. C. Mitchell, H. P. Barrett, H. W. Bender, G. N. Bowen, E. F. Clark, A. C. Graham, E. W. Hart, A. P. Hanchett, A. S. Hazelton, F. H. Keys, William Moore, A. Patton, W. I. Smith, E. H. Walters, A. W. Wyman, Emmet Tinley, L. A. Casper, J. M. Barstow, F. A. Bixby, W. C. Boyer, J. H. Cleaver, J. P. Greenshields, J. P. Hess, J. A. Hereld, W. C. James. C. F. P. Froom, J. T. Oliver, M. F. Rohrer, E. F. Test, O. P. Wickham, O. Younkerman, Lucius Wells, H. B. Jennings.

The exercises of the dedication of the Wigwam took place at one o'clock in the afternoon. The building was crowded with people from Council Bluffs and Pottawattamie County. The program was as follows:

Music—Apollo Mandolin Club.
Music—Apollo Mandolin Club.
Invocation—Rev. G. W. Snyder.
Address—Hon. Spencer Smith.
Address—President A. C. Graham.
Address—Hon. Walter I. Smith.
Address—Mayor Victor Jennings. Music-Apollo Mandolin Club.

Following the great days already referred to as historic days of the Exposition came Swedish-American Day, June 24; Royal Arcanum Day, June 25; Montana Day, June 29, Turner's Day and Musical Congress Day, June 30; Texas Melon Day, July 1; National Council of Congregational Churches, July 2.

 

ALL NATIONS DAY

 

INDEPENDENCE DAY—July 4, 1898

Independence Day connotes historic events whenever it occurs and wherever it is celebrated. but Independence Day during the Exposition was in many respects one of the greatest of days. in that it marked the final victory of the war with Spain, which broke out before the building of the Exposition was far advanced, and was now ended, while the Exposition was in the zenith of its glory. In all the one hundred and twenty-two years that intervened between. the Declaration of Independence and this notable day, the national holiday was never more strikingly signalized. Mingling with the vast throng of American men, women and children assembled on the Exposition grounds were Turks, Algerians, Arabs, Moors and Chinese, who participated in the great celebration in honor of the stars and stripes.

The glory of the July morning was still in its incipiency when the gates of the Exposition were thrown open and the people began to pour in. By ten o'clock every corner of the grounds was thronged with people. The grounds presented as striking and inspiring a spectacle as ever lay under a cloudless sky. For the time the incomparable beauties of the Exposition itself were eclipsed by the brilliant spectacle which it framed. Flags and streamers innumerable waved over avenues made doubly attractive by the pretty summer raiment of thousands of women. A dozen bands made the air tremulous with inspiring strains, and in patriotic mingling of sound and color the great white buildings glistened like celestial palaces. Thousands of yards of bunting waved in red. white and blue profusion from every possible vantage. A thousand flags floated from the staffs of the main building and streamers of bunting were festooned over the avenues and along the fronts of the smaller buildings. Even the peanut stands were decorated and a large proportion of the visitors wore flags pinned on their breasts or fastened to their hatbands.

The first grand spectacle of the day was the Parade of All Nations, being a triumphal pageant made up of all the attractions on the Midway. It was different from any ever witnessed before. The participants were from many nations of the earth, costumed in the garb of the countries from which they came. The management of this polyglot parade was in the hands of the representatives of the different nationalities participating.

At the appointed hour, ten o'clock, a. m., the procession moved off as if it had been arranged by clock-work, the start being made from the West Midway. Grand Marshal Bostwick was in the lead, accompanied by a detachment of the Exposition Police, the members of which cleared the way. Next came the band from Hagenbach's live animal show, which in turn was followed by the performing animals from the ring. In the collection Matt. Johnson, the  

INDEPENDENCE DAY CROWD
  king of wild animal trainers, was the central feature, occupying a place upon an open float surrounded by wild beasts from the jungle.

After these came representatives from each of the Midway attractions, making a column most wonderful in its variety and attractiveness. An interesting feature in the procession was an allegorical representation of an Oriental wedding and the attendant ceremonies, given by one hundred and twenty-five olive-skinned natives of the Orient. They hailed from the "Streets of Cairo," and had quite an animal show of their own, including a dozen camels, as many donkeys and half as many horses. The bride was attired in a gorgeous gown of light blue silk, and with her diminutive groom walked under a canopy of rich velvet borne by four small boys in blue. The scene represented the returning march from the wedding ceremony to the home of the groom. There were bridesmaids in pink and white, the pink waists being as short as the white skirts were long. They all rode camels and beamed at the crowds through several layers of rouge. The father of the bride preceded her, and whirled a sword defiantly, intimidating those who would attempt to steal her. Then there were attendants of the bride, male and female, some of whom were mounted while others danced along to familiar Midway strains. The pet dog of the Streets of Cairo, Nellie Gray, was decorated in red. white and blue and was accompanied by Arabian children. The tally-ho of the Pabst Company vaudeville hall was a gala affair.

Memories of the pioneer celebration of Independence Day were recalled by the appearance of the Indians and cowboys connected with the Wild West Show. The red men and the white men from the mountains and plains made a striking showing, and their display was one of the creditable features of the procession. First came the cowboy band, seventy musicians dressed in corduroy trousers with heavy boots. blue flannel shirts, bandana ties and big sombreros, playing popular airs along the line of march. Then there were fifty riders representing the real Western cowboy and the representation was typical throughout, to the wonder and delight of the people from the East, whose only conception of the real Western cowboy life was obtained from dime novels and yellow journals. A dozen Indians followed the riders, and they were all strikingly painted in the liveliest of war colors. The old stage coach of the Black Hills, occupied by a score of passengers who had lost the typical expression of anxiety prevalent in the pioneer days, lest they should be held up by bandits before reaching their destination, followed. Then came the immigrant wagon, which had plainly seen better days.

"The Heathen Chinee" from the Chinese Village, fifty strong, had with them the musical instruments of their native country and were clothed in their native holiday garb.

 

FIREWORKS—FOURTH OF JULY

 

The Bombardment of Matanzas was represented by a party of men on a gaudy float, all of whom were clothed in sailor uniforms, and in addition there was a miniature reproduction of the harbor of Matanzas as it appeared before the guns of the American fleet were turned upon the city. Just to give emphasis to the spirit of '98, "The Destruction of the Maine" was represented by a float upon which there was a hundred-pound cannon together with a band of marines. This float was cheered along the lines of march.

One of the most notable displays was made by the German Villagers. It included two immense floats, each drawn by six horses, and five well-filled carriages trimmed in red, white and blue, conveying the management and the singers, dancers and acrobats who amused the villagers and guests by day and by night.

Over two hundred swarthy men and women in charge of the "Only" Gaston Akoun, represented the Streets of All Nations, and formed a fitting conclusion of the unique parade. Camels and donkeys ridden and driven by people from a dozen countries, all clothed in the garb of the nations which they represented, richly decorated, presented an attractive feature as they marched from one end of the line to the other. Oriental songs were sung and to the music the sword fighters kept time with their weapons and shields. The actresses of the "Streets," clad in raiment of finest silk from which innumerable jewels glistened, rode in carriages.

The program of the day was as follows:

Music—Fourth Regiment Band. Sioux City. Invocation—Rev. T. J. Mackay, Omaha. Music—"America," Exposition Chorus. Reading of the Declaration of Independence—Hon. John C. Wharton, Omaha. Oration—Hon. James M. Beck.

The program was interrupted after the music of the Fourth Regiment Band by receipt by President Wattles of a war bulletin, announcing that General Shafter had submitted an ultimatum of unconditional surrender to the Spanish troops defending Santiago, and that his lines completely surrounded the town from the bay on the north of the city to a point on San Juan River on the south. Later on the celebration was again interrupted by receipt of a bulletin as follows:

PLAYA, via Hayti, 3:15 a. m.: The fleet under my command offers the nation as a Fourth of July present the destruction of the whole of Cervera's fleet. No one escaped. It attempted to escape at 9:30 a. m., and at two p. m. the last, the Christobal Colon, had run ashore six miles west of Santiago and had let down its colors. The Infanta Marie Teresa, Oquendo and Vizcaya were forced ashore, and were burned and blown up within twenty miles of Santiago; the Furor and the Pluton were destroyed within four miles of the port. Loss, one killed and two wounded. Enemy's loss probably several hundred from gunfire, explosion and drowning. About thirteen hundred prisoners, including Admiral Cervera.

SAMPSON.

 

As this was the dispatch which marked the end of the war with Spain, it is needless to add that the enthusiasm was so intense that bedlam might be said to have broken loose among the multitude and the scenes under similar circumstances on Illinois Day were re-enacted. The celebration continued well into the night.

The usual display of fireworks was augmented by the illumination of the Midway, and the Street presented a most animated scene from end to end. Hundreds of red, white and blue fires turned night into day. It is estimated that twenty-five thousand people gathered on the North Tract, to view the fireworks, which were entirely in keeping with the importance of the day and its events. There were bombs in profusion, the showers of colored stars which burst from the flying balls lighting up the heavens with many colors. Skyrockets and Roman candles of the latest type, flowerpots. snakes and all the devices common to modern pyrotechnic art formed a background for the display of elaborate set-pieces which won the plaudits of the assembled multitude.

One of the most beautiful set-pieces portrayed the "Father of His Country." The immortal Washington was shown in fire, mounted on a charger emerging from an arch surmounted by the coat-of-arms of the United States. Colored fire was used to bring out various parts of the device in the most effective manner. "Niagara on Fire," was another marvelous piece, as was a third representing an elephant and a group representing two goats bucking at one another. The display concluded with a piece representing two battleships, one flying "Old Glory" and the other the Spanish flag. A battle was waged in fire for several minutes with bombs and other pyrotechnic A devices, the conclusion being the extinction of the Spanish ship, which was the signal to reopen the shouting and enthusiasm of the afternoon. Bedlam broke loose again and would not be quieted until the lights went out at midnight. This ended one of the greatest of the historic days of the Exposition. The total admissions for Independence Day were 44,452.

Independence Day marked in a way the dividing line between the experimental period and the era of assured success of the Exposition. The eventful and historic days followed in rapid succession, as follows:

Massachusetts Day, July 11; Children's Day, July 14; Military Day, July 16; Minnesota Day, July 20; Indian Day, August 4; Flower Day. August 5; Kansas City Day, August 6; Red Men's Day, August 10; United States Life Saving Day, August 11; St. Joseph Day, August 13; Texas Day, August 18; Des Moines Day, August 23; Omaha World-Herald and Nebraska Editors' Day, August 24; Sioux City Day. August 25; Bohemian Day, August 27; Cody Day, August 31; Kansas Day. September 1; Nebraska Peach and  

Flower Day, Grand Plaza
Pottawattamie County (Iowa) Grape Day, September 2; National Editorial Association Day, September 3: Montana Day, September 6; Military Day, September 7; Hoo Hoo Day, September 9: Shriner Day, September 14; Oklahoma Day, September 16; Iowa Day, September 21; Modern Woodmen Day, September 22; Twenty-Second United States Infantry Day, September 23; Swedish Day, September 29: Georgia Day, September 30; Chicago Day, at October 1; Live Stock Day, October 3; Pennsylvania Day, October 5; Ohio Day. October 7; New York Day, October 8.

(These Historic Days and the events attached to them will be given consideration in an appropriate place in Part II.)

This lead us up to perhaps the greatest historic week of the Exposition.

 

JUBILEE WEEK

October 10 to October 15 Inclusive

As will be recorded elsewhere in this history, the war with Spain was begun and ended during the building of the Exposition, and came near to wrecking it, by reason of the absorption of the whole people in that sanguinary event to the exclusion of other things; but out of it came the Peace Jubilee of the Exposition, the most brilliant of the historic events. This jubilee occupied the week October 10 to 15, inclusive. Ever since the close of the Spanish War, arrangements had been vigorously carried on to make this Jubilee well worthy of our great nation. Much thought, time and money had been expended by the Exposition management to make it a crowning success. The President of the United States, with his Cabinet, the Diplomatic, Corps, and the prominent generals of the army and navy, from the seat of government had been invited, and responded with cheerful enthusiasm. A member of the Executive Committee was sent to Washington to accompany the special trains which were to transfer them to Omaha. Representatives of the great newspapers of the country also accompanied them.

MAYORS' DAY

The opening day of Jubilee week was Monday, October 10, and was denominated Mayors' Day. The Mayors of the principal cities of the West were invited to attend and participate in the exercises. Many were present, but with the usual modesty of these distinguished officials, but few participated in the exercises as speakers. The exercises were held in the Auditorium at eleven o'clock a. m., with the following program:

Music—Omaha Concert Band.
Invocation—Rev. T. J. Mackay.
Welcome—Mayor Frank E. Moores. Omaha.
Response—Mayor George T. Baker, Davenport, Iowa.
Music—Omaha Concert Band.
Address—Mayor John MacVickar, Des Moines,Iowa.
Music—Omaha Concert Band.

After the exercises a luncheon was served at the Markel Café, and the remainder of the day was spent in viewing the many special attractions on the Exposition grounds, and the grand illumination and fireworks in the evening.

GOVERNORS' DAY—October 11, 1898

The Governors of all the Trans-Mississippi States had been invited to attend and participate in the exercises of Governors' Day, but few were   to the celebration of their State Days. The exercises were held in the Auditorium at eleven o'clock a. m., with the following program:

Music—Omaha Concert Band.
Invocation—Rev. S. Wright Butler.
Welcome—Governor Silas A. Holcomb, Nebraska.
Music—Omaha Concert Band.
Address—Governor Alva Adams, Colorado.
Address—President Gurdon W. Wattles.
Music—Omaha Concert Band.

After the exercises a luncheon was served to the invited guests at the Markel Cafe, ad the afternoon was spent in the usual manner.

PRESIDENT McKINLEY'S VISIT

President McKinley and President Wattles

On the evening of October 11, two special trains, bearing the President of the United States and his distinguished party, arrived at Omaha at eight o clock. President Wattles of the Exposition designated the guests to he entertained by officers of the Exposition, members of the Executive Committee present, as many of them had before participated in special exercises incident and of the Bureau of Entertainment. These met at the Omaha Club early in the evening and were conveyed in carriages to the station to meet the

President McKinley and President Wattles
incoming trains. The members of the Executive Committee met the President's train at Council Bluffs, Iowa, and briefly welcomed the President and his party to Omaha and the Exposition. On arrival at Omaha the distinguished guests were conveyed in carriages to the City Hall in the following order:

Carriage No.

1. President Gurdon W. Wattles and President William McKinley.
2. Vice-President Alvin Saunders, Mrs. Saunders and Dr. Garcia Micron.
3. Mr. and Mrs, Z, T. Lindsey and Chinese Minister Wu Ting Fang and wife.
4. Mr. and Mrs. E. Rosewater and Corean Minister Chin Pom Ye and wife.
5. Mr. and Mrs, F. P. Kirkendall and Brazilian Minister Brasil, and Gonzolo de Quesada, chargé d'affaires of the Cuban Junta.
6. Mr. and Mrs. Herman Kountze and Secretary of the Treasury, Hon. Lyman J. Gage.
7. Mr. E. E. Bruce and Secretary of the Interior, Hon. Cornelius N. Bliss.
8. Mrs. E. E. Bruce and Secretary of Agriculture Wilson and Miss Wilson.
 

Carriage No.

9. A. L. Reed and Governor Alva Adams, Colorado, and Governor Silas A. Holcomb. Nebraska.
10. Mrs. A. L. Reed and Senator W. V. Allen of Nebraska and Mrs. Allen.
11. Senator John M. Thurston of Nebraska and Dr. R. W. Baker and Mrs. J. V. Creighton.
12. Mr. and Mrs. W. N. Babcock and Major-General and Mrs. Miles.
13. Congressman D. H. Mercer and Brigadier-General W. V. Sumner.
1.4. Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Montgomery and General A. W. Greely.
15. Secretary John A. Wakefield and Mrs. Wakefield, and General Charles F. Humphrey and Mrs. Humphrey.
16. Mr. and Mrs. John L. Webster and Major and Mrs. O. S. Heistand and Miss Martin.
17. Major H. C. Ward, Ass't Secretary of War Meikeljohn and J. Addison Porter, Secretary to President McKinley.
18. J. R. Dunn and Captain Arthur Paget.
19. Mrs. J. R. Dunn, Colonel. Francis Micheler and Colonel W. M. Black.
20. Mrs. Major H. C. Ward, Colonel James Allen and Captain H. M. Whitney.
21. President Bingham of Omaha City Council and Secretaries A. Delviso of the Argentine Minister, Tam E. Ye of the Corean Minister and Leme of Brazilian Minister.
22. Mrs. D. H. Mercer and Mrs. Chow Toz Chi, Whang Chang Huli and Kwang Hany, Secretaries to the Chinese Minister.
23. John C. Wharton, Prof. W. L. Moore, Chief of U. S. Weather Bureau, and Mrs. Moore.
24. Mrs. John C. Wharton and U. S. Commissioner of Education W. T. Harris and Mrs. Harris.
25. Mr. and Mrs. John C. Cowin and Captain McWilliams and Mrs. McWilliams.
26. Mrs. W. A. Redick. Miss Greely.
27. Mrs. G. M. Hitchcock and Mrs. Geo. B. Cortelyou.
28. Mrs. J. E. Summers, Jr., and Mrs. George A. Joslyn, Miss Humphrey and Mrs. Howland.
29. Mrs. C. W. Lyman and George F. Bidwell, and General John C. Black, Mrs. Black.
30, 31, 32 and 33, G. M. Hitchcock, and fifteen representatives of the press, accompanying the party.

The Board of Governors of the Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben, in their natty uniforms, mounted, formed the escort of honor, and as the distinguished 3 guests passed along the streets, tens of thousands of the citizens of Omaha and visitors greeted the President and the other noted officials with great enthusiasm. Every available space along the streets was occupied, and in front of the Hall, completely filling the street and the Court House lawn, the largest concourse of people ever gathered within the city awaited the arrival of the President of the United States and his party. On the reviewing stand in front of the City Hall were gathered many representative citizens of Omaha and the Trans-Mississippi territory, and as President McKinley appeared, a great shout of welcome went up, and it was with great difficulty that order restored and a way cleared through the street for the passing pageant, which consisted of the electrical parade of the Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben, unexcelled in thee spectacular and artistic beauty of its floats.

 

President McKinley paid his respects to the Mayor of the city by an official call at his office, and after many compliments on the magnificent spectacle he had witnessed, he retired with the other members of his party and was conveyed to the Omaha Club, which had been generously tendered by its members to the exclusive use of the President and his Cabinet during their sojourn in the city. It became. for the time being, the executive mansion, and the official flag of the Chief Executive floated from the peak of the flagstaff from sunrise to sunset during the sojourn.

At the Club a magnificent banquet was served to the distinguished guests by the officers of the Exposition, and it was a late hour when all retired to await the morning of

PRESIDENT'S DAY—October 12, 1898

The day was ushered in by a glorious sunrise and beautiful sky, giving promise of a typical Nebraska October day unsurpassed in any clime. At an early hour, before the gates of the Exposition were opened, thousands of visitors had made their way by every possible means of conveyance to the Exposition grounds. It was apparent that the admissions department of the Exposition would be put to severe test in promptly passing through the gates the immense throngs sure to attend. Street cars, railway trains, carriages and every means of conveyance were taxed to the utmost to carry the crowds to the Exposition grounds. The total admissions for the day were 98,845.

The Second Nebraska Regiment, just returned from the campaign of the war with Spain, assisted in preserving order on the grounds. The regiment was drawn up in two solid lines reaching from the entrances to the Bluff tract to the grand stand on the Grand Plaza, forming a passage way for the President and his escort through the immense crowds filling the grounds. At Iozgo the distinguished guests in carriages, in the order of the evening before, arrived at the grounds and were admitted and passed through the avenue to the grand stand where the exercises of the day were held. In front of the grand stand, reaching westward to the viaduct, and on all sides. was gathered an audience such as will probably never be seen again within this city. It has been estimated that this audience numbered seventy thousand people. The exercises of the day consisted of the following program;

Music—Innes Band.
Invocation—Rev. John McQuoid.
Address—President Gurdon W. Wattles.
Address—President William McKinley.
Music—Innes Band.
Address—Postmaster-General Charles Emory Smith.
Music—Innes Band.

(The addresses will be found in their appropriate place in Part II.)

 

PRESIDENT WATTLES INTRODUCING PRESIDENT McKINLEY

 

At the close of these exercises an informal reception was held and congratulations were extended to the President by the Exposition officials and other prominent guests on the platform. A great cheer went up from the immense audience, but President McKinley, with his usual thoughtfulness for others, suggested to President Wattles that the crowds were cheering for General Miles and other distinguished officers who had not participated in the program, and, at his suggestion. General Miles, the members of his Cabinet, and others, were called out and introduced to the enthusiastic throng in order that they, his associates, might share the honors that, he said, were due to them as much as to himself. His delicate thoughtfulness for the pleasure of others was here manifested, and was again illustrated when he handed to President Wattles the original manuscript from which he had read his address, as a souvenir of the occasion.

After the general handshaking and cheering at the grand stand had been concluded, the ladies were escorted to the carriages and departed at once for the executive mansion (Omaha Club), where a formal luncheon had been prepared in anticipation of the presence of Mrs. McKinley. Unfortunately, she had been detained by the death of her brother at her home in Canton, Ohio, but the ladies of members of the Cabinet and of other officials of the President's party, with the ladies of the Bureau of Entertainment, were served. This luncheon was one of unusual elegance. The rooms of the Club were filled with roses. The tables were arranged in the form of a hollow square. The luncheon card was printed on white satin ribbon attached to heavy cardboard, and ornamented with hand-painted sketches. The menu was as follows:

Grape Fruit
Consomme
Frogs' Legs a la Poulette
Breast of Chicken
Currant Jelly
Waldorf Salad
Neapolitan Ice Cream
Assorted Cake
Small Coffee.

Mrs. Clement Chase, Chairman of the Bureau of Entertainment, presided. At her right sat the wife of the Chinese Minister. At her left the wife of the Corean Minister. Next in order at her right sat Mrs. H. T. Clark and Mrs. Lyman J. Gage, and at her left Mrs. Wattles and Mrs. Charles Emory Smith. Seated at the other tables were Mrs. Kirkendall, Miss Wilson, Mrs. Webster, Mrs. Miles, Mrs. Summers, Mrs. Humphrey, Mrs. Manderson, Mrs. Moore, Mrs. Babcock, Mrs. Miles, Mrs. Cowin, Mrs. Adams, Mrs. Lindsey, Mrs. Richards, Mrs. Mendilken, Mrs. A. Rosewater, Mrs. Baker. Mrs. Saunders,  

PRESIDENT McKINLEY AND HIS CABINET
  Mrs. Wallace. Mrs. Dandy. Mrs. Humphrey, Mrs. Kountze, Miss Greely, Mrs. D. H. Mercer, Mrs. E. Rosewater, Mrs. Bills, Mrs. Nash, Mrs. Orr, Mrs. Montgomery, Mrs. Dickinson, Mrs. Redick, Mrs. W. V. Allen, Mrs. Hitchcock, Mrs. Greely, Mrs. Lyman, Mrs. Heistand, Mrs. Joslyn, Mrs. Harris, Mrs. Bruce, Mrs. Holcomb. Mrs. McCord, Mrs. Trumbull, Mrs. Peck, Mrs. Bidwell, Mrs. Ward, Mrs. Cox, Mrs. Creighton, Mrs. Reed, Mrs. Black, Mrs. Yates, Miss Carr, Mrs. Dunn, Mrs. Martin, Mrs. Lininger, Miss Pierce, Mrs. Metcalf, Mrs. McKelway, Mrs. Brady, Mrs. Newman, Mrs. Wakefield, Mrs. Baldwin, Mrs. Harrison, Mrs. Shiverick, Mrs. W. F. Allen, Mrs. Colpetzer, Mrs. Offut, Mrs. Reynolds, Mrs. Mackay, Mrs. Carter, Mrs. George Mercer, Mrs. Remington, Mrs. Wharton, Mrs. Connell, Mrs. Broatch. Mrs. Cox, Mrs. Charlton, Mrs. Bierbower, Mrs. Wilhelm, Mrs. Brandeis, Mrs. Poppleton, Mrs. Dietz, Mrs. Baum, Mrs. Squires, Mrs. Rogers.

The gentlemen of the party repaired to the Markel Café, where a formal luncheon was served to them. At this luncheon no toasts were given, but the health of the President was pledged by all present.

The program of the day had been arranged with the special plan of allowing as many of those in the grounds as possible the privilege of seeing the President at short range. The soldiers of the Second Regiment were formed in two lines around the Grand Court, through the center aisles of each of the main buildings, and after the luncheon, the President, escorted by President Wattles, and followed by the other officials in their order, marched between these lines of soldiers, completely around the Grand Court, stopping in the Government building, in which it had been planned to hold a public reception. The Government Commission had admitted several hundred officials and citizens by card, and after these had been presented to the President, it soon became evident that it would be impracticable to receive the general public, as the President was weary with handshaking. This feature of the program was therefore abandoned and the party proceeded to the rooms of the Bureau of Entertainment in the Palace of Mines and Mining, where a short rest was enjoyed, awaiting the arrival of the ladies from the Omaha Club.

Thousands of women delegates to the Trans-Mississippi Congress of the Federation of Women's Clubs had congregated, and by special appointment President McKinley and President Wattles visited for a few moments this gathering of the representative women of the West. President McKinley was introduced and spoke a few words. Carriages were then taken and the guests were conveyed through the Midway and over the north viaduct to the Indian Encampment. Here the "Great Father" was welcomed by the Indian tribes with an enthusiasm and in a manner never to be forgotten. A grand parade of the many tribes, bedecked in costumes peculiar to their original customs,   was led past the reviewing stand by Captain Mercer, who had the Indian Congress in charge.

Next a sham battle of Indian braves was fought, which was made so realistic that it almost seemed to be a re-enactment of one of the bloody battles in earlier times. This display of savage life was much enjoyed by the President and all who witnessed it, and at its conclusion many of the Indians gathered near the exit of the reviewing stand to see, and if might be, speak

Grand Court, Looking Southwest, Night
with the "Great Father," whom they regarded with awe, as he came among them.

After the close of this feature of the exercises of the day. the President insisted on the carriages being dismissed, and walked back to the cafe where dinner was to be served. The way led past the livestock exhibits, and many of the finest animals of this exhibit were displayed with great pride by their owners to the President as he passed. The gay throngs on the Midway cheered him, the old soldiers called his name in endearing terms, and the journey was one of interest and pleasure, with no single word of discourtesy to mar a day filled with many pleasing events.

 

The dinner at the café had been planned with great care, and to it had been invited all the officers of the Exposition, the Executive Committee, and the full Board of Directors. Also members of the Government Exposition Commission, members of the State Commissions and numerous prominent citizens. The long tables entirely filled the north café, and were beautifully decorated with flowers. The menu was one of especial elegance and design. A reproduction of the Government building appeared on the first page. On the second page was lithographed

PEACE JUBILEE DINNER IN HONOR OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION OMAHA

Wednesday, October Twelfth, 1898.

The menu proper was lithographed over a scene on the Exposition grounds, which formed the background, and was as follows:

Blue Points
Celery
Clear Green Turtle
Olives Radishes
Planked Whitefish, with fine Herbs
Dressed Cucumbers
Braised Lamb Chops
Roast Canvasback Duck with Cresses
Hominy Champagne
Lettuce Salad
Ice Cream in Forms
Cakes Fruits
Brie Cheese Crackers
Coffee.

President Wattles sat at the head of the table with President McKinley at his right. The members of the President's Cabinet and foreign Ministers were seated on either side according to rank. The dinner was faultlessly served. No formal toasts had been planned, but as the evening was too cool to carry out the original plan of a gondola excursion on the Lagoon, it was suggested that an hour be spent in listening to impromptu speeches. Toasts were assigned by President Wattles at President McKinley's suggestion, as follows:

"Our Country"—St. Clair McKelway, editor of the Brooklyn Eagle
"From War to Peace"—General Nelson A. Miles.
"Humanity"—Senator John M. Thurston, Nebraska.
"The Exposition"—General Charles F. Manderson, Omaha.
"The New West"—Governor Alva Adams, Colorado.
 

OVATION TO PRESIDENT McKINLEY

 

After the responses, which were exceptionally interesting, the guests repaired to their carriages and were driven around the Court of Honor, and to the grounds set aside for the display of fireworks on the North tract. A magnificent display had been specially prepared for this occasion, and it was greatly enjoyed by the President and his party, as well as the tens of thousands of visitors who witnessed it. The carriages then conveyed the distinguished guests to the executive mansion, and thus closed the President's day at the Exposition.

The President had planned to leave the City of St. Louis early the following morning, and without ceremony he was escorted to the station. A large number had gathered to see him once more and say "good-bye." Before leaving the club house he had written a note to General Manderson, the President of the Club, as follows:

Dear General Manderson:

Before I go permit me to thank you. My visit to Omaha has been one of uncommon interest and pleasure. Good-bye.

October 13, 1898. WILLIAM MCKINLEY.

The President expressed to President Wattles his appreciation of the manner in which he had been entertained. He said:

I want to congratulate Omaha on the splendid management of every detail of my reception, which was carried out most satisfactorily and in the best way possible.

As his train was about to start, he responded to the cheer of the crowd gathered about his car as follows:

I thank you more than words can tell for your many kindnesses to me during my visit s to your city and your magnificent Exposition. My visit to Omaha and to the Trans-Mississippi Exposition is one that I shall long remember with the kindliest recollections. What has pleased me more than anything else on my entire trip is to witness the exhibitions of patriotism throughout the country. I am glad to see. that in Nebraska, as through the whole land, the people ever love good government, and dearly love the old flag. It is very hard for me to say good-bye to Omaha; you have all made my trip so delightful; but I must say good-bye now, as the train is about to leave. Again I thank you.

ARMY AND NAVY DAY—October 13, 1898

The fourth day of jubilee week was dedicated to the army and navy. After the departure of the President and his party, the officials of the Exposition repaired to the hotels and with carriage escorted General Miles and staff, with other generals, ministers and officials who were to participate in the celebration of Army and Navy Day, to the Exposition grounds. The exercises were held in the Auditorium at eleven o'clock a. m.

 

The program was as follows:

Music—By Modoc Glee Club, Topeka, Kan., "Hail Flag of the Free."
Welcome—Governor Silas A. Holcomb. Nebraska.
Address—Major-General Nelson A. Miles.
Music—Modoc Glee Club.
Address—General A. W. Greely.
Address—Senor Gonzales de Quesada, Cuba.
Address—Senator William V. Allen, Nebraska.

(The addresses will be found in Part II of this history.)

At the conclusion of these exercises, a luncheon was served to the distinguished guests at the Markel Café, after which the guests repaired to the grounds of the Indian encampment, where a special program had been arranged in honor of General Miles. He had long been known as one of the heroes of the Civil War and one of the great Indian fighters who for more than a quarter of a century had been stationed at outlying posts on the frontier. It was General Miles who captured Geronimo, the famous Apache chief, and negotiated the terms of surrender of the Indian warriors. The meeting on the grounds between the General and this famous Indian chief was affecting. Geronimo clasped his arms about the General and embraced him affectionately. After this episode, General Miles pinned a peace jubilee badge on the breast of the Indian warrior, who expressed thanks in broken English.

After the sham battle, then in progress, was conducted, General Miles and the Apache chief held a long conference through an interpreter, no doubt reminding each other of stirring events in their lives, when Geronimo led his Warriors against the whites and defied them in many sanguinary contests.

Flower Day

 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT DAY—October 14, 1898

The fifth day of jubilee week was dedicated to civil government. Great crowds still lingered at the Exposition, although the weather had turned cold and disagreeable, and the Auditorium was well filled to hear the interesting exercises which had been planned in celebration of this day. Brigadier-General William R. Shaffer and staff had arrived too late to participate in the

Theodore Roosevelt
celebration of Army and Navy Day, and he had therefore been invited to speak on this occasion. His presence lent interest to the event and thousands of visitors filled the Auditorium to overflowing to see and listen to this famous warrior. When he appeared on the platform in full uniform he was greeted with a rousing cheer.

 

The program of exercises was as follows:

Music—Omaha Concert Band.
Invocation—Rev. Newton R. Mann.
Address—Brigadier-General William R. Shafter.
Address—Ass't Secretary of War George D. Meikeljohn.
Music—Omaha Concert Band.
Address—Chinese Minister Wu Ting Fang.
Address—Cuban Minister Gonzales de Quesada.
Address—Senator John M. Thurston, Nebraska.
Music—"Star Spangled Banner," Omaha Concert Band.

After the exercises the usual luncheon was served to the honored guests in the Markel Café and the afternoon and evening were spent in witnessing the sham battle in the Indian encampment grounds, the fireworks and other special attractions.

CHILDREN'S DAY—October 15, 1898

The sixth and last day of jubilee week was dedicated to the children. A low admission fee had been fixed for the children on this day, and they came by thousands from the city and surrounding country to participate in the exercises. No formal exercises were held, but they sang patriotic songs,

Girls' and Boys' Building
  with the accompaniment of Innes' band. in the afternoon on the Grand Plaza, and spent the day as only children can, in the enjoyment of the many interesting amusements throughout the Midway, on the Lagoon and in the Exhibit buildings.

This closed the most successful week, in point of attendance and interesting ceremonies, of all the Exposition period. The total attendance for the week was 294,344.

Following jubilee week the special days until the close of the Exposition period were as follows:

German Day, October 18; Ancient Order of United Workmen Day, October 18; Nebraska Day, October 19; Utah Day, October 20; Railroad Week, October 23 to 29, inclusive; Tri-City Day, October 26; and then came the last of the great days.

OMAHA DAY—October 31, 1898

The success of the Exposition from every standpoint had become an established fact. Anxiety had given place to realization, and with it that comforting peace which is the reward of success as the result of untiring effort. Much pressure had been brought to bear upon the management to continue the Exposition beyond the date fixed in the original plans, but the same wise judgment that had carried the creation of the great undertaking to completion, so that the gates were thrown open on the appointed day, and at the appointed hour, and had made the Exposition period the unparalleled success in every detail and feature that it had now become, prevailed. The gates were closed for the last time upon the appointed day and hour, which was at the last moment at midnight October 31, 1898. The day was dedicated to Omaha, and like the opening day it was ushered in by a matchless Western sunrise; another typical Nebraska autumn day, with faultless sky, and balmy, invigorating air.

Every effort had been put forth to make of it a fitting termination of an historic period in the life of the city. The Mayor had issued a proclamation, A reciting the many benefits that Omaha had received from the Exposition, praising its management, and declaring Omaha Day an official holiday. He urged all places of business to close, and every citizen to attend the Exposition that day. The Board of Education ordered the schools closed, the Commercial Club and labor organizations urged the merchants and tradesmen to participate in a universal celebration of this holiday, and every citizen of Omaha seemed to take upon himself the responsibility of working for the success of this day. Proprietors of many of the large stores distributed tickets of admission among their employes, and charitable citizens distributed   hundreds of tickets to the poor of the city through the assistance of the Associated Charities.

The exercises of the day took place at the Auditorium at three o'clock p. m. The program was as follows:

Music—Innes Band.
Invocation—Rev. T. J. Mackay.
Address—Mayor Frank E. Moores.
Address—Manager Z. T. Lindsey, Ways and Means Department.
Music—Innes Band.
Address—Manager Edward Rosewater, Publicity and Promotion Department.
Address—President Wattles.
Music—Innes Band.

(The addresses will be found in Part II of this history.)

After the exercises a banquet was served in the cafe to the officers of the Exposition, city and county officials, members of the Board of Education, the Executive Committee of the Commercial Club, the Board of Governors of the Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben, and many other prominent citizens of Omaha who had all lent their aid to the success of the Exposition. Many toasts were responded to by the guests of the officers of the Exposition. Words of praise of their efforts were spoken with regrets that the beautiful White City. with all its enchantment, was so soon to be a thing of the past.

In the evening, a grand spectacular display of fireworks was given and witnessed by many thousands, after which a Grand Carnival on the Streets of the Midway was held. At twelve o'clock, midnight, the myriad electric lights were turned off for the last time, and the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition had passed into history.

Flower Day

 

A VIEW OF THE GRAND COURT

 

ARCHITECTURE AND ELECTRICAL ILLUMINATIONS

CHAPTER IV

ARCHITECTURALLY, the Trans-Mississippi Exposition was a magnificent success. After all its brilliant features shall have faded from the memory of the hundreds of thousands of men and women who witnessed them, the matchless beauty of its architecture will remain an ineffaceable picture, never to be forgotten. Its appeal to the popular imagination was stronger than that of any other creation among the manifold attractions of a great exposition, and its splendid artistic effects made a lasting impression upon its people.

The Trans-Mississippi Exposition had the unique quality of being a complete artistic whole. From its conception until its achievement there was a consistent idea present, which was accomplished without serious omissions, and of which the general effect was so focused that it was readily comprehended and did not weary by complexity of plan or of composition or detail. Nor on the other hand did it show any lack of variety, nor of both general and individual study of the buildings and their environment. There was everywhere evidence of the adaptation of the general scheme to the site, of study of proportions of the buildings to each other and of their relation to the ground immediately around them. No detail, from that of relative proportions of masses to the lines of balustrades and even to the distribution of the colors in the bannerettes, was overlooked, and the final result justified the care bestowed upon the problem. In expenditure and size, this Exposition could not compete with that of Chicago in 1893, and whatever individual character it could expect to have was necessarily that of distinction. Considerations of economy forbade the use of color decoration. Distinction was secured, however, through simplicity of treatment and by harmony of form, throughout. In its inception, it was recognized that a general type of architecture must be maintained, a   general color demanded, and a general scale required. None of these essentials was new in idea, as they were an expression of natural common sense in designing a scheme for a correlated group of buildings.

But there were two factors in the design of the main court of the Omaha Exposition which were new, and have not been insisted upon elsewhere. First, the requirement that all towers and vertical motives should be placed only where they were indicated upon the general plan, and that but one prominent dome should be permitted, which should be placed at the termination of the longest vista; and second, that as far as possible, no portion of the private buildings or grounds outside the main court of the Exposition should be seen from that court. For this purpose all the Exposition buildings upon the main court were connected with colonnades back of which were screens of trees.

T.R. Kimball
C. Howard Walker
ARCHITECTS IN CHIEF.
and the court became a vast cloister isolated from all incongruous elements of architecture. Often in the last decade, the praise has been heard for this Exposition that it seemed the most perfect as a whole of any of the expositions of the past.

In some respects this was due to the site. The main court-one-half mile (or more) in length—rose slightly from west to east, and had a lagoon upon its long axis which spread into a large basin almost level with its surface at the west, and lay between the high banks of terraces and steps at the east, which rose to a bridge spanning Sherman Avenue and leading to the concourse for addresses, etc., and to the more informal portion of the Exposition grounds. At the western end of the great court, the long facade of the Government building was reflected in the basin, which was surrounded by colonnades suggestive of the approaches to St. Peter's at Rome, by Bernini. Above rose   the one great dome in the Exposition, admirably proportioned, completing the vista in this direction. At the east the terraces clustered, and the entrance to the bridge was flanked by two high towers above the restaurants. The view of the court from the terrace looking westward was very beautiful and gave f a thoroughly comprehensive idea of the general Exposition plan. At the left and south was the Mines building by S. S. Beman, of Chicago, with Greek Ionic detail. garden with peristyles and statues connected this building

Statuary near Machinery Hall
with the Liberal Arts building by Messrs. Fisher & Lawrie, of Omaha, which had the charm of the best type of sixteenth century French Renaissance. Opposite the Mines building, on the north of the lagoon, was the Machinery and Electricity building by Dwight Heald Perkins, of Chicago, with characteristic detail; while opposite the Liberal Arts was the building for Manufactures by J. J. Humphreys, of Denver. These four buildings with their connecting colonnades completed the end of the court east of the central cross axis. Upon this short axis was the main bridge crossing the lagoon, a double bridge with a balustraded island in the center. At the south of this axis was the main entrance arch of the Trans-Mississippi States, its frieze formed by  
NORTH COLONNADE
  a double row of the coats-of-arms of the States in color. Opposite on the north end of the axis was the Administration building, in the form of an arch with a hall above and a high roof and lantern, somewhat resembling the arched gateways of medieval towns, but with classic detail. p Both of these arches, as well as all the accessory architecture of the Exposition, the lagoon, the terraces, balustrades, peristyles, colonnades, etc., and the two large restaurant buildings at the eastern end of the court, were designed by Messrs. Walker and Kimball, Architects-in-Chief of the Exposition. Beyond the central cross axis to the west, on either side of the lagoon, were two of the most important buildings on the grounds—to the north the Agricultural building by Cass Gilbert, of St. Paul and New York; to the south the Fine Arts building by Messrs. Eames and
Ceres
Young, of St. Louis. Both in proportions and details these buildings compare favorably with the architectural creations of any exposition. All the buildings in the main court, with the exception of the Art building, were designed according to definite dimensions an d instructions supplied by the architects-in-chief, which were as follows:

All buildings should be of simple classic or Renaissance style, without excess of ornament. The height of the order to the top of the entablature was determined. There should be no towers. Each building should have a dominant central pavilion and subordinate corner pavilions, and the colonnades, arcades, or subdivisions i of spaces between the pavilions should be absolute repeats of a uniform scale, said scale being stated. The buildings should all be ivory white, and the roofs of a uniform shade of gray green.

As a result, while there was great variety in conception and in minor details, the buildings were harmonious, not alone in one factor, but in all the following factors—style, color, scale, height, and general mass. In no other exposition have instructions been so strenuous, style and height being the only conditions usually imposed; and in consequence, all other expositions have suffered from the exploitation of the eccentricities of individual architects. The Art Palace was a double building with a cloistered court between its two portions. This was caused by the logical separation of painting and sculpture. In all other respects it conformed to the instructions. Three exceptions   were made in the buildings in the grand court, all of which were to accent main axes. The Government building at the west end had, as requested, a dome accentuating that end. The Restaurant building at the east end had two identical towers to balance the Government dome and accent the bridge entrance; and the Administration building had a high roof and lantern to accent the entrance to the long avenue at right angles to the main court—a continuation of the cross axis, on either of which were the secondary buildings for Transportation, Dairy, Apiary, etc. These buildings were designed in a simple style, distinct from all others, being half timber and plaster buildings with heavy projecting eaves. One important building alone was on the tract across the bridge and south of the concourse—the Horticultural building in the midst of its gardens and fountains, by Chas. Beindorff, of Omaha. This building, being isolated, had no restrictions placed upon it excepting as to style of architecture and color, and had many picturesque pinnacles.

On either side of the gardens of the Horticultural Hall were the State buildings—of the usual various characters and merits. North from the concourse stretched the Midway, which turned to the west and joined the northerly end of the cross avenue. The general effect of the Exposition, as may be readily seen, was simple, easily comprehended, and thoroughly complete. The views were very beautiful, as the light and shade on the gardens connecting the white masses of the buildings gave delightful contrast and detail; and the absence of arid spaces and the constant presence of shaded ways between the buildings were very grateful to those walking through the grounds. Nor should the sculpture be omitted in an appreciation of the whole. There were no monumental and sensational groups, and most of the sculpture was associated with the architecture, and was in pediments or over openings, or as single figures upon the posts of balustrades; but it was admirable in scale and gave the charm of statues half hidden in the foliage of English gardens or of Italian villas. In no exposition has sculpture been so little ostentatious; and in no exposition has it been so thoroughly in harmony with its surroundings.

In the lighting of the Exposition the skill of Luther Stieringer and his able assistant, Henry Rustin, was apparent. Stieringer's ingenuity and conception of light-effects were very exceptional. He thoroughly appreciated the advantage of maintaining the effect of perspective by eliminating all vertical lines of light, and the beauty of reflected light from surfaces, its sources being concealed. The charm of the delicate lighting of the grand court when seen from the terraces has not been surpassed.

The landscape work of Rudolph Ulrich, who seemed to possess the magic of an Indian fakir in the rapidity with which he obtained effects and made foliage grow, was of admirable merit. To him was due the "planting-out" of   all unsightly things, both within and without the grounds, even blemishes being transmuted into beauty-spots by his intelligent handling. He took great pride in the flourishing appearance of the sod everywhere, which he coaxed along with wonderful speed and success. He laid out and constructed the walks and drives of the Exposition—details no less essential to its perfection, if less imposing, than the finest structure within its walls.

In fact, the Trans-Mississippi Exposition maintained in all its artistic expression a standard which appealed irresistibly to the most exacting of its visitors. This result was primarily due to the high artistic standard set by Messrs. Walker and Kimball, architects-in-chief, and carefully maintained by them and their associates in every detail of architectural design. The responsibility for success or failure rested upon the architects-in-chief, and if their original conception of the general plan of a completed architectural whole had proved abortive, these two men would have had to bear the brunt of adverse criticism and consequent hurt to professional reputation. This being true, they were, on the other hand, entitled to receive and did receive unstinted praise for their great achievement, which earned for them recognition in eminent degree and gave them place among the foremost architects of the nation.

Court of Fine Arts Building

 

THE BUILDINGS

THE U. S. GOVERNMENT BUILDING

This, the building of first importance and dignity, was all that it should be—a fine example of symmetry and perfect outline, a contribution to architectural art worthy of the nation. Its first suggestion to the eye of the visitor was a hint of the national capitol, while from another point of view there were slight reminders of St. Peter's at Rome. Standing at the west end of the grounds, this massive Ionic pile dominated a group of buildings whose beauty has never been exceeded. It was planned in three sections, that at the center having a frontage on the lake of two hundred and eight feet, its depth being fifty feet. The main entrance, facing the basin, was reached by a broad flight of steps and through a colonnade, and was flanked on either side by richly decorated pavilions. The central building rose to a colossal dome, towering far above all other structures and surmounted by a figure of "Liberty Enlightening the World"—a reproduction of Bartholdi's famous statue. At night the figure was illuminated, its head crowned with an electric tiara, and the torch in its hand ·a search-light one hundred and seventy-eight feet above the ground.

The side sections, connecting by colonnades with the Agricultural building, had a frontage of one hundred feet and were forty-eight feet high to top of balustrade. The total length of the building was five hundred and four feet; its height at pinnacle one hundred and seventy-eight. The floor space, devoted to exhibits, approximated fifty thousand square feet.

The Government building was produced in the office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury at Washington, D. C. The earliest sketches were made by Geo. O. Totten, Jr., under the supervision of Wm. Martin Aiken, then Supervising Architect. These were carefully revised and the whole carried to completion in the ablest manner possible by Edward A. Crane, of Philadelphia, the building being erected partly during the rule of Acting Supervising Architect Kemper and finally completed under the supervision of James Knox Taylor, the present incumbent, who practically inaugurated with this building his masterly revolution of the Supervising Architect's office, its methods and its product. The colossal statue of the Republic surmounting the dome formed the very pinnacle of the whole composition, and was by the well-known sculptor, James F. Early.

 

Main Entrance, Agriculture Building

THE AGRICULTURE BUILDING

West of the Twentieth Street axis of the Kountze tract and facing south on the lagoon, was this building located. Its architecture "free Renaissance," its details were conventional in proportion and arrangement, but natural in subject and all suggestive of the building's purpose. Corn and wheat, garlands and cornucopias of vegetables, fruits and flowers composed its capitals. In one of its most conspicuous friezes the strutting turkey-cock with outspread tail was very effectively used to replace the classic anthemion.

The richness of effect which results from a lavish use of such natural ornament was, in the scheme of the designer, to have been enhanced by the profuse employment of color. In mass the building should conform to the general "old ivory" tone of its companions; but in its decoration the tints of nature were to be copied—as the yellow of corn, purple of grapes, red of apples and green of foliage. The central niche was to blaze with color, and on either side of the doorway should have been reproduced great paintings, the "Sower",and "Reaper" of Millet. This additional beauty was lost to the building through the prudence of the financial management ever listening to the warning voice of Economy.

 

AGRICULTURE BUILDING

 

The structure was something over four hundred feet long by about one hundred and fifty wide, and averaged fifty feet high. The main entrance was a hemicycle in plan, surmounted by a circular niche; smaller doors pierced the stylobate at intervals along the whole front. The ends had triple doors with loggias above. A single order of architecture surmounted the stylobate, crowned with an entablature that was elaborate even for the Corinthian style. The monotony of the skyline was relieved by statuary representing the seasons, and dominated by a fine group-"Prosperity" supported by "Labor" and "Integrity." Over the main entrance a statue of "Abundance" was flanked by lesser figures and the arms of State and nation. The sculptured subjects included the "Signs of the Zodiac,"' the "Favorable Winds" and the "Seasons;" and panels and friezes everywhere bore names of patrons of agriculture, inventors, and appropriate inscriptions.

Cass Gilbert

It is doubtful if any exposition has ever given its agricultural show as beautiful and elaborate a setting as this. For its design the Exposition was indebted to Cass Gilbert, then of St. Paul, now President of the American Institute of Architects, and one of the leading architects of the country. The Minnesota State Capitol and the U. S. Custom House at New York, two of the most notable architectural works of modern times, are by Cass Gilbert. Franz Engelsmann of St. Louis was the sculptor of the Agriculture building. His work on this building was full of his own characteristic charm and sympathy, and contributed not a little to its artistic success.

THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING

This structure, one of the most distinctive and original in the Exposition, combining as it did the "triumphal-arch" effect with the practical uses of an ordinary building, served as general headquarters for Exposition officers and for the reception of distinguished visitors, and also as a finishing touch to the ensemble of the Court of Honor. Its design was "free classic," though more influenced by French Renaissance than any other of the main buildings.

It measured fifty by fifty feet on the ground, and was one hundred and fifty feet in height-nearly as tall as the Government building—and formed the central feature of the group facing the lagoon. In general effect it was a solid, rectangular mass with four square pavilions, surmounted by a high-  

MANUFACTURES BUILDING
  hipped French roof and lantern. To heighten the architectural effect, statuary of heroic size was used above the cornice. On each of the corner pavilions were emblematic figures, and at the center of the lagoon front was a group I symbolizing "Administration." Between the roof and the main cornice an open space was left for a point of observation, being well above the level of other roofs. The arch was designed by Messrs. Walker and Kimball, of Boston and Omaha. The sculpture was by Walter Mettler of Chicago.

THE MANUFACTURES BUILDING

On the other side of the Administration building from "Agriculture" stood the Manufactures building. "Manufactures" and "Agriculture" were twins in size and general form, and the largest of the main court buildings, therefore next in natural sequence to describe. It was a vigorous design in Roman Doric, full of dignity and repose. Its four-hundred-foot front was broken at center and ends by very orderly and well-handled pavilions. The order proper stood thirty feet high, above and on a ten-foot stylobate. The center pavilion was eighty-five feet high to the top of its crowning group. The end pavilions were forty feet square, and sixty-five feet high to the finials that terminated their domical roofs. A particularly light interior resulted from the very open intercolumniation of the screen of columns that embellished the main facade, leaving nearly the whole sixteen-foot module for glass. The entablature was broken over and around the columns of this screen, producing to a marked degree the dramatic effect that always results from receding and overhanging planes, recalling.

J. J. Humphreys
as it does, the setting of theatrical scenery. The main entrance, through the central pavilion from the south, presented a twenty-four-foot arch, thirty-five feet high, screening an extremely rich rectangular entry or vestibule. Double flanking columns served to accent more strongly this particularly successful central feature. A broken stylobate furnished many resulting pedestals for the excellent statuary with which this building was lavishly adorned. An army of well-proportioned ornamental standards flew the complete gamut of bunting whenever the main court was on dress parade. The late John J. Humphreys of Denver was the architect. Humphreys was one of Denver's famous architectural colony, perhaps that city's most valued asset, even if owed chiefly to considerations  
MACHINERY AND ELECTRICITY BUILDING
  of climate. In his untimely death the profession lost one of its masters, and a host of warm admirers one of their most esteemed coufrércs. At Mr. Humphreys' suggestion Walter Mettler, of Chicago, was appointed sculptor of the Manufactures building. The wisdom of the choice was fully borne out by the high artistic standard attained in the work itself.

THE MACHINERY AND ELECTRICITY BUILDING

The home of Machinery and Electricity was in the northeast corner of the Grand Court, east of the Manufactures building and across the lagoon from the Mines building. Its design had been governed by general conditions requiring harmony with the surrounding group, whose prevalent feeling was of modern Renaissance.

Its frontage was three hundred and four feet, its depth one hundred and forty-four. There were triple entrances on the first-floor level in the center of the main front, and similar ones in the centers of east and west fronts, with four emergency exits in the north wall. Flanking both sides of the portico sixteen feet wide, running the entire length of the facade. The central entrance feature projected beyond the portico, thus forming the grand vestibule.

Entrance, Machinery and Electricity Building
The main floor covered the entire area of the building. Above was a gallery thirty-two feet wide, extending around the four outer walls, and reached by spacious stairways located in opposite corners of the front. This left a high central court two hundred and forty-eight feet long by eighty feet wide, lighted from the skylights and clerestory windows above the roof.

 

The character of the exhibits here sheltered was indicated by the decoration. The ornamental spandrels and panels received all of their motifs from machinery; the cresting at the top was formed of cogwheels, this idea being carried out in all the decorations. The underlying principle and function of machinery were symbolized by the statuary on the summit of the building. At each of the four corners were groups representing the early supremacy of Man over the untamed forces of Nature. Complete supremacy was shown by the central group, in which the entire sculptural design culminated. In this, Man developed beyond the youthful stage, having acquired wisdom, takes these same untamed forces of Nature and harnesses them to his chariot, making them do his bidding—thus symbolizing the services of machinery to

Dwight H. Perkins
man in utilizing the power of steam, fire, electricity and gravity. The designer of this building was Dwight Heald Perkins, of Chicago, President of the Illinois Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. The sculptor appointed by Architect Perkins was Richard W. Bock, of Chicago, and to him is owed the wonderfully interesting and successful handling of the sculpture adornment of this building.

THE BOYS' AND GIRLS' BUILDING

This was of unusual and pleasing design, the ground plan being in form of the letter "T," the stem of the letter forming the rear portion of the building. The main portion was one hundred feet in width and fifty feet in depth. The stem ran back fifty feet.

The building was well proportioned, but no attempt was made at elaboration. It was a one-story structure, with central clerestory. This arrangement gave plenty of room on the flat roof, which was utilized for a roof-garden and restaurant. Across the front of the main portion of the building extended a broad portico with tall columns, and from this, entrance was had to a large hall, fifty by fifty feet, with a dais at one side for y speaking, entertainments, etc. High up under the clerestory was a wide balcony commanding a full view of this great room, with stairs leading to it from two sides. In each corner of the main portion was a room twenty-five by nineteen feet in size. One of these was set apart for the girls, and another   for the boys; the mothers had the use of a third, and a fourth was devoted to the exhibit of a model nursery. The rear portion, or stem of the T, was arranged for the purposes of a creche, where children were cared for while their mothers enjoyed the sights of the Exposition. The room was fifty by fifty feet in size, and was fitted with every convenience for tending the little ones. In one of the ells was constructed a shallow pond, where the children could wade and paddle to their heart's content, under the eye of a watchful attendant. In the other ell were a number of sand piles, also for purposes of amusement;. A feature of the exterior decoration was a handsome balustrade extending around the cornice. This was surmounted by figures of cherubs upholding staffs, from which floated appropriate banners.

The building was designed by Walker & Kimball.

THE AUDITORIUM

The Auditorium stood on the south side of the basin, just east of the Mines and Mining building, and occupied a space of one hundred and thirty-six by two hundred and forty-six feet. There were two principal entrances, one on the east and the other on the north side. The interior was planned after the manner of a Greek theater, with seats in a semicircle, facing south. The main floor had a seating capacity of four thousand, and the stage of five hundred. Opening from the Auditorium, and arranged around the sides were twelve or more large rooms—dressing rooms for theatrical people, etc. The interior was treated in the same style as the exterior, with a free use of ornamental pillars, but no massive columns appeared to break the view of the audience from any point. The immense roof of the structure was supported entirely by trusses. Special attention was paid by the architects to the problem of acoustics, and the building was wholly satisfactory in that regard. It was the work of Messrs. Fisher and Lawrie, of Omaha. Sculptural enrichment on this building was confined to medallion heads, which were well executed in bas relief by Julius Loester, of New York.

MINES AND MINING BUILDING

This building paired with "Machinery and Electricity" on the opposite side of the lagoon. It was designed in the Greek Ionic order, and was studiously and exquisitely wrought out in the detail of that most charmingly graceful of all the antiquities, the Erechtheium at Athens. The chief feature of the lagoon facade was a circular, domed pavilion one hundred and fifty feet in circumference, rising to a height of seventy-five feet. The stepped roof of this pavilion was supported by a circular row of fluted columns, the space  

MINES AND MINING BUILDING
  surrounded by them being open and forming a grand domed vestibule for an approach to the building. The inner dome was richly designed with ribs and panels, and decorated in colors, while the outer one was formed by a series of steps rising in the form of a cone to the apex, which was crowned by an ornamental base and flagstaff. The outer row of dome columns was detached, and the entablature broken around them, over each column being a statue on its pedestal, with the stylobate of the dome for a background. This treatment was very monumental in effect, and not only in good taste and harmonious architecturally, but also original and interesting. Flanking the central dome were beautiful Ionic colonnades, which formed covered ways along the entire facade as far as the corner towers, a feature always keenly appreciated by visitors in the heat of summer. Over these colonnades
S. S. Beman
were balconies of generous size opening from the interior galleries, and affording excellent points from which to view the lagoon and the Grand Court. The four corners of the building were emphasized by square, plain towers, surmounted by ornate open-columned pavilions, circular in form and destined for electric lighting. The designer of this building was Solon S. Beman, of Chicago, an architect of wide reputation, and one of the Architectural Board of the Columbian Exposition. The architect of the Mines building made a judicious choice in his sculptor, for it is doubtful if a more appropriate decoration could have been conceived. Robert P. Bringhurst, of St. Louis, surpassed himself when he created the light-bearing figures which crowned and glorified the entablature of Beman's central dome.

THE LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING

As in the case of the Machinery building, the Liberal Arts building adhered to the French Renaissance school of architecture. It was located on the south side of the lagoon, near the Arch of the States. Its exterior presented the appearance of two stories, the first, or stylobate, being low in treatment, with small windows cut into a plain wall surface. The second story was enriched by Corinthian columns set in pairs, with ornamental windows between, and the roof was finished with an open balustrade, for airiness of effect. At each corner of the building were pavilions with ornate  

LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING
  pediments projecting from the main wall line sufficiently to give a strong corner treatment. Above the pediments were octagonal bases on which were set groups of statuary. Each group comprised four heroic figures, the main one personifying "Liberal Arts," being supported by two kneeling figures suggesting "Industrial Art," while in front of all was a small figure bearing a shield on which the attributes of pottery and wrought iron were inscribed. The class of exhibits for which the building was destined was indicated by the
Geo. L. Fisher
Harry Lawrie
ARCHITECTS LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING
statuary and ornament so freely used on the exterior. The general effect was quiet and dignified, and in strict harmony with its neighbors in the Grand Court.

The Liberal Arts building measured two hundred and forty-six feet in length by one hundred and thirty in depth. Its main entrances were on the east, west and north fronts. Its architects were Fisher and Lawrie, of Omaha. Its sculptor was Julius Loester, of New York.

THE ARCH OF THE STATES

This stately arch, one of the most noticeable structures of the Exposition, formed the Grand Entrance. It was joined on either side by curved exedras, partially embracing the plaza before the arch. These exedras contained the main ticket offices.

The arch itself was fifty feet wide by twenty-five deep, and measured sixty-eight feet to the top of its parapet. Strong, simple abutments on either side helped to support an extremely rich and broad frieze of a double arcade of twenty-four arches, containing shields decorated in color with the coats-   of-arms of the Trans-Mississippi States. The frieze was repeated on the other side of the arch, while upon the ends were displayed the coats-of-arms of the remaining States. Above the frieze was a band containing a panel inscribed "Arch of the States," and above that the decorated cornice with dentils and acroteria. The whole was surmounted by a high parapet, at the center of which on either side was a large shield with the arms of the United States, under a golden eagle, and upheld by youths bearing masts for the national colors.

It was expected that this arch should be "built of stone, to form a permanent memorial of the Exposition, and the future entrance to "Kountze Park," but this happy thought was not put into execution, and there now remains nothing to commemorate those scenes of beauty which Omaha is so proud to have achieved.

The Arch of the States was designed by Walker & Kimball. The sculpture employed in its decoration was the work of R. P. Bringhurst, of St. Louis.

Arch of the States

 

THE FINE ARTS BUILDING

One of the most beautiful buildings adorning the Court of Honor was the Fine Arts building. In shape it was a parallelogram,two hundred and forty-six feet long and one hundred and thirty wide, its long axis parallel to the lagoon. It consisted of two separate, symmetrical, domed buildings, united by a peristylium, or open court, surrounded by colonnades. These rested on a balustraded terrace, and were approached from the plaza by flights of steps, and also from the avenue bordering the canal, which lay north of the building.

Entrance, Fine Arts Building

One entered through the portico and vestibule to the rotunda, similar in each building, and lighted from the top, forming an admirable place for the effective display of statuary. Surrounding this central feature were the galleries, all lighted by skylight, and so planned as to afford the greatest amount of wall surface for the exhibition of pictures, and to allow for the proper circulation of visiting crowds. The two separate wings of the building offered a better opportunity for the classification of material, and at the same time brought the scale of the architecture to its proper relation with the surroundings and the general scheme of the grounds. The colonnade joining the two parts formed an effective feature, conspicuous from the canal and opposite avenue, and afforded a place for the installation of architectural fragments and models, which could not be so suitably disposed within the walls. A touch of landscape art lent additional interest to the treatment of this court.

 

FINE ARTS BUILDING FROM THE BRIDGE

 

In the exterior design a somewhat free rendering of classic motif was adopted, the usual severe simplicity of outline being modified sufficiently to bring it in accord with the purpose of the building. The basis of the design was the Corinthian order, which was used in two dimensions. the larger emphasizing the entrance porticoes and repeated on the gables fronting the canal and opposite side: the smaller was adjusted to the height of the flanking

William S. Eames
Thomas G. Young
walls and connecting peristyle, and served to bind the separate elements into one composition. The designers of the building were Messrs. Eames & Young, of St. Louis. William S. Eames has since twice been the President of the American Institute of Architects. To Eames & Young is owed the introduction of R. P. Bringhurst, of St. Louis, to the Exposition, and to Bringhurst is due the beautiful sculpture of the Fine Arts Building.

THE HORTICULTURAL BUILDING

The most important feature of the Bluff tract was the Horticulture building, those of the various States being attractively grouped around it. Destined for the display of flowers and fruits, it was naturally different in style and decoration from its companions, much latitude being permitted the architect. Its dimensions were one hundred and thirty by three hundred and ten feet, and from the ground to the top of its belfry, one hundred and sixty feet. The Ionic order was followed in its design, but unconventionally handled and with somewhat Oriental effect, the details of ornament being, of course, floral and horticultural in their source.

 

HORTICULTURE BUILDING

 

Towers, or minarets, of Eastern feeling, guarded the sides of an imposing main entrance, and were repeated on the other three sides, producing an octagonal form which terminated in the dome. Circular colonnades filled the space between these minarets and were further beautified by Statuary emblematic of the seasons. A balcony above the dome was used as an observatory, affording a magnificent view, not only of the whole Exposition, but of the surrounding country, the picturesque Missouri Valley, and even the city of Council Bluffs, five miles distant. A belfry surmounted this balcony. Octagonal roofed pavilions terminated the wings. Further decorative effect was furnished by a wide frieze of cupids holding high carnival among a profusion of fruits and flowers; and at either side of the entrance, set on the high stylobate, were

Chas. F. Beindorff
groups of statuary called "Night" and "Morning," intended to be festooned, one with morning-glories and the other with night-blooming cereus. The lavish decoration of the building with plants and vines of all varieties, urns and hanging baskets of flowers, added greatly to its charming effect. The architect was the late Charles F. Beindorff, of Omaha. The statuary employed was the work of Julius Loester, of New York.

THE TRANSPORTATION BUILDING

Called the "Transportation and Agricultural Implement Building," this was the largest of all the Exposition's great buildings, covering five acres. It was included in the North tract, or "farm group," and was characteristically built of half-timber and plaster. Its whole surface was marked off into picturesque panels by an intersecting network of framing timber. posts, brackets and braces. Deeply-recessed porches sheltered the east and west entrances, and wide, overhanging, bracketed cornices cast the broad shadows so effective and so necessary to this style of architecture. All parts of the interior were pervaded by a soft, amber light, most soothing to the tired eyes of sightseers, produced by the substitution of tinted translucent fabric for glass.

This building was designed by Walker & Kimball. It bore no sculpture.

 

THE DAIRY BUILDING

Like a relative of the Transportation building, a daughter, perhaps, was this very charming bit of half-timber and plaster work, small enough to make it possible to take it all in at once. One felt in the presence of a bit of the France of the Middle Ages-no, rather that of the Trianon-and was almost disappointed not to be met by Marie Antoinette, or at least one of her make- believe dairy maids. One was met, however, by just the contents that went with such a building; or rather, one should say that the building exactly fitted its purposes and the exhibit it housed. Warm, creamy-white walls. overlaid with old-burnt-sienna timbering-what could better suggest the butter and cream within? F. A. Henninger, of Omaha, was certainly at his best when, as architect, he wrought this little gem of the Exposition.

THE APIARY BUILDING

This building was a worthy mate for the Dairy building. adhering to its chief features with great fidelity. In minor details were introduced some characteristic suggestions of its purposes. Half-timber and plaster were the materials. John McDonald, of Omaha, was the architect.

MINOR BUILDINGS

The State buildings were picturesquely grouped on the Bluff tract, east of the main Court, and were of at least the usual merit.

Here were buildings for:

Nebraska—McDonald & Craddock, architects, Omaha and Lincoln. Iowa—Josselyn & Taylor, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Illinois—Wilson & Marshall, architects, Chicago. Minnesota—James Alan McLeod, architect, St. Paul. Kansas—John F. Stanton, architect, Topeka. Wisconsin—Ferry & Clas,architects, Milwaukee. Montana—Designed by Leo Bonet, of Chicago. Georgia—Designed by Dunnavant & Thompson, Omaha. New York—Dunham Wheeler, architect, New York.

There were on the Bluff tract many other interesting structures, mostly by private owners, such as the pavilions of Montgomery Ward, Chicago: Bemis Bag Co., Omaha; Liggett Myers Tobacco Co., of St. Louis; and the curious Nebraska sod house, and the Indian wigwam of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, and the Moorish and Chinese villages, and the Exposition's much-admired bandstand, designed, contracted, built and used all within nineteen days' time.

 

On the north were located the Press and Poultry buildings, the former by Architects Fisher & Lawrie; International Hall, by Architect J. J. Humphreys; and the power plant, warehouse, service, fire and police, and hospital buildings, and live-stock pavilion and sheds, with many minor kiosks and for various purposes, all by the Exposition's own architectural staff.

CONNECTING COLONNADES, ACCESSORIES, ETC.

In the designing of large and complex architectural compositions, the minor details, accessories, and connecting links have much to do with the ultimate success or failure of the whole. That in this particular the Trans-Mississippi Exposition was fortunate and the result strikingly successful is simple fact. To the connecting colonnades with their continuous lines of shade the Exposition visitor owed not only his physical comfort but his artistic satisfaction as well, for these same colonnades were the means of shutting out a triste and sordid background; without them it would have been impossible to forget for the moment even where we were, and that the whole was but a dream. To the forest-like repeat of these same column units was largely due the sense of scale, and particularly of distance, which gave to the Grand Court of the Trans-Mississippi the effect of being the most extensive and generous single group ever accomplished in an Exposition design. The fountains and vases, stairways and terraces, balustrades and standards, pedestals and pavilions, even the sanitary kiosks, all played their proper part in joining together, accenting, masking, or enhancing, which made of that grand Court the truly artistic whole that it was. The south viaduct and great restaurant with its double towers formed

Statuary and Colonnade
 
Groups of Statuary
a particularly important feature; for had it not to close one end of the vista? and did it not successfully balance the Government building itself at the opposite end? The north viaduct, connecting two sections of the so-called Midway, was a very pleasing bit of picturesque half-timber work, and combined an important practical function with an interesting bit of Exposition conceit. It was a bridge of concession-stands—a veritable Ponte Vecchio—except that it spanned Sherman Avenue and not the Arno. Messrs. Walker & Kimball, the architects-in-chief, contributed the designs for all of these accessory features. The most successful of the isolated bits of sculpture were furnished by Franz Engelsmann. The splendid figure of Neptune which surmounted the column of the Electric Fountain and so vividly reminded one of John of Bologna's masterpiece in far-away Italy, was by F. H. Wuertz, and was his last work, for he went down with the Bourgogne on his way back to Europe shortly after the Exposition opened.

ORGANIZATION

The architectural division of the Department of Buildings and Grounds was organized as follows; Walker & Kimball, Boston and Omaha, Architects-in-Chief Cass Gilbert, St. Paul; Eames & Young, St. Louis; S. S. Beman, Chicago; J. J. Humphreys, Denver; D. H. Perkins, Chicago; Fisher & Lawrie, Omaha, formed the Architectural Board. H. Weatherwax, of Chicago, was the chief draughtsman.

Unstinted praise is due to every one of the architects that formed that incomparable board, and to those other past masters of craft to whom the Exposition owed its landscape and illumination—Rudolph Ulrich, Luther Stieringer and Henry Rustin, all of whom have died, each leaving a vacancy yet unfilled. The group of sculptors—Bock, Bringhurst, Mettler, Engelsmann, Loester and Wuertz—who put the finishing touches of art upon the whole, proved their claim to the highest praise freely bestowed.

 

During the existence of the Trans-Mississippi Architectural office, March 19, 1897 to June 15, 1898, a period of 453 days, organization was effected, a board of architects assembled, a force of draughtsmen and assistants employed, the general plan or scheme evolved and perfected, a set of rules made for the guidance of all designers, general dimensions for all the buildings determined, a universal module established; focal points, cornice heights and other important factors in design fixed; with possibly one exception, the

Main Entrance, Fine Arts Building
actual construction drawings for all the important buildings were made; six of them, together with all of the accessories, including the lagoon itself, were designed and detailed as well. A careful supervision was given to the work of all the architects, the complete drawings and details of all the buildings, great and small, being passed upon with scrupulous care. All of the important buildings with one exception were specified in the Exposition's own architectural office, and, as a measure of economy, all the duplicating of drawings was accomplished there, too; to use a homely simile, the drawings and prints turned out by this department would have paved Farnam Street, Omaha,   from 42d to the river, and from building line to building line, while over a ton of specifications were produced. The site for each concession was determined, and the character of the structures themselves carefully considered. The problem of surface drainage was worked out in the architects' office, and there, too, was made the official map. The landscaping, illumination, decoration and sculpture were all collaborated with the architects-in-chief, and through it all a most voluminous correspondence was found necessary to bring together and harmonize all the widely separated elements. Besides all of these, the regular duties of the office, assistance was afforded to other departments whenever and however required. For "Exhibits" were furnished endless floor diagrams and space computations. F or "Ways and Means" and the official staff a medal was designed and countless estimates of cost made. For "Publicity" many excellent cuts were made from drawings produced by the architects' office, including that masterly general view for the use of which Harper's Weekly paid the Exposition management. The cost of equipping and maintaining this office during the entire period of its existence was $16,587.35, and included the salary of the architects-in-chief. This is a trifle over two and a half per cent upon the total cost of the work which came under its care. Much of this work related to departments apart from the architecture. The architects were called upon to plan the drainage system incident to the canal and basin as well as the general system of drainage; to plan, in a general way, the landscaping, which included bridges, kiosks, pavements and other constructive work not strictly belonging to the department of architecture. That the architects' office of the Exposition was an efficient agent in its work is shown by the fact that the unforeseen additions to contracts commonly called "extras" amounted to less than one-quarter of one per cent, and that over $100,000 of the amount authorized to be expended for buildings was not used. It is worthy of note that this was the first exposition in which piling was used for general foundations and for anchorage—a single item that saved over one-half the cost of the foundations. Cold-water paint and translucent fabric were both interesting novelties at this time, having been experimented with only at the Nashville show being held during our building period. A very valuable lesson in construction was taught by the use of a different type of truss for the main span of each of the great buildings. The 80-foot void was bridged in more than eight different ways, and without an appreciable difference in the cost.

It is interesting to note that Gilbert, Eames & Young, and Walker & Kimball of the Architectural Board have since all been similarly connected with the St. Louis World's Fair; and Gilbert, Walker, and Kimball were Roosevelt appointees on the National Council of Fine Arts; while to Weatherwax has   been entrusted the organization and operation of the draughting departments of every important exposition that has followed the Trans-Mississippi. Such was the working history of the office and staff which produced the Trans-Mississippi Exposition architecture. It certainly is not amiss to ascribe the success achieved to an unparalleled harmony among the workers themselves, and the complete subordination of self, without which no great architectural composition ever realized its possibilities.

ELECTRICAL ILLUMINATIONS

Imagine a great rectangle whose dimensions measure about 3,000 feet by 670 feet, with an almost continuous row of palaces, towers and colonnades along its outer lines, and with a canal 150 feet wide bisecting its long dimension. It was in a vast theater such as this that the electricians found a rare opportunity for displaying the art of illumination by means of thousands of incandescent bulbs. Never before had they attempted so bold a project without the aid of the arc lamp, and never before was there so great a triumph scored in an untried field. More than 20,000 eight and sixteen c.p. bulbs were used, outlining the principal architectural features of the buildings and placed in clusters on the tops of decorative.columns. This resulted in an illumination highly diffused, widely distributed and with no point of intense brilliancy. The pure white, untinted staff of the buildings and of the columns and colonnades gave a diffused reflection of the incandescent lighting, realizing higher artistic effects than was ever before attained in a large area illuminated artificially. The soft glow of the myriad of lights, somewhat resembling a moonlight, except for the absence of shadows, produced enchanting effects. The comparatively yellow light of the incandescent bulb reflected from the water in the canal gave a beautiful shimmer over the whole surface, enhancing the brilliancy of a scene of unrivalled splendor. A descriptive writer use these words: "The scene at night when the silence is broken only by the lapping of the waters and song of the gondolier and the hum of many voices; with the great buildings outlined by myriad electric lights; with bridges in graceful arches spanning the canal penciled with rows of brilliants; with Venetian boatmen gliding softly down the canal, and with strains of music faintly heard, was one never to be forgotten. The imagination falters in vain effort to picture anything more entrancing."

It was like a glimpse into fairyland. The salient points of architecture y of the Government building were made distinct by these electric starpoints. The heroic figure, "Liberty Enlightening the .World," surmounting the dome, wore a scintillating tiara, and the upheld torch illumined a wide area. Beneath the figure several lines of light girdled the lantern above the dome,  

GRAND COURT LOOKING NORTHWEST, NIGHT
  which was covered by streamers of light apparently held to their places by five-pointed stars on either side of the dormer windows. Another line of lights completely encircled the base of dome. Festoons of lights from the dome to the corner pavilions at either end of the main portion of the great building were most effective. Arising from the roof of the central portion of the building a series of Hambeaux supported on shafts of artistic design cast a radiance upon surrounding objects, the reflection of light upon the allegorical figures of the upper cornices and flanking the domes producing effects rarely attained.

A distinctive feature of the illuminations was the electrical fountain designated "Nautilus." In the center was a tall column on the top of which was seated the figure of Neptune. The fountain consisted of a large number of jets forming sprays, the whole being some 100 feet in length by about half that distance in width. The sprays were illuminated. by incandescent lights rising just above the surface of the water, surrounded by opalescent shades giving the effect of water lilies. Further illumination of the mirror was effected by searchlights placed on the colonnades, by means of which all colors of the rainbow were projected upon the sprays of the fountain.

Rising from the balustrade on the water's edge about the whole canal were standards painted white with pedestals and crowns carrying circlets of 16-candlepower incandescent lights. Back farther from the water front between the canal and the buildings were fluted Corinthian columns about ten feet high also carrying crowns of incandescent lights, which effected a pleasing illusion, magnifying the height of the buildings.

Every building was outlined with the glowing bulbs. Along cornice, around window, on pillar, dome and portico the gleaming firefly of the electrical world made radiant the view. On either side were defined the colonnades which connected the Government building with its sister buildings on right and left by pillars of light. The Fine Arts building riveted the attention with domes light-encircled, cornices ablaze, pillars and pilasters illuminated. Opposite, across the gently-rippling water-mirror, was the classical Agriculture building, presenting an opportunity for artistic incandescent decoration. The upper lines, including the balustrades and the imposing entrance and cornice towers, stood revealed by the numerous electric punctuation points. The Administration Arch showed its lofty spire outlined in symmetrical lines of light to the uppermost point. The Manufactures building had the prominent roof cornices, caps of columns, pedestals and other points of vantage emblazoned with incandescent lights. Across the canal the Arch of the States was girdled with bands of light, and the Liberal Arts building was vividly outlined along its cornices. The Mines and Mining building was especially adapted for this beautiful decoration and right  

Terrace Towers at Night
royally was it beribboned and festooned. Its graceful portico was clearly defined, the towers wore scintillating crowns, the windows shone as if revelry were within. Pacing this structure was the palace of Machinery and Electricity, with all effective points penciled in light. The east end of the Callal in front of the two buildings last mentioned in company with the adjacent terraces, kiosks, landing and broad viaduct leading away from it, was brilliantly lighted by incandescent lamps supported by fanciful standards of special design.

Descriptive writers of many leading newspapers confessed their inability to present upon the written page an adequate reproduction of the wonderful illuminations. A representative of Harper's Weekly visited the Exposition and wrote several letters about its manifold attractions. Of the night scene he said:

"The illumination of the grounds is admirable. I saw the city of Paris illuminated one night in honor of the return of President Faure from his successful mission to St. Petersburg, but there was nothing in the illumination of the French capital to be spoken of in the same breath with the display you   may see any night on the grounds of the Exposition. The Court of Honor, or whatever name you choose to give it, lies a half-mile along a rippling-waved lagoon, in its center, bearing many a picturesque gondola. The water reflects back the thousands of electric lights which define with beautiful distinctness the great buildings that border the lagoon. In the distance, rising in noble proportions, its splendid facade marked in soft lines of yellow light, the Government building stands silhouetted against the dark sky. All down the court on either side and here and there at short, irregular distances from the buildings, stand graceful Grecian pillars—upon their tops no flaming torches or glowing, smoking incense, but a knot of brilliant electric lights, symbolical rather of modern investigation than of ancient introspection than of ancient introspection. By day

Henry Rustin
these pillars are fine and interesting, whether singly or in vistas; by night they are peculiarly attractive-a note of rich beauty in the general harmony. From the western end of the court, looking toward the distant viaduct over one of the city streets, the view is scarcely less enchanting. The pillared corridors that connect the main buildings and afford such capital relief from rain or sun have their share of illumination. They join beyond the buildings in a graceful semicircle, or, as it is otherwise called, a hemicycle stairway, rising easily from the lagoon. Above this is a domed projection, under which the speakers stand on special occasions requiring oratorical display: and still above this two lofty minarets, each one bearing a graceful figure standing with sickle in hand, typical of the harvest. The effect of the illumination, looking either way from east to west or midway in the great canal, is very beautiful. Should you call it magnificent—indeed, superb—you would not misapply the words."

At the outstart plans for lighting the Exposition grounds were put into the hands of Luther Stieringer, a well known New York electrical expert, who soon turned over the work to the late Henry Rustin, of Omaha. To Mr. Rustin's creative genius was due all the credit for the marvelous results achieved.

 

GOVERNMENT BUILDING

 

GOVERNMENT BUILDING AND EXHIBITS

CHAPTER V

STANDING at the west end of the Court of Honor, the great architectural pile erected by the United States Government loomed up as one of the distinguishing features of a magnificent array of colossal buildings rarely equaled. The extreme length of the building was 504 feet, made up of three sections having a depth of 150 feet. The center section, 208 feet long, fronted upon the basin in which the lagoon terminated. The height of this main portion of the great structure to top of balustrade over cornice was 58 feet. Obviously, the main entrance to the building called for elaborate architectural effects upon the east side of this center section. The main portal was reached by a broad flight of steps, through a colonnade of beautiful, massive design. On either side of the entrance arose ornate pavilions, capped by richly decorated domes. The main building was surmounted by a colossal dome of great architectural beauty. towering far above other structures in the grounds. The dome was capped by an heroic figure representing "Liberty Enlightening the World," the torch being 178 feet above the pavement. Upon the pediments of the pavilions at either side of the main entrance, and just above the balustrade, were placed groups of statuary of highly artistic design, while at intervals along the balustrade for the entire length of the main section vari-colored flags fluttered from staffs set in ornate sockets.

From the base of either pavilion, in front of the building, there extended a double row of colonnades on either side of the three-lobed basin or lake to a junction with the Fine Arts building upon the south side of the lagoon and with the great Agriculture building on the north side. These colonnades, which greatly enhanced the architectural effects of the west end of the grounds, formed a covered way for visitors walking to and from the Government building. While this colonnade was not high, it obscured in a measure the end sections of the building, each of which having a frontage of 148 feet and a  

James Knox Taylor
Major Henry C. Ward
N. H. Michael
height of 44 feet to top of balustrade. The three sections made up a building 504 feet long, the largest and finest structure the Government had up to that time erected upon the grounds of an exposition. It was designed under direction of Charles E. Kemper, acting supervising architect of the U. S. Treasury Department, and was constructed under the direction of K. Taylor, supervising architect. It was designed in the classic style. the Tonic order being used. Happily placed in its relation to other great structures, it was easily the most impressive building on the Exposition grounds, fitly illustrating the dignity and power of the government for which it stood. In outline beautiful in the extreme by day, its massive proportions were penciled and defined at night by rows and festoons of electric lights, producing effects at once novel and charming, affording a source of constant delight to hundreds of thousands of visitors.

The government's exhibit was in perfect keeping with its great building. Over 46,000 feet of floor space was covered by these varied and highly interesting exhibits, through which the principal departments of Government were represented. Congress appropriated nearly a quarter of a million dollars to defray the cost of the building and the placing of the several exhibits, some of which being located on other parts of the grounds. A chronicle of the important facts concerning the Exposition of 1898, failing to give due prominence to the rare and comprehensive exhibits of the Government, could not be regarded as accurate and complete.

Entering through the main portal the visitor beheld an immense hall literally full of curious, rare and highly interesting objects in such great numbers as to be confusing in the first impression made upon. the mind. Upon the walls, flags and banners were used in the decoration of panel and frieze, producing most pleasing effects.

 

F. W. True

E. M. Stedman

Wm. V. Cox

First place was given to the exhibit of the State department, near the main entrance. An imprint of the great seal of the United States, framed and beautifully draped with flags. hung over the cases and pictures. There were medals from the heads of foreign governments to presidents of the United States commemorating great events; original proclamations of the presidents, handsomely engrossed; copies of laws enacted by Congress, showing the different forms used, one of which being signed by Gen. Charles Manderson when he was President pro tem. of the United States Senate. In another case were a sword and army belt used by Gen. George Washington. the belt being nearly worn out; a little writing desk upon which Thomas Jefferson wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence; a document conveying to the people of the United States the gratitude of the nobility of Russia for assistance rendered during the famine of 1892—which recalled the fact that Nebraska had contributed a train-load of corn to the starving peasants; in fact, most of the vast amount of grain received by them was sent from the Trans-Mississippi States. Another object of interest was a big silk American Hag, woven in one piece, made and paid for by the weavers of Lyons, France, to pay for which subscriptions were received from 25,000 persons. It was presented to the people of the United States as a token of the sympathy of the French tendered to America upon the death of Abraham Lincoln. There were autograph letters from eminent foreign statesmen, diplomats and men of note, including Robespierre, Barre, Carnot, Louis XV., Alexander I. of Russia, Jerome Bonaparte, Queen Victoria, Alexander III. of Russia, William I. of Germany, President Diaz of Mexico and the King of Siam. There were portraits of the successive secretaries of State; Andrew Jackson's sword; a statuette of Washington, and many other historic relics of great men.

 

The Treasury Department exhibit was placed next south of that of the State Department, nearly 4,200 square feet of floor space being used. The Bureau of the Mint, among other things, exhibited a coin press from the San Francisco mint which was operated almost daily by means of electric power. The souvenir Exposition medals were struck off by this machine, the operation being a constant source of intense interest to visitors who crowded about the guard railing. This was a novel, live exhibit, which contributed much to the success of the efforts of the Government's agents to attract and instruct the people. Another bureau exhibited treasury notes of various denominations in the shape of proof sheets illustrating the process of printing, also silver certificates, postage and revenue stamps; frames displaying canceled United States greenbacks and bonds; specimens of old State (wildcat) bank issues; Confederate States notes and bonds of different denominations; postal currency of a generation ago; a full set of coins of the United States from the foundation of the Government to the present time; a money-printing press in operation, together with many other objects suggestive of Uncle Sam's great money chest.

The War Department exhibit was located in the southeast corner of the building and occupied 4, 586 square feet of floor space, being installed under the direction of Major Henry C. Ward, Sixteenth United States Infantry, who represented officially the War Department. Five branches of the army were illustrated. The war with Spain broke out at a time inopportune for making this exhibit as extensive as it was intended to be, rendering impossible a display of some pieces of ordnance which otherwise would have been shown. Depicting the evolution of uniforms of officers and enlisted men from the Revolutionary War down to 1808, a series of lay figures were exhibited by the quartermaster's department, a few of which were as follows: Group of four officers of the Revolutionary army, 1776, in full-dress uniform, representing a brigadier-general, an adjutant-general and two field officers; also group of privates of same period; a Kentucky and a Maryland rifleman in uniforms peculiar to the State militia; uniforms of officers and privates of the War of 1812; also those of the Mexican War period, 1846; those of a colonel of cavalry, a private of infantry and a zouave of a Pennsylvania regiment, 1861-5 Civil War period; also numerous figures of officers and men of the Spanish-American War period. There was also the figure of a Puritan of 1620 represented as being on his way to church with a gun on his shoulder and Bible in hand. There were large cannon of late pattern. a Maxim rapid- firing gun, with projectiles and shells, together with a variety of infantry and cavalry equipment. An exhibit which attracted much attention was made up of relics of the war with Spain which were added soon after the surrender of the Spanish army and the fall of the city of Santiago de Cuba, July 17, 1898, as follows: The first Spanish trophy secured in Cuba, a regimental Spanish   flag captured at the battle of Juragasita, Cuba, on June 23, 1898, by Company N. Twenty-second United States infantry from Fort Crook, Nebraska, names of the men who made the capture being Corporal Nueman, Corporal Boyle and Privates Keyser, Cooley and Houghsalling; a large Spanish flag, taken from the converted cruiser, "Mexico," in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba, July 17, 1898; also Mauser rifles, old muzzle-loading cannon and the Santiago war balloon. The signal corps had an exhibit of instruments used by it in active service, and outside of the building the corps exhibit-war and

Model of Warship
signal balloons, military signaling and field telephone and telegraph apparatus. Signaling by balloons, flags and heliographs was given practical demonstration when weather permitted. In the main exhibit there were relics of the Greely Arctic expedition.

The navy department exhibit was in the northeast corner of the building. The chief feature was a display of models of warships, torpedo boats cruisers, battleships, etc., including and original model of the "Maine," which drew large crowds. There were models of perhaps a dozen modern war vessels of the navy, also models of the "Petrel," "Yorktown," "Katahdin," "Kearsarge," and half models of the "Constitution," the "Hartford," the "Independence"   and the "Ohio." There was also a full-size model of one of the military masts of war vessels with its rapid-firing guns and searchlight. The model of the battleship "Illinois" was used to illustrate a vessel in dry dock. The Bureau of Ordnance was represented by a 13-inch gun, a 6-pounder Hotchkiss, and other guns and mortars with shot and shells. There were anchors and signal flags. A most interesting exhibit was that of the Franklin life-buoy, an invention of the greatest value. A small rod is attached to each side of the buoy, the base of which contains a chemical solution that ignites at contact with the water. When the buoy is thrown overboard the chemical bursts into a continuous flame and the man overboard is able to locate it at once, no matter how high the sea may be rolling. The rods are held under water by their own weight, except one end which emits a cloud of smoke by day and becomes luminous at night. The "range-finder" was an exhibit which excited much curiosity. It is an invention of a United States naval officer. and its workings are unknown outside of our navy. With it a gunner quickly gets the range of the enemy's ships.

The exhibit of the Department of justice adjoined that of the navy, being largely in the nature of pictures of celebrated judges and attorneys-general; rare copies of legal books and blank forms giving an idea of the manner in which the business of the department is transacted; there were articles illustrating the prison system of the Federal Government. and many interesting manuscripts of a technical nature.

On the west side of the building, just north of the center, over 3,400 square feet of floor space was devoted to the exhibit of the pos-office department. There was a complete series of postage stamps with sets of foreign stamps. There were models of uniformed carriers, of mail steamers, of post-office cars, including the Helena and Bozeman stage coach of pioneer days. and a figure of an Indian mail carrier with three dogs hitched to his mail sledge. The dead-letter-division exhibit attracted attention and there were engravings, portraits and photographs illustrating the history and growth of the postal service. The stamp division exhibit was highly valuable and instructive, containing samples of postage stamps of successive issues since their introduction in 1847, down to the special issue commemorative of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 1808.

This special issue was regarded as one of the most important acts incident to government participation. The stamps were issued in denominations as follows: 1-cent, 2-cent, 4-cent, 5-cent, 8-cent, 10-cent, 50-cent, $1 and $2. They were larger than ordinary postage stamps, being about seven-eights of an inch in width by one and three-eighths inches long. The designs were unique, made up largely of a steel engraving of a scene indicative in some degree of the development of the great region between the Great Lakes and the Rocky Mountains. The border, which formed in its inner line an irregular   oval framework to each of the scenes illustrated, consisted of a fluted figure on either side, with interior crossbars, beginning in a single line near the bottom of the stamp and enlarging it until it reached a shield in each of the upper corners wherein was engraved in white the Arabic numeral indicating the denomination of the stamp, the dollar marks being included in the two stamps of highest value. At the top, connecting the two shields and united to the fluted framework on the two sides, was a curved tablet on which was engraved in small, white capitals, the words, "United States of America." Above this, on either side, were heads of wheat and between these was a small scroll. Below the engraving was the title of the picture in small, white Gothic letters on a curved tablet, and below this, on either side in scrolls, were the words indicating the value of the stamp. Above each of these was a projecting ear of corn, and. at the bottom of all on a straight black tablet were the words, "Postage, one cent." etc., in white capitals. The titles of the engraved pictures are as follows:

One-cent stamp—"Marquette on the Mississippi," from a painting by Lamprecht, now in possession of Marquette College, Milwaukee, Wis., representing Father Marquette in a boat on the Upper Mississippi, preaching to the Indians. Color, dark green.

Two-cent stamp—"Farming in the West," from a photograph representing a western grain field with a long row of plows at work. Color, copper red.

Four-cent stamp—"Indian Hunting Buffalo," reproduction of an engraving in schoolcraft; history of the Indian Tribes." Color, orange.

Five-cent stamp—"Fremont in Rocky Mountains," modified from a wood engraving representing the Pathfinder planting the United States Hag on the highest peak of the Rocky Mountains. Color, dark blue.

Eight-cent stamp—"Troops Guarding Train," representing a detachment of United States soldiers conveying an emigrant train across the prairies: from a drawing by Frederick Remington, permission to use which was kindly given by the publisher, R. H. Russell of New York. Color. dark blue.

Ten-cent stamp—"Hardships of Emigration," from a painting (kindly loaned by the artist, A. I. Heaton) representing an emigrant and his family on the plains in a "prairie schooner," one of the horses having fallen from exhaustion. Color, slate.

Fifty-cent stamp—"Western Mining Prospector," from a drawing by Frederiek Remington (permission to use which was kindly given by the publisher, R. H. Russell of New York) representing a prospector with pack mules in the mountains searching for gold. Color, olive.

Dollar stamp—"Western Cattle in Storm," representing a herd of cattle, preceded by the leader, seeking safety from a gathering storm; reproduced from a large steel engraving, having been kindly loaned by Mrs. C. D. Johnson. Color, light brown.

 

GOVERNMENT EXHIBITS

 

Two-dollar stamp—"Mississippi River Bridge," from an engraving; a representation of the great bridge over the Mississippi at St. Louis. Color, sapphire blue.

The entire series of these beautiful commemorative postage stamps was added to the collection of stamps in the exhibit, in the shape of large sheets bearing many stamps of on e denomination just as they were taken from the printing press. They attracted a great deal of attention. The total issue of these commemorative Exposition stamps approximated 325,000,000, the department issuing them to nearly every postoffice in the country. The stamps had far-reaching influence not only in advertising the Exposition, but in raising it in rank of importance to a plane of equality with former expositions which had enjoyed such recognition at the hands of Uncle Sam's Government. To Manager Rosewater, of the Department of Publicity and Promotion, was chiefly due the credit for tireless efforts to induce the Government to authorize this special issue of commemorative stamps.

The equipment division showed a complete collection of United States mail bags and pouches, a collection of foreign mail bags and pouches, and by models and otherwise contrasted old and new home and foreign postal uniforms, equipment and means of transporting the mails.

To the dead-letter division considerable space was devoted, and it made an interesting display of an immense variety of documents and articles which had failed of delivery for want of proper addresses. During the Civil War an immense number of photographs of soldiers reached the dead letter office and among a collection of some 3000 on exhibition with the above, Miss Gorman, daughter of Gorman, at that time assistant superintendent of the Omaha street railway, recognized her father, to whom it was sent on request and proved to be a picture he had mailed home when he was at the front with the Union army, a generation ago.

The mounted hide of Owney, the postal clerks' dog, was also among the exhibits. This dog had traveled in postal cars all over the United States and Europe, and visited China and Japan.

In addition to the various exhibits above mentioned, in a separate part of the building a working postoffice was in active operation during the period of the Exposition, through which much information was obtained by the public with reference to the receipt, dispatch and delivery of mails.

The exhibit of the department of the interior was placed near the center of the building, occupying 4067 square feet of floor space. Its many interesting features formed a constant attraction to visitors. Five departmental bureaus were represented—the Patent Office, the General Land Office, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Education. The Patent Office exhibited models and completed agricultural implements, sewing   machines, printing machinery, typewriters, and an infinite variety of other forms of mechanism, intended to show the progress of invention in the United States. There were 472 original models of patents. The General Land Office, among other things, exhibited a fac-simile of the first land patent ever issued to a citizen of Nebraska, which embraced an area of land within which the Exposition grounds had a place. The Bureau of Indian Affairs exhibited specimens of work done at the Indian schools by Indian boys and girls, showing their progress in gaining a working knowledge of the arts and trades. The Bureau of Education had an exhibit of pictures, maps and charts which demonstrated the degree of progress made by the young Indians along educational lines. The work of the Indian reservation schools was graphically illustrated.

The Geological Survey made a novel and highly interesting display of minerals, topographical maps, etc. There were rare geological specimens and illuminated photographic transparencies showing scenes in Yellowstone Park.

The exhibit of the department of agriculture was located in the southwest corner of the building, covering 4716 square feet. The various bureaus were adequately represented.

The weather bureau exhibited and operated automatic recording instruments and an attendant explained their workings, as well as the use and application of the other exhibits of the bureau.

The division of pomology furnished information concerning the appearance and varietal characteristics of important fruits by means of models; while a special feature of the exhibit was a collection of sun-dried and evaporated fruits of the United States illustrating the commercial grading and packing of such fruits for market. The division of entomology exhibited in groups such insects as attacked certain plants, confining the groups to such plants as are found in the Trans-Mississippi country. The division of chemistry devoted its space largely to illustrating the history, processes and products of the beet-sugar industry in the United States, with special reference to Nebraska and States west of the Great Lakes-a territory destined to produce more sugar than its population consumes. The bureau of animal industry exhibited models of vats for dipping sheep, etc., and a feature of attraction was the microscopic inspection of meat which was carried on daily by four assistant microscopists detailed from the force of the bureau at South Omaha. The division of botany demonstrated its work along lines of poisonous plants, and pure-seed investigations. The division of vegetable physiology and pathology by models, etc., illustrated the habits of growths and appearances of the different genera and species of wild edible and poisonous mushrooms. The division of forestry demonstrated by monograms the character, appearance, uses, etc., of trees; by models showed the devastation consequent upon   indiscriminate cutting of farm forest cover; and outside near the transportation and agricultural implement building made practical demonstration of forestry on a plat of ground set apart for that purpose.

A prime attraction was the extraordinary exhibit of the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum, located in the east central portion of the Government building, covering about 4000 square feet. Although the exhibit was an extensive one, covering a multitude of interesting things, no effort was made to gather together an exhaustive collection of specimens, the object sought being rather to make known the nature of the work carried on at Washington. The Smithsonian Institution proper was comprised in large part of pictures of the various secretaries of the Institution, medals, a cast of the bronze tablet which a short time before had been placed on the tomb of Smithson in Genoa, Italy; and in addition, for the first time was exhibited a photographic copy of the will of James Smithson, the generous Englishman to whom America is indebted for the famous institution. The Government had only recently secured this valuable memento, and the exhibit proved quite an acquisition to the collection.

The National Museum exhibit was an extensive one and intended to illustrate the leading facts of human effort and progress, which was accomplished by means of a series of articles and figures enclosed in glass cases. Among the subjects treated in these several groups of articles may be mentioned: tire-making and illumination; tools of general use; weapons; domestic art; the books; musical instruments; transportation, land and marine; electricity; while groups of figures in an interesting way illustrated the practice of primitive arts, such as drilling, skin dressing, pottery, metal working and weaving.

The division of biology displayed in a number of glass cases an interesting collection of mollusks, insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, etc. There were specimens of characteristic animals of the salt and fresh waters of North America, from the invertebrates to the highest type of birds and mammals. In like manner the divisions of geology and mineralogy made their exhibits of geological formation and various minerals.

The exhibit of fish and fisheries was perhaps the most interesting to a larger number of visitors of any other display made by the Government. To it 5142 square feet of floor space were allotted in the northeast corner of the building, of which 4000 square feet were occupied by an aquarium, which was a grotto-like structure 140 feet long by 26 feet wide. In each of the rotundas were large oval pools (25 in all) illuminated from below by electric lights. The methods employed in fish cultural work were practically demonstrated by the hatching in regulation troughs of rainbow and black-spotted trout, and grayling eggs. The process of taking eggs was represented by a lay figure   of a spawn-taker with Quinnat salmon in his hands in the act of stripping the eggs. The work of distribution was illustrated by photographs, drawings, and a working model of the Commissioner's car then recently constructed. The scientific functions and work of the commission were set forth by models and photographs of the exploring vessels "Albatross" and "Fish Hawk," by an assortment of dredges, nets, deep-sea sounding apparatus used. in making collections in fresh and salt water, and other exhibits. Owing to the excessive summer heat, the live salt-water fish exhibit was not a success, and during August was abandoned, fresh-water fish being substituted. There were two large pools in the center of the building devoted to gold fish and other water pets; also an interesting collection of models of vessels, appliances and apparatus for deep-sea sounding, along with the sponges, corals and deep-sea animals.

The life-saving service was represented by a crew of eight men. The exhibit occupied a separate building, and daily demonstrations were given in the lagoon of the manner in which rescues of drowning men were effected in cases of shipwreck. This exhibit proved to be one of the greatest attractions on the grounds. It was prepared by Lieut. McLellan, who arranged the drills for the crew. The coast survey and marine hospital was represented, and the light-house bureau had a highly interesting exhibit, including a revolving light 35 feet in height, weighing 14 tons, flashing every 10 seconds. There were models of light-house appliances.

The Government building and exhibit in some respects formed the greatest attraction on the Exposition grounds. The several departments were in charge of experienced and capable men, as follows: State department, Col. Wm. H. Michael; treasury department, Mr. Charles E. Kemper; war department, Major Henry C. Ward; department of justice, Hon. Frank Strong; post-office department, Hon. John B. Brownlow; navy department, Lieut.-Commander Edward M. Stedman; interior department, Hon. F. W. Clare; department of agriculture, Mr. Joseph H. Brigham; Smithsonian Institution and National Museum, Mr. Frederick W. True; fish and fisheries, Mr. W. de C. Ravenel.

THE SOUVENIR COINS AND MEDALS

When the plans for the Trans-Mississippi Exposition were in their infancy the question of a souvenir medal was broached and a most unique design was selected. It will be remembered that when the Cleopatra Needle (tall stone shaft) was transported from Egypt to America it was decided . to strike off a medal in commemoration of the event. The profile of Cleopatra was desired for one side, but no perfect profile could be found. Commander Goringe, the engineer who transported the Needle, gathered a large number of the mutilated Egyptian coins and had photographs made of a sufficient   number to secure a complete profile. It was then easy to make a die for the medal and commemorate the removal of the great obelisk.

The idea of composite photography was utilized in making the souvenir coins or medals of the Exposition. A corps of competent judges was appointed in each of the Trans-Mississippi States. They selected from the beautiful women within their several States two of the fairest, and photographs of these were sent to headquarters at Omaha. From here they were forwarded to an eminent artist in New York City, who made a composite picture of the forty-four beauties. The result, which ornamented one side of the souvenir coin, aptly illustrated the best and strongest type of Western womanhood. On the obverse side of the medal appeared an Indian in the act of spearing a buffalo. Riding his pony at full speed, he thrusts the blade into the beast. The two illustrations were indicative of the strides civilization and culture had made in the West in fifty years—1848-1898.

In addition to the souvenir medals, of which a large quantity was furnished, the Government had a number of gold, bronze and silver medals struck off as awards to exhibitors under the rules adopted by the Exposition management and printed on the back of each blank application that was sent out to the prospective exhibitors. These bore appropriate emblems and inscriptions, also commemorative of the Exposition, and a series was issued for each of the various departments into which the exhibits were divided.

The bronze medals issued to exhibitors as awards of merit were designed by A. J. Dockarty. This design was also used for the official seal of the corporation. The draped figure of a woman sitting in the foreground, with products of the farm lying before her, form the center of the picture, while in the background are seen the high factory buildings, railroad trains, mine and smelter, with the city in the dim distance.

During the Exposition season, when occasion demanded, souvenir badges of fanciful design were issued by the management, but most of the less pretentious badges and buttons were patterned after the design of the official seal.

Souvenir Coins

 

A GROUP OF STATE BUILDINGS

 

STATE BUILDINGS AND EXHIBITS

CHAPTER VI

OF the States participating in the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition there were thirty-one, nine having their own buildings, while the others had their exhibits on display in the main buildings of the Grand Court and other portions of the grounds. The State buildings were all upon the bluff, or east tract, artistically grouped about the Horticultural building, or along and facing the shady avenues, overlooking the Grand Court to the west and the Missouri river to the east. States represented with buildings were: Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Kansas, Wisconsin Montana, New York and Georgia. Other States making exhibits, but which did not have buildings of their own, were: Wyoming, Nevada, California, Arkansas, Alabama, Texas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, Idaho, Arizona, New Mexico, Indian Territory, Oregon, Colorado, Washington, Louisiana, Utah, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. Generally speaking, the buildings were for rest and comfort and for meeting places for the visitors from the respective States, though in some of them there were special and private exhibits, made by societies or loaned.

THE NEBRASKA BUILDING

The Exposition being held in Nebraska and in Omaha, the metropolis of the State, naturally made the Nebraska building one of the centers of interest. From the opening until the closing day of the Exposition it housed great throngs of people and was visited by the millions who were on the grounds. Funds for the construction of the building and its maintenance were appropriated by the State, the total amount being $100,000, though of course a portion of this went to pay for gathering, installing and caring for the State p exhibits shown in the other buildings on the grounds. At Lincoln, Neb.,   January 13, 1897, Dudley Smith, a representative from Douglas County, introduced in the lower house of the Legislature, then in session, a bill providing for the appropriation of $350,000 to be used in the construction of a State building on the grounds, its maintenance and the gathering of samples of the resources of the State. It also provided for a commission and the fixing of the compensation of the members. On that day the bill was read. The following day it had its second reading and was referred to the Committee on Ways and

NEBRASKA BUILDING
Means. From the start the bill met with considerable opposition in the Legislature. When it came up on second reading, it was made the special order for the following Tuesday. At that meeting of the Legislature, Representative Charles Wooster, of Merrick County, who had been selected to lead the or opposition, contended that the Exposition was intended to be purely an Omaha affair; that the people of Nebraska were opposed to the Exposition idea, that an Exposition would be a damage rather than a benefit to the State, because it would exhaust the funds needed for other purposes and because in attending it the people would spend money that they would later need for necessities;   that it would be a bad advertisement for the State, as it would show to the world a disposition to waste money instead of husbanding it to pay off State debts; that the State treasury was empty, taxes too high and property depreciating in value; because all of the directors had refused to adopt a resolution demanded by organized labor, and lastly because it was "a scheme gotten up by and for the benefit of Omaha bankers." The contentions were combated by G. W. Wattles, President of the Exposition, and by G. M. Hitchcock, then Chief of the Bureau of Promotion, both of whom had been invited to appear at the joint session and enlighten the members upon the scope and purpose of the proposed Exposition. February 19 an attempt was made to advance the bill and get it to the head of the general file, but it was defeated by a vote of 55 to 38, sixty-seven votes in the affirmative being required. Representative Windslow, of Gosper County, offered an amendment to defer further action until after the passage of the appropriation bills. This was defeated by a vote of 57 to 36. The matter hung in the balance until February 23, when, in committee of the whole, the bill came up for discussion. The original bill was read, after which Speaker Gaffin offered a substitute, cutting the appropriation from $350,000 to $200,000 and making some minor changes in the method of handling and disposing of the money. Windslow moved that the original bill and the substitute be reported back to the House with recommendations that the whole matter be indefinitely postponed. This was seconded by Jenkins, of Jefferson County, but on a vote was defeated. After an all-night session, at an early hour in the morning, the bill was amended by making the appropriation $100,000, no portion to be available until at least $250,000 had been paid in by the Omaha stockholders, this amendment having been made by Billings of Keya Paha County. March 5 the bill passed the House by a vote of 70 to 20, and on March 12 it got to the Senate, where Murphy, of Gage County, offered an amendment, increasing the appropriation from $100,000 to $150,000. At the same session Canaday, of Kearney County, offered an amendment to reduce the appropriation to $ 50,000. The following day, when the bill came up, the Murphy and Canaday amendments were rejected and the bill appropriating $100,000 passed by a vote of 25 to 4. It was then hurried back to the House in order that that body might concur in some slight and unimportant amendments made by the Senate. There the bill was held for several days, after which the amendments were concurred in, and on March 25 it was approved by Governor Silas A. Holcomb. Under the provisions of the bill the Governor was authorized to appoint a State Board of Exposition Commissioners, one from each Congressional district. This he did, naming H. M. Boydston, Nebraska City, first district; Martin Dunham, Omaha, second district; W, A. Poynter, Albion, third district; C. D. Casper, David City, fourth   district; W. M. Dutton, Hastings, fifth district, and William Neville, North Platte, sixth district. May 29 the Commission met informally in Omaha and agreed upon William Neville as president. A
William Neville
few days later Martin Dunham resigned and C. A. Whitford, of Arlington, was appointed to fill the vacancy. July 10 the Commission met in Omaha and organized by electing William Neville, president, and C. D. Casper, secretary. Wednesday, July 28, the Commission held its architects of the State to submit plans for a Nebraska building. August 10 plans were submitted and examined, and two days later those of H. Craddock, Lincoln, and John McDonald, Omaha, working jointly, were accepted. These plans provided for the construction of a building along the lines of the one subsequently erected on the Bluff tract, the site for which was selected August 26. The cost of the building was about $22,000, most of the work being done by day labor, only Nebraska men being employed. From an architectural point of view the Nebraska building possessed a distinctive character. It was of classic style, closely following the Ionic order, with unconventional detail. There were two grand entrances, emphasized by pediments, embellished with statuary and the great seal of the State. The dimensions were 90x145 feet.
J. H. Craddock, Architect
Nebraska Building
The central dome was a striking feature, being sixty feet in diameter, octagonal in form and rising to a height of eighty-five feet from the floor. Beneath this dome and occupying the central portion of the lower floor was the great assembly room, 60x100 feet, in the center of which was a large fountain filled with aquatic plants of Nebraska growth and origin. Off the assembly room on all sides were smaller rooms, which were used for parlors, rest rooms, offices and for the convenience of the societies of the State, as well as headquarters for the States that did not have buildings of their own on the grounds. The second story had a gallery running entirely around under the dome and overlooking the assembly room. On the sides of the building, in the rear of the gallery, were fourteen large rooms for offices. Over each of the   entrances to the building and opening from the gallery, were open balconies for the use of the public, while above these and reached by stairways from the main gallery, were band galleries. These stairways also led to the roof, where a promenade was provided. At each corner of the central portion of the building were small pavilions rising from the roof. Wings extended on two sides of the central portion of the building, each wing being forty feet in length. The wings had flat roofs, the cornice being thirty-two feet from the ground and surmounted by a balustrade with masts for pennants. Although not designed as a place for exhibits, the building contained a large collective exhibit by the Nebraska Historical Society and another most interesting exhibit by the Daughters of the American Revolution, besides several educational exhibits, made by schools of the State. The dedicatory exercises occurred June 14. The events of the occasion are described in another chapter.

MINNESOTA

On the Exposition grounds Minnesota reared a structure that was at once unique and creditable to the State. It occupied a position on the Bluff tract just to the south of the Nebraska building, and faced the west. Unlike other buildings, the one erected by Minnesota was typical of life in the pine forests of the North, having been constructed entirely of pine logs in their natural condition, shipped here from the pineries to the north of St. Paul and Minneapolis. The Legislature of Minnesota failed to make an appropriation for the erection

Gov. D. M. Clough
of a building at the Exposition, but the enterprising citizens of the State, seeing the necessity of being represented, called the matter to the attention of Governor Clough, who appointed the following commission: J. L. Gibbs, Geneva; Frank H. Peavey, J. M. Anderson, E. L. Danforth, E. G. Patter, J. H. Seymour, C. W. Fields, Minneapolis; W. D. Kirk, T. L. Schurmeier, G. L. Finch, W. J. Footner, R. A. Schurmeier, Conde Hamlin, Charles P. Noyes, St. Paul; E. Pheeps, W. W. Heffeltinger, L. C. Prior, F. R. Salisburg, Newton Nind, F. B. Dougherty. C. H. Graves, A. D. Thompson, J. L. Greatsinger, Charles Duncan, W. Olcott, Duluth; V. Simpson, F. A. Gratside, W H. Garlock, Winona; T. Stebbins, Rochester; Hudson Wilson, Faribault; John H. Rice, Red Wiing; N. S. Gordon, Austin; O. H. Myron, Ada; E. G. Valentine, Breckenridge; M. H. Leland. Wells; E. Adams, Fergus Falls; George   Piervis, Crookston; John L. Bernard, Pipestone; George T. Barr, Mankato. This commission was clothed with power to devise ways and means for raising money and making a State exhibit. At the first meeting of the commission John L. Gibbs was elected president; R. A. Kirk, vice-president; W. D. Kirk, treasurer, and E. L. Danforth, secretary. It was decided to have a State building, and the work of securing subscriptions was taken up. With the implied understanding that the next Legislature would reimburse them, prominent men of the State signed notes for $30,000.
Minnesota Building
These notes were taken by the St. Paul and Minneapolis banks, and the question of finance was disposed of. How to build was the problem, but Commissioner Nind came to the rescue and suggested a log house, typical of and representing life in the forests. The idea was adopted, and McLeod & Lamoreaux, architects, of Minneapolis, were employed to work out the plans. Everything used in the construction of the building except the hardware and the glass was the product of Minnesota.

The Minnesota building was 60x70 feet, two stories high. Running entirely around were two balconies, one at each story. They were twenty feet wide and faced with a railing two and one-half feet high. All of the   material was donated, the logs and lumber by the pinery and mill men and the stone by the owners of the quarries of the State. The logs were as straight as arrows, twelve to fourteen inches in diameter, notched at the ends, so that when in place they lay close together. The hip roof was extended with eaves and cornices six feet wide. On the first floor of the building there were three large rooms. The one first entered was a large reception room, supplied with plenty of easy chairs and settees, while upon the floor were numerous soft and rich rugs. To the right was the parlor, a large room in which there were many easy chairs and the other necessaries lending comfort and enjoyment. The feature of the building was the men's room to the north. It was fitted and furnished to represent life in a logging camp and was in striking contrast with the other rooms on the main floor. On the north wall there was a large fireplace constructed of Mankato stone, while above and around it hung guns, powder-horns and all of the necessaries used by hunters. Upon the walls were skins and furs of animals of Minnesota. There were deer, moose, elk and antelope heads, all mounted, and also the head of a large buffalo. Instead of easy chairs, there were pine benches, rough pine tables, and in the primitive cupboard on the wall were dishes such as the lumberman would use in serving a bachelor meal. The main stairway to the second floor was from the reception room. At the first landing there was a memorial window, the handiwork or Miss Graves, of Minneapolis. The central piece was an Indian clothed in raiment of bright colors. He appeared to be resting from the fatigue of the chase and looking out over the surrounding country, observing the encroachments of the white men. Smaller windows at either side bore the representation of the coat-of-arms and the seal of the State. At the landing the stairs divided and turned to the right and left, reaching the second floor, on which was a large reception room and rooms for the officers in charge of the building. On this floor there were many easy chairs and sofas, making it an ideal resting place. Around the balcony there were scores of porch chairs of rustic construction, placed for the exclusive use of the guests. The building was dedicated with appropriate exercises July 20, large delegations from Minnesota being present. The exhibits of Minnesota were in the Mines and Mining building, the Agricultural, the Manufactures and the Dairy, the State occupying 1000 square feet of space, showing iron and copper ores, grains of all kinds, lumber and the products of the agricultural rest, grasses, manufactured goods, and dairy output, respectively. In the Dairy building, Minnesota made seventy-four exhibits, the largest number of any State represented at the Exposition. In the Apiary building the State occupied an unusual amount of space.

 

IOWA

The Iowa State building was located on the west side of the Bluff tract facing an open court and almost directly west of the Nebraska building. The money for construction,maintenance and for making the State exhibit, $35,000, was appropriated by the Legislature. The main part of the building was two stories high and 56x90 feet, while on either side was an elliptical porch, feet wide and 270 feet long. This porch, or rather the two porches, ended in enlarged octagonal pavilions 33 feet in diameter. The roof of the porches was supported by Corinthian columns and the style of architecture of the building was known as composite. While Iowa had large and comprehensive exhibits in the main buildings of the Exposition, some private collections, school work and the exhibits of societies were shown in the State building. The main central portion of the lower floor was set aside for a reception room and a place for the congregating of Iowa people and their friends. The offices were to the south and the parlors to the north. On the second floor, reached by a broad stairway, were a number of private rooms for the convenience of the officials and their guests. There were also

S. H. Mallory
a couple of rooms on this floor where the handiwork of Iowa artists was shown. The large covered porches were supplied with easy chairs and settees, furnishing a comfortable resting place for Exposition visitors. On the lawns front and on the sides of the building considerable attention was paid to flower culture. The commission having charge of the Iowa work was composed of S. H. Mallory, president, Chariton; S. H. Packard, Marshalltown; John H. Waubank, Mount Pleasant; S. D. Cook, Davenport; I. E. E. Markley, Mason City; R. H. Moore, Ottumwa; Allen Dawson, Des Moines; S. H. Mallory George E. McCoid, treasurer, Logan; Owen Lovejoy, Jefferson; A. W. Erwin, Sioux City ; F. N. Chase, secretary, Cedar Falls. The agricultural and horticultural exhibits of Iowa were considered among the best at the Exposition and were among the largest. Being close to Omaha, growers of grain and fruit contributed frequently and abundantly. Besides this, the members of the commission were constantly on the alert to secure and exhibit the best products that could be found in the State.

Iowa was the first State to make an appropriation for the Exposition. As early as March, 1896, its General Assembly passed a bill appropriating ten thousand dollars, which Governor Francis M. Drake approved the following   month. The bill provided that the executive council of the State, consisting of Governor Drake, Auditor C. G. McCarthy, Treasurer John Herriott and Secretary of State George L. Dobson, should appoint a commission to prepare an Iowa exhibit as soon as the National Government recognized the enterprise. The commission was selected soon latter Congress took action, and it met in May 1897, at the call of the Governor, and organized as follows: ex-State Senator S. H. Mallory, a prominent Chariton banker and railroad contractor,

Iowa Building
who was made chairman of the Iowa Commission of the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, president; Allen Dawson, editor of the Des Moines Leader, vice-president; George W. McCoid, an extensive farmer and stock breeder at Logan, treasurer, and Frank N. Chase, of Cedar Falls, secretary. Mr. Chase had been a member of the State Board of Agriculture for twenty-six years and was the secretary of the Iowa Commission at the Columbian Exposition. He was also in charge of Iowa's agricultural display at the New Orleans Exposition in 1884, and the next year was sent by Governor Sherman at Iowa's representation to the "Three Americas'" Exposition at New Orleans, At Atlanta he was the special agent of his State. To Mr. Chase the commis-   sion turned over the general superintendency of the agricultural, horticultural and dairy exhibits at Omaha, but as his onerous position necessitated his entire personal attention and allowed no time to attend the meetings of the commission, Captain John H. Merry, assistant general passenger agent for Iowa of the Illinois Central Railway, was appointed on the commission from Mr. Chase's district, and to him was turned over the transportation branch of the commission's work., The executive committee of the commission was composed of Hon. S. B. Packard, formerly Governor of Louisiana; S. D. Cook, of the Davenport Republican, and R. H. Moore, of the Ottumwa Democrat. The remainder of the commission was appointed an auditing committee, namely: John H. Wallbank, Mount Pleasant; E. E. Markley, Mason City; Owen Lovejoy, Jefferson, and A. W. Erwin, Sioux City.

H. S. Josselyn

E. H. Taylor

ARCHITECTS IOWA BUILDING

The commission and Secretary Chase set to work immediately to see what could be done to give Iowa the showing due. It was felt that not much could be accomplished with so small an appropriation as $10,000, and an agitation was started looking to an additional appropriation by the next Legislature. At the suggestion of the department of promotion of the Exposition, members of the Iowa commission visited Omaha in person, returning elated over the prospects of the Exposition. They found everything far beyond what they had been expecting, and they so reported to the executive council. A schedule of what Iowa should have at Omaha was formulated by the commission and submitted to the executive council, the estimates given amounting to $57,000. It was hoped that when the next Legislature convened it would appropriate $25,000 additional at least. Among the things the commission had in view was a fine building for the State's exclusive use,   together with a complete exhibit of the agricultural, horticultural and dairy resources of the State for the general buildings of the Exposition. In due time a bill for a second appropriation of $35,000 was passed, but not until after about one hundred members of the Legislature had visited Omaha and had seen for themselves what was being done.

COUNCIL BLUFFS AND POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY

In a large wigwam was placed the exhibit of Pottawattamie County. It was eighty-three feet high and was surmounted by a thirty-foot flag-staff, from which "Old Glory" proudly waved day and night, rain or shine, during the Exposition. It was one hundred and eighty feet in circumference and contained four stories, which were reached from the center of the building by a handsome wide stairway. The windows were builtin imitation of the openings peculiar to the red man's tepee, and the entire building was covered with heavy ducking painted to represent the skins of which the Indians of the plains were wont to construct their abiding places. The first floor was devoted to exhibits, the second to the fruit and horticultural display of Pottawattamie County, the third reserved as a parlor and waiting rooms for the women and children, and the fourth was a smoking room for the men, and from this floor, which was plentifully supplied with windows, a magnificent view of the entire Exposition could be obtained. The idea of the wigwam was conceived and carried into successful execution, in spite of what appeared at first to be insurmountable obstacles, by the Council Bluffs Exposition Association. This association was the outcome of a mass meeting held in July, 1897, in the City Hall of Council Bluffs, for the purpose of forming an organization to arrange for a representative exhibit of the products and resources of Pottawattamie County at the Exposition. On August 12, 1897, the association was formed and an executive committee of fifty representative citizens chosen by a popular vote to carry out the purposes of the organization. The idea of Pottawattamie County having a building of its own at the Exposition was suggested and met with approval. To Victor E. Bender, one of the executive committee, belongs the credit of the idea of the wigwam, or large Indian tepee, as it was he who conceived and suggested the appropriateness of such a structure, as Council Bluffs derived its name from the fact that it was the seat of councils A between the Indians when they were the only inhabitants of the country little more than half a century previous. The funds to erect the building were secured by popular subscription, aided by a donation of $2,000 from the county fund by the.Board of County Supervisors. In all, about three thousand dollars were collected by subscriptions from the citizens and business men of   Council Bluffs. In addition, about five thousand dollars were raised by selling wigwam buttons. The officers of the Council Bluffs Exposition Association were: President, A. C. Graham; vice-president, Dr. T. H. Cleaver; secretary, C. H. Judson; treasurer, E. W. Hart.

KANSAS

The Kansas building, directly south of the Nebraska building, was erected at a cost of $18,000. In securing money to erect the building and make the exhibit, three of the railroads agreed to subscribe $5,000 each. providing the citizens of the State would subscribe ·a like sum. This offer was accepted and gave Kansas $30,000 for exposition purposes. The site for the building was selected April 7, work of construction commenced May 1. and on June 22 the structure was dedicated. Like all of the State buildings. except those of Minnesota and Montana, it was covered with staff. The architectural idea followed the old California mission style to quite an extent. The central or main portion was two stories high, with a one-story addition to- the south. On the east, north and west sides an arched and deeply recessed balcony was constructed. Around the front of the balcony was an ornamental railing, the space between this and the upper story of the main building being used for a promenade. The size of the building, over all, was 55x57 feet. The main room of the lower floor was 32 feet square and was used for rest, comfort and

Gov. George W. Glick
John E. Frost
reception purposes. Opening from this were offices, cloak and private rooms. The walls of the assembly rooms were hung with oil paintings, showing Kansas farm and commercial scenes. The second floor was reached by a broad   and easy stairway. On this floor the central portion was an arcade, extending from the lower floor to the roof. Opening from this were several rooms where exhibits were shown. They consisted chiefly of work in the public schools of
John F. Stanton
C. A. Fellows
the State; maps of different counties, showing the products, yield and value. There was also a large collective exhibit of photographs portraying life on the Kansas farms and in the rural districts. Kansas did not attempt to demonstrate in its own building the resources of the State, but for this purpose in the Mines and Mining building, it occupied 960 square feet; in the Agricultural building, 720 square feet; in the Liberal Arts building 640 square feet and in the Horticultural building, 378 square feet. The commission that had charge of the interests of Kansas and was instrumental in having the State represented at Omaha consisted of: George W. Glick, president, Atchison; A. H. Grief, secretary, Pittsburgh; A. W. Smith, McPherson; John E. Frost, Topeka, and A. C. Lamb, Wellington.

Kansas State Building

 

MONTANA

The Montana building was a two-story plain structure, 60x75 feet, and constructed of wood. The building was located on the west side of the Bluff tract, just south of the main wagon gate. The contract for construction was awarded February 27, 1898. It was completed June 10, and dedicated June 29. A small tower surmounted the northeast corner. The lower floor was divided into offices and parlors, with a large reception room just to the left of the entrance. The upper story was reached by a stairway leading up from the reception room. The upper floor was cut up into offices and sleeping rooms, which were occupied by the officials in charge. The furnishings were all costly and in keeping with the building. In many respects the building resembled a well-appointed club house. The decorations were mostly loaned by the millionaire mine owners of the State and consisted of magnificent paintings, mounted heads of buffalo, elk and moose, besides a number of mounted animals, such as deer, antelope, mountain sheep and a large collection of birds of the State. The Legislature of Montana appropriated $15,000 that the State might participate in the Exposition, and Marcus

W. H. Sutherlin
Daly gave a like sum, which was placed under the control of the commission, consisting of the W. H. Sutherlin, president; A. J. Seligman, Helena; Marcus Daly, Anaconda;
Montana Building
  A. L. Babcock, Billings; W. G. Conrad, Great Falls; W. A. Clarke, Butte; J. R. Latimer, Missoula; W. W. Morris, Piny. Besides having a State building, Montana occupied 2,000 square feet in the Mines and Mining building, 1,000 square feet in the Agricultural building and 1,000 square feet in the Liberal Arts building.

NEW YORK

The New York building occupied a location to the east of Horticulture Hall, and was one of the most artistic of the State structures. It cost about $15,000, the money for its erection and maintenance having been provided

New York stare Building
for by contributions. It was in charge of Major Wheeler, a representative of the State commission, which was composed of Chauncey M. Depew, John Jacob Astor, W. Seward Webb, Henry B. Herbert, Abel E. Blackman, New York; Charles N. Stowe, Deposit; Jacob Amos, Syracuse; John G. Graves, Buffalo. It was dedicated October 8 upon which occasion a special train brought prominent citizens from all over the State, members of the New York Board of Trade, Produce Exchange and Merchants' Association. The State building presented the appearance of a two-story center, or main portion, but was in reality an immense room, with a balcony around the second floor from which opened some small rooms. The wings on the sides were one story. and contained rooms for the officers. The center room under the dome was for reception purposes and for rest. The floor was covered with matting and rugs. Easy chairs and couches were scattered about, giving the whole interior a rich and restful appearance. Around three sides of the building was a broad portico supported by Corinthian columns, while on top, the front protected by a balustrade, was a promenade. The style of the building was of the classic order.

 

GEORGIA

Although there was no public appropriation of funds for Exposition purposes, Georgia had one of the most complete and comprehensive exhibits on the grounds. It was shown in the Georgia State building on the Bluff tract, immediately west of the Horticulture building. Funds for the construction of the building, $10,000, and for the collection and maintenance of the

Gov. W. J. Northen
exhibit were contributed by the citizens and corporations of the State, interest being worked up by the commission, composed of W. J. Northen, president; E. F, Blodgett, secretary; George C. Smith, C. E. Harman, F. H. Richiardson, J. s. B. Thompson, Governor W. Y. Atkinson, Atlanta; J. F. Delsacy, Eastman; Edwin Brobston, Brunswick; W. A. Knowles. Rome; Thomas K. Scott, Augusta; George Ketchum, J. F. Hanson, Macon; H. M. Conner, P. A. Stovall, Savannah, The Georgia building was of staff construction, square, two stories high and surmounted by a dome of the Byzantine order, adding greatly to its appearance. The front elevation was massive, jutting out some distance from the main structure, thus forming a deeply recessed entrance on the first and a large covered balcony on the second floor, which was ornamented with a balustrade and large fluted columns on either side. The wings A to the north and south of the central portion of the building set back some six feet from the front, this space being converted into porticoes used for resting places. During the Exposition the building was in charge of W. J. Northen, a former Governor and an old resident of the State, one of the men who was instrumental in having Georgia represented. The lower floor of the building was entirely taken up by the lumber, mineral and stone exhibit, which was complete, almost every kind of known building material and minerals being shown. On the second floor the agricultural and horticultural resources of the State were shown. Cotton was one of the chief exhibits, it being displayed in many and varied forms. There was the seed, the meal, oil, cake, the growing plant in bloom and ready for the pickers; it was seen in bales from the compress and manufactured into the coarsest and finest cloths. Besides this, there was an extensive exhibit of fruits. both canned and dried. There were grains, such as corn, wheat, oats, rye and barley in the sheaf and the berry in glass jars. Fertilizers that are products of the State were shown in profusion. The educational exhibit was extensive, giving  
Georgia Building
an idea of what the State has done in the way of educating its young people, both white and colored. The offices of President Northen and his assistants, located on the second floor, were always open, and the public was cordially welcomed.

WISCONSIN

The Wisconsin building was considered one of the most beautiful State buildings on the Bluff Tract. It was erected at a cost of $15,000, the money being raised by contributions, as the State did not make an appropriation. The style of architecture was classic and was most pleasing. The entrance was reached by nine broad steps, which placed the structure considerably above the street level. The architraye of the pediment was supported by four immense fluted Corinthian columns, which formed the main entrance. The angles of the building were flanked on either side by pilasters of the Corinthian order, which on the side walls were doubled. Beneath the cornice and extending along the wall between the inner pilasters, with a depth of five to six feet. was a frescoed frieze, showing some of the more important features of the State's history. Nearly the entire interior was embraced. in one large space open in the center to the roof and lighted through a dome. There was a   balcony on the second floor which commanded a view of the main floor. Back of this were several rooms for offices, where a number of private art collections were shown.

August Uihlein

On the first or main floor, on either side of the central court, were public comfort and rest rooms. In the grand central rotunda under the dome, potted and spreading foliage plants abounded in great profusion, arranged about a fountain, which constantly threw a spray of pure, clear water over and among them. The furnishings of the room were very luxurious, a grand piano making the interior inviting and a popular place for rest and assembly. The building was dedicated June 18. The members of the commission who raised the money that made it possible for Wisconsin to be represented at the Exposition were: John C. Koch, president; Walter W. Pollock, secretary; Mrs. Caroline Bell, August Uihlein, John E. Hansen, A. C. Clas, J. A. Watrous, Ferdinand Kieckhefer, Mrs. Caroline H. Bell, W. W.

Wisconsin Building
  Pollock, Milwaukee; H. D. Fisher, Florence; W. E. Carpenter. Waupaca, Ernest Funk, Mrs. T. B. Goodrich, Oconto; Mrs. Angus Cameron, La Crosse; Mrs. Leonard Lottridge, West Salem; Mrs. John Winans, Janesville; Miss Ella Roberts, Waukesha; E. E. Bryant, R. G. Thwaites, Madison; John
A. C. Clas
Geo. B. Ferry
ARCHITECTS WISCONSIN BUILDING
Hicks, Oshkosh; Walter Alexander, Wausau; W. T. Lewis, Racine; Isaac Stephenson, Marinette; H. Stout, Menomonie; J. B. Treat, Monroe; Charles H. Baxter, Lancaster; Thomas M. Blackstock, F. A. Dennett, Sheboygan.

ILLINOIS

Next to Nebraska, the appropriation of Illinois for Exposition purposes was the largest of any of the States participating, its contribution being $45,000, of which over $5,000 remained unexpended. Illinois was one of the first States. to become interested in the Exposition. It started early, and as a result, its building was completed and ready for occupancy on June 1, the opening day of the Exposition, although it was not dedicated until June 21. The building was one of the most artistic on the Bluff tract and cost, when furnished, $22,500. The style of architecture was of the Greek and Byzantine, the whole tending toward the Colonial, The main portion was two stories high, 66x136 feet, crowned with a large dome or tower, the opening in the interior extending from the floor to the roof of the dome. This dome was supported by a number of immense columns. The main central portion of the lower floor was a reception room, furnished with rich and costly furniture, and at all of the openings were hung fine draperies. To the south of the reception room were large parlors, elegantly furnished. To the north were   the private offices of Colonel Hambleton, secretary of the commission, officer in charge, and private reception and rest rooms. On the second floor were a number of rest rooms and private rooms for the officials. In the annex and connected by a colonnade, were exhibited the famous World's Fair pictures, painted by John R. Key. The Legislature of Illinois in 1896-7 made an appropriation that the State might participate in the Trans-Mississippi Exposition and subsequently Governor John R. Tanner named a commission as follows: James Block, Carthage; W. B. Brinton, LaSalle; Clark E. Carr, Galesburg; E. S. Conway, L. O. Goddard, W. H. Harper, F. W. Peck, James P. Whedon, John M. Smyth, Charles A. Mallory, Chicago; E. C. Craig, Mattoon; LaFayette Funk, Bloomington; C. H. Keeler, Dixon: Martin Kingman, Peoria; Lewis H. Minor, Springfield; Randolph Smith. Flora; W. H. Stead, Ottawa; O. P. Trahern, Rockford; George W. Wall, DuQuoin; C. C. Williams, Hoopeston September 16, 1897, the commission met in Chicago and organized by the election of Clark E. Carr, president; E. S. Conway. first vice-president; F. W. Peck, second vice-president; C. C. Hambleton, Secretary; W. H. Harper, Martin Kingman, LaFayette Funk. C. H. Keeler, James P. Whedon, John M Smyth and Clark E. Carr, executive committee,

Entrance to Illinois Building
 
Gov. John R. Tanner
Clark E. Carr
Ferdinand W. Peck
with full power to act. October 19, 1897, the commission visited Omaha and selected the site for the State building. Two special days were assigned to Illinois, the first being "Illinois Day," June 21, when the State building was dedicated, and "Chicago Day," October 1. On "Illinois Day," special trains brought Governor Tanner, his staff and more than one thousand residents of the State. On "Chicago Day," the metropolis of Illinois was represented by more than two thousand five hundred of its citizens, including members of the Board of Trade and all of the leading clubs of the city. The State made two exhibits, occupying 60,000 square feet, over one hundred individuals, companies and firms taking part. In the live-stock exhibit, forty-two horses, forty-three cattle, forty-six hogs and fifty-eight sheep were shown. The horticultural exhibit in the Horticultural building included all varieties of fruits in their season and attracted marked attention. Besides the State exhibits, there were extensive displays in the Manufactures and Liberal Arts building, by firms of Chicago and other cities.

COLLECTIVE EXHIBITS OF STATES

Not all of the States participating in the Exposition had buildings on the grounds, yet all 111 the Trans-Mississippi region had exhibits in the main buildings, while others that were outside and in the far east and west, the north and the extreme south, appointed commissions, the members of which visited Omaha officially during the summer of 1898, giving the Exposition the stamp of their apprOVal. Arkansas did not make an appropriation, yet the business men of Little Rock and other cities collected a very creditable exhibit of ores, minerals, grains and woods, which were shown in the Agricultural and Mines and Mining buildings. The work was undertaken and carried on by   a commission composed of W. G. Vincenheller, president; W. D. Mathews, secretary; A. C. Hull, George R. Brown, Little Rock; W. P. Fletcher, Lonoke; S. C. Dowell, Walnut Ridge; H. L. Cross, Bentonville; F. Walker, E. M. Funk, Rogers; E. P. Hall, Prairie Grove; R. H. James, Mena; C. Irbym, Newport; A. W. Pool, Ozark; E. T. McConnell, Clarksville; L. P. Berry, Marion; J. P. Butts, Helena; Emmet Rogers, Jonesboro; A. S.Layton, Yellville; R. B. Weaver, Rally Hill; H. H. Gallop, Buffalo; W. T. Hopper, Mountain Home; D. S. Helvern, Mammoth Spring; J. R. Newman, Harrison; Steve Carrington, Hope; Eugene Barkman, Arkadelphia; W. M. Price, Stuttgart; X. O. Pendall, Arkansas City; Rev. M. Lucey. H. G. Hanna, Pine Bluff; Thomas Mathews, Monticello; J. R. B. Moore, Heber; L. H. Owens, De Valos Bluff; C. Yancey, Batesville; T. Pomeroy, Eureka Springs; W. B. Folsom, Brinkley; R. Harris, Springdale; A. Bertig, Paragould; L. A. Byrne; Texarkana; George Sengal, Fort Smith.

The exhibit of Colorado was extensive, planned, arranged for and installed by the people of the State, working in conjunction with the commission appointed by the Governor. It occupied 2,000 feet in the Horticultural building, where fruits of all kinds were constantly on display. Colorado sent a carload of the famous Rocky Ford melons, which were given away under the direction of State Senator Swenck on "Melon Day." Besides this, the State occupied a booth in the Mines and Mining building, another in the Liberal Arts building and a block of space in the Apiary building, besides having a creditable exhibit by the Colorado public schools. The commission was composed of Governor Alva H. Adams, president; A. F. McDonald, secretary, Prof. Anton Ellis, Miss Grace E. Patton, E. F. Bishop, John H. Barrett, Mrs. M. A. Shute, Charles E. Ward, Denver; C. B. Schmidt, Pueblo; Harvey A. Lee, Ouray; Colonel E. R. Goodell, Leadville; M. L. Allison, Grand Junction; J. B. Swan, Loveland; W. J. Bennett, Saguache County.

The State appropriation made by Idaho was sufficient to install and maintain some very comprehensive exhibits. The fruit display in the Horticultural building was one of the best, while the exhibit of grain, wool and grasses in the Agricultural building attracted much attention. The commission consisted of: B. P. Shawhan, president, Payette; R. E. Greene, secretary, Boise; M. B. Gwinn, Caldwell; James Hutchinson, Silver City; Edward Richards, Hailey; George Chapin, Idaho Falls; J. H. Murname, Montpelier: P. Clough, Salmon; H. B. Campbell, Wallace; B. F. Morris, Lewiston; Joseph Vincent, Kendrick.

While it was outside of the Exposition district, Florida recognized the importance of the enterprise by having a commission. The State failed to appropriate funds for an exhibit, yet many of the members of the commission   visited Omaha during the progress of the Exposition. The personnel of the commission was: George W. Wilson, president, Jacksonville; Henry Curtis, Quincy; W. W. Decker, Tarpon Springs; John D. Peabody, Ozona; M. R. Marks, Orlando; W. T. Carter, Frank P. Fleming, C. B. Rogers, Jacksonville; B. L. Porter, Grand Ridge; George W. Scobie, Titusville; C. S., Timberlake, Rockledge; George L. Bryant, Lakeland; Erie Van Axelson, Laurie Hill; S. B. Thompson, secretary, Lake City; K. McQuarrie, DeFuniak Springs; W. S. Jordon, Madison; C. A. Danley, Chipley.

George W. Wilson, Florida

George W. Wilson, Florida

Maryland interested itself in the Exposition and an effort was made to secure a State appropriation, but it failed. However, the Governor appointed a commission and the Exposition secured considerable advertising thereby. The commission was: T. Shryock, president; John R. Carter, Charles C. Homer, A. E. Booth, Mrs- Willianq Reed, Baltimore; Harry j. Hopkins, secretary, Annapolis; Mrs. Matthew Markland, Oakland; Miss Travers C. Davis, Miss Lillie Forwood, BelAir; Edward Abbott, John M. Carver, Jr., George D. Dandwehn, Annapolis.

Although Kentucky did not make an exhibit, a commission was named and it did much in the way of advertising the Exposition. This commission was: Mrs. John B. Castleman, Mrs. James F. Buckner, L. G. Murray, Louisville; H. B. Hansford, Somerset; H. H. Houston, Paducah; Charles H. Todd, Owensboro; C. N. McElroy, Bowling Green; Charles Blandford, Bowleyville; E. C. Hopper, Covington; W. R. Smith, Lexington; G. W. Welch, Jr., Danville; P. McCartney, Flemingsburg; E. C. O'Rear, Mt. Sterling.

By subscription the people of Missouri raised $17,000 for Exposition if purposes. It was not thought that this was sufficient to justify the expense of the construction, so the entire sum was expended, under the direction of the   commission, in making an exhibit which was one of the best and most extensive on the grounds. It was so complete that it won a large number of medals. The commission in charge was made up of: F. M. Sterrett. president: H. A.

F. M. Sterrett
Xenophon P. Wilfley
Blossom, Charles A. Lemp, C. H. Spencer, C. P. Walbridge, George D. Reynolds, C. D. McClure, F. E. Marshall, P. Toomey, W. H. Phelps, H. R. Whitmore, St. Louis; M. V. Carroll, secretary, Jefferson City; Colonel John A. Knott, Hannibal; John H. Carroll, Unionville; Ruben Payne. Milan; W. H. Mansur, Chillicothe; C. Evans, North Kansas City; F,. T. Abbott, L. A. Vorhies, R . M. Davis, Frank Freytag, L. C. Byrne, F. W. Maxwell, Louis Hax, A. Fleming, St. Joseph; Dr. H. Hedgpeth, Jesse H. Davis, Rockport; John F. Richards, G. M. Walden, George W. Fuller, F. G. Graham, P. E. Mullins, W. W. Morgan, H. McGowan, Kansas City; L. A. Goodinon, Westpoint; N. Ballard, Montrose; C. C. Davidson, El Dorado Springs; W. Baldwin, J. N. Dailey, Sedalia; D. Tolson, Fayette; John R. Rippey, Columbia; Jerre Cravens, John O'Day, G. A. Atwood, Springfield; H. W. Ewing, John R. Kirk, Jefferson City; A. S. Houston, Mexico; J. H. Berkshire, Winona; W. W. Ward, Fredericktown; S. A. Stucker, Carthage; C. M. Manker, Webb City; P. Davidson, Hannibal; C. C. Rigger. Laclede; W. Touse, Monroe City; F,. E. Aleshire, Stanberry; A. F. Murray, Oregon; H. E. Wyatt, Rockport; F. B. Hearne, Independence; W. H. Allen, Clinton; Willis Humphrey, Stockton; Dr. R. H. Jesse, Columbia; Nelson, Lebanon; Frank Farris, Steeleville; A. H. Danforth, Charleston; C. B. Faris, Caruthersville; C. A. Emery, Carthage; William Dawson, New Madrid; John H. Taylor, Joplin. On its exhibits, which were in nearly all of the main buildings, Missouri took thirty-three medals and prizes. In the Horticultural building the State exhibit was one of the largest. In the Mines and Mining   building it showed coal, iron, zinc, lead and numerous varieties of building stone. In the Agricultural building the State exhibit attracted universal attention, as the display of grains and grasses was extensive, covering almost every variety of farm product. The booth was constructed of lumber from the State, something like fifty separate and distinct kinds being used. There was also a display of educational and women's work. The State occupied some 10,000 square feet of space.

Arizona, through the work of the citizens, raised $10,000 with which to make an exhibit. The commission appointed by the Governor consisted of: T. Barkeley, B. Heyma, Winfield Scott, Phoenix; C. R. Drake, B. Breathitt, Selim Franklin, Tucson; W. R. Stowe, Florence; E. B. Gage, F. A. Tritle, Prescott; H. J. Allen, Jerome; H. Carpenter, Yuma; A. F. Patter, St. Johns; W. R. Campbell, Winslow; M. Egan, Clifton; Ben Williams, Berbee; E. H. Cook, Globe; T. A. Riomian, Flagstaff; R. Halsey, Kingman.

New Jersey failed to make an exhibit, or open headquarters on the grounds. A commission consisting of: R. M. Floyd, Eva H. Williams, Jersey City; E. B. Goddis, Newark; H. Blackwell, Trenton; E. Barbour, Paterson, and E. C. Hazard, Shrewsbury, was appointed but was unable to raise funds for an exhibit.

The exhibit from New Mexico occupied 4,000 square feet in the center of the Mines and Mining building. There was a display of grains and grasses and dried and canned fruits. The mineral exhibit was the chief

L. Bradford Prince
Gov. Miguel A. Otero
attraction, consisting of gold, silver and copper, besides a large quantity of turquoise, both in the rough and the cut and polished stones. Aside from this there was an exhibit of curios dating back to the Aztec period. There was a bronze bell of Spanish manufacture, secured from one of the early missions,   probably one of the first bells that ever came to this country. The State made an appropriation for the exhibit, and this was increased by contributions. The make-up of the commission was: L. B. Prince, president, S. H. Day, Santa Fe; J. T. McLaughlin, San Pedro; John Morrow, Raton; W. S. Hopewell, Hillsboro; W. H. H. Llewellyn, Las Cruces: Leeson, Socorro; R. W. Tansill, E. O. Faulkner, Eddy; E. V. Chaves Las Lunas: Gus Mulholland, Gallop: T. Curran, Albuquerque.

H. B. Maxon, Nevada

C. A. Lounsberry, North Dakota

The only exhibit made by.Nevada was in the Mines and Mining building, where 1,000 square feet were occupied. A very complete exhibit of grains, grasses, wool and agricultural products was shipped, but destroyed by fire en route. It was then too late to gather together another and the commission had to content itself with the showing of minerals, which included gold and silver, platinum, onyx and a variety of stone The Nevada commission was made up of: W. C. Grimes, St. Clair; J. F. Dangburg, Gardnerville; George Russell, Elko; J. A. Yermington, Hawthorne; Abram Laird, Eureka; George S. Nixon, Winnemucca; A. Blossom. Battle Mountain; T. Osborne, Pioche; D. C. Simpson, Wellington; Andrew Maute, Belmont; John Wagner, Carson City; J. H. Kinkead, Enoch Strother, Virginia City; B. McCallough, H. B. Maxon, Reno; William Burke, Shellbourne.

North Dakota had its exhibit in the Agricultural building, occupying 10,000 square feet of space. It was made up almost entirely of the products of the soil, consisting chiefly of wheat, oats, rye, barley, Hax and vegetables. Some of the natural woods were shown, as also were the fruits grown in that State. One of the striking features was a large $6,000 painting by Carl Gutherz, entitled "Farming in the West." It was a composite picture of the Power farm just after harvest. It showed the threshers in the held and a   number of steam plows in operation. In the distance were the farm buildings, surrounded by groves with herds of cattle and horses in the pastures. North Dakota raised its money mostly by contribution, though the State made an appropriation. The commisson was: C. A. Lounsberry, president, Fargo; C. B. Little, treasurer, Bismarck; J. B. Power, secretary, Power.

South Dakota occupied 10,000 square feet in the Mines and Mining, 1,000 in the Agricultural and 500 square feet in the Dairy building. The money for making the exhibit, $25,000, was raised by the counties of the State and by public-spirited citizens. The exhibit in the Mines and Mining building was purely of a mineral character. A gold mine in the Black Hills was reproduced in miniature, with all the required machinery in operation. A small house was constructed of the various kinds of building stone, and in it were shown samples of gold, silver, mica, tin and lead. In the Agricultural building there was a large display of the grains of the State and also of the public schools. In the Dairy building, the State had an exhibit, and in competition won a number of premiums. The South Dakota commission included the following prominent men of the State: A. McKinney, Lead; W. L. Gardner, Rapid City; Harris Franklin, Martha Chapman, Charles E. Davis, Deadwood; John Stabler, Hot Springs; Hance Murphy, Elk Point; C. A. Jewett, Sioux Falls; O. H. Mann, Okaboji; Hugh Smith, Howard; John Hayes, Fort Pierre; C. V. Gardner, Pierrepont.

Under its constitution, Texas is prohibited from making appropriations for expositions and similar institutions. Notwithstanding this, the commercial bodies of the cities of the State, together with private citizens, raised $25,000 and Texas was represented at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition in as creditable manner as most of the States, occupying about 5,000 square feet in the Agricultural building, where the exhibit was always a feature. Special attention was f given to the tobacco, cotton and wool industry, while the products of the Gulf coast were displayed in an endless profusion. Texas had by many been regarded as a State barren of forest, yet it showed more than forty different kinds of wood, many of the varieties being used for saw timber. Fruits of all kinds were shown in their season and innumerable numbers of mounted animals, birds and fishes were on exhibition. Vegetables were received each A week, so that the display was kept fresh and attractive. At home the members of the Texas commission kept in constant touch with Colonel Atwater, who was the commissioner in charge, keeping him well supplied with all of the things necessary to advertise the resources of the "Lone Star" State. This I commission was made up of the following prominent men: S. J. T. Johnson, H, Templeton, Corsicana; Ben. A. Reisner, Tom Richardson, Houston; J. E. Elliott, D. S. Malvern, J. R. Currie, Dallas; A. N. Evans, Fort Worth;   James I. Moore, Waco; R. M. Cash, Galveston; J. L. Elbert. Quanah; L. P. Wilson, Yoakum; Paul Wipprecht, Seguin; R. A. Greer, Beaumont; P. A. Smith, Navasota; J. M. Cleiborn, Rusk; John Willacy, Portland; B. F. McNulty, P. Atwater, R. NV. Andrews, San Antonio; Warren Reed. Sweetwater; J. J. Fairbanks, Denison; R. L. Ross, Paris; J. D. Ford, Decatur: A. B. McKie, El.Paso; W. L. Vining, Austin; W. A. Fields, Hillsboro; T. D. Rowell, Jefferson; D. C. Kolp, Iowapark; E. S. Peters, Calvert; A. Templeton, Jacksonville; A. C. Green, Palestine; H. T. Sims, Galiman; M. S. Duffie, Gatesville; D. Rudd, Waco.

Theodore Cooley, Tennessee

B. S. Cook, Oregon

While Tennessee did not make an exhibit, the Governor named a commission and the men comprising it did much to create interest in the Exposition throughout the South. The make-up of the commission was as follows: Theodore Cooley, John j. McCann, Van L. Kirkman, John W. Morton, H. C. Ward, W. T. Davis, B. Killebrow, M. Safford, W. Allison, G. W. A Goodwin, A. Harris, Nashville; NV. R. Rankin, Jasper; P. E. Kefanber, Madisonville; F. H. Ewing, Cedar Hill; J. W. Roseman, Gadsden; H. L. Bedford, Bailey; W. L. Chapman, Knoxville; G. NV. Davenport, C. V. Brown, Chattanooga; S. M. Yancey, Dixon Spring; John T. Essary, state commissioner of agriculture.

The exhibit of Oregon occupied 6,000 square feet and the money, $20,000, for collecting, installing and maintaining the same was raised by the efforts of the Portland Chamber of Commerce and the citizens of the State, aided by the commission, consisting of: J. E. Haseltine, F. Batchelder, Portland; C. C. Beckman, Jacksonville; Henry E. Dosch, Hillsdale; J. A. Wright, Sparta; J. G. Day, Roseburg; Philip Metschan, Claud Gotch, E. P.   McCormack, Salem, H. B. Miller, Grant's Pass; F. B. Alley, Baker City; J. O. Hanthorn, Astoria; George G. Gans, Salem. The exhibit was most complete. The space occupied was divided as follows: Mines and Mining, 2,000; Forestry exhibit, 2,000; Horticultural, 1,500; Educational, 1,000; Agricultural; 1,000; Fish, 500 square feet. In the Horticultural exhibit, notwithstanding the great distance, fresh fruits were constantly on display. In the Forestry exhibit more than fifty kinds of woods were shown. One of the features was a stick of timber from an Oregon fir. It was 90 feet long and squared 4 feet. Much space was given over to grain and wool, two of the products of the State and the source of a large revenue.

L. W. Shurtliff

Gov. Heber M. Wells

The Legislature of Utah appropriated $8,000 and the people contributed $10,000 more to aid in making a display of the products of the State. The space occupied aggregated 3,000 square feet—1,000 in the Mines and Mining, 1,000 in the Agricultural, and 1,000 square feet in the Manufactures' building. The exhibit in the Mines and Mining building if; consisted of ores of all kinds, together with much of the finished products, such as silver bars, copper, lead, asphalt, onyx and cut stone. Salt, both raw and purified, was shown in great abundance. In the Agricultural building Utah showed wool, grains of all kinds and the products of the orchards, dried and canned. Silk and silk worms constituted an interesting feature. The worms were shown on the branches of mulberry trees in the cocoons as was the method of caring for them. Raw silk, spun and manufactured, formed a portion of the exhibit. In the Manufactures building Utah made a most creditable display of the work being done in the State public schools. In this building there was a large display of goods, such as cloths, all   of home manufacture. The exhibits of the State were worked up by and were in charge of this commission: L. N. Shurtliff, president, Ogden; P. Loman, Miss Maggie Keogh, Salt Lake; Herber Bennion, Taylorville.; T. R. Cutler, Lehi.

Washington did not make a State appropriation, yet the people by contribution raised $10,000 and filled 1,000 square feet of space in the Mines and Mining and a like quantity in the Agricultural building. The mining exhibit was complete, consisting of gold and silver ores, together with some very rich copper. In the Agricultural building the space was occupied by a display of forestry products, grains in sheaf and glass jars, native grasses and fish. The co-mmission that had so much to do with the work was: George W. Thompson, E. Baker, Tacoma; George B. Stetson, P. E. Kelly, L. M. Wood, Seattle; W. S. Spillman, Pullman; C. H. Thompson, Spokane; C. H. Clark, Spencer.

West Virginia failed to exhibit or display any of its resources, yet it had a commission that thoroughly advertised the Exposition throughout the State. It was as follows: P. W. Peterson, Wheeling; D. C. Westonhaver, Martinsburg; H. G. Bayliss, Elkins; J. S. Hyer, Suttin; J. W. Eurber, Mannington; J. M. Camden, Parkersburg; E. Ensign, Huntington; P. W. Morris, Harrisville; Layman Steadman, Castoria; A. Preston, Lewisburg.

Wyoming, with its usual enterprise, made an excellent showing in the Agricultural building, where it occupied 1,000 square feet of space. It showed gold and/silver ores, building stone and grains and grasses. The money for the exhibit was raised by subscription and the work was in charge of: Joseph M. Carey, W. R. Schinitger, A. D. Kelly, L. R. Bresnahan and M. R. Johnson, commissioners. The cost of collecting, installing and maintaining the exhibit amounted to $15,000.

Wisconsin, besides having its State building, occupied 3,000 feet of space, divided between the Agricultural, Manufactures and the Dairy buildings. The displays were typical of the agricultural States. In the Agricultural building the display of grains and grasses was large and attractive. Factory products were shown in the Manufactures and the dairy products in the Dairy building.

Oklahoma, although an infant in the sisterhood of States, raised $2,000 by subscription, and with this sum made one of the best and most compact exhibits in the Agricultural building, occupying 1,000 square feet of space. It consisted of grain of all kinds, native and cultivated grasses, tobacco, cotton and fruits. The commission was: C. Post, president, Kingfisher; S. T. Carico, Alva; J. C. North, Northville; C. W. Points, Shawnee; M. Burke, Perry.

 

NATIONAL CAPITOL BUILDING AT WASHINGTON

 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITS AND BUILDING

CHAPTER VII

THE law passed by Congress providing for an appropriation and authorizing representation of the Government at the Omaha Exposition contained the usual proviso admitting foreign exhibits free of duty; but, through an oversight, did not in express terms provide for sending formal invitations to foreign governments to participate in the Exposition and urging their people to install exhibits of the products, arts and industries of the nations with which the United States Government maintained diplomatic relations. In view of this important omission the President later was asked to issue such invitations. This was done through the State Department, all consular agents abroad being advised of such action. Thus considerable interest was aroused, and as negotiations progressed it became manifest to the managers of the Exposition that it would be necessary to erect a building especially for placing foreign exhibits. However, it was at first found to be difficult to convince officials and manufacturers of foreign States of the high character of the Exposition, due, no doubt, to the limited knowledge of the West and its resources possessed by the Government officials and people of the Old World generally. It was necessary to get all the facts before them at the earliest practicable day.

The departments of Publicity, Promotion and Exhibits did much to dispel the erroneous notions entertained abroad with respect to the character and scope of the Exposition. The foreign newspapers, especially in Germany, were prevailed upon to devote space to announcements concerning the Exposition, together with descriptions thereof. Agents and representatives were appointed, the choice falling either upon native residents of the several countries, or upon American citizens who went there in the interest of the Exposition, Prof. H. Gore, of the Columbian University, was in charge of the   exhibit of the United States at the Brussels exposition, and volunteered his services to the Trans-Mississippi Exposition Company, which were accepted, and he was appointed as a commissioner for the Exposition. Among those who, as commissioners, assisted in securing foreign exhibits, were the following: Colonel Charles T. Murphy, Louis Moreau, E. Lowe, Rev. Mr. Powell, A. E. Cockerton, Dudley Smith, H. Muentefering and Geo. W. Fishbank. Geo. Avery of Detroit was appointed associate commissioner for the Central American republics.

As a result of the efforts of the Exposition management to apprise the people in foreign lands of the character and scope of the Exposition, a large number of manufacturers and others were well

Albino R. Nuncio,
Mexican Commissioner
represented. The French manufacturers organized an exposition commission comprising fifty of their number, the result of which was the installation of a splendid exhibit by seventy-five manufacturers of Paris and other French cities. The Mexican Government accepted the invitation to be represented at the Exposition. The manufactures and other products of Italy were represented by about-forty-five exhibitors, and other countries, such as Russia, Switzerland, Denmark, Austria, Great Britain, Canada and Germany, installed good displays of the products of their respective countries. China was officially represented at the Exposition and its exhibit in large part was contained within a building erected by the Chinese Government for the purpose. Hon. Charles Denby, United States Minister to China, was active in behalf of this exhibit, a very interesting one, and received a letter from the Tsung Li Yomen wherein he was advised that the Chinese Minister at Washington, Mr. Wu Ting Fang, would be instructed to deputize officers to represent China at the Exposition; and pursuant to such instructions, Mr. Chan Ean Moore, an officer of the Chinese Legation, was detailed as official representative of the Chinese Government. The Chinese exhibits were partially housed in pagodas, built in accordance with the architectural designs of temples in those countries. An interesting feature was the display of ancient gods, who were presumed to preside over the destinies of the people. There were war gods, peace gods, gods of famine and gods of prosperity. The display of ancient and modern art as portrayed in China was an interesting and instructive feature. Mexico occupied 3,000 square feet of space, exhibiting products of the soil: wheat, corn, rye and barley; ten varieties of coffee, castor beans, tobacco, oranges, lemons and   figs; also manufactured goods, cotton, linen, silks, laces and drawn work. Her exhibit of ores and metals was quite extensive, including gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc and iron. In goods from fiber, were carpets, shades, hats and coarse cloths. In one section historical articles were displayed showing articles and implements in use during Aztec days and prior to the invasion of Cortez. These articles were made of bone, copper and stone. A sacrificial stone, drawings of Aztec temples, etc., were shown. Canada, including Toronto, Quebec and other lower provinces, occupied 5,000 square feet of floor and 6,000 square feet of wall space. The exhibit was mainly agricultural and horticultural, showing varied resources of the country. Grains in both sheaf and berry were shown, including wheat, oats, rye, barley and flax, besides the grasses, both tame and wild. There was an display of fruit, apples, crabs, plums and berries. The forestry exhibit was very extensive, something like fifty varieties of native woods being shown. Nova Scotia and Ontario occupied the same section. The former had a large display of fish and food products from the sea in addition to its fruit exhibit which contained peaches, pears, grapes, etc. Ontario showed fruits of various kinds, manufactured goods and all of the varieties of grain raised in the temperate. zone. The forestry exhibit was large and comprehensive, including many varieties of woods from the northern forests. From the coast section of British Columbia, there was a large exhibit of sea fish, dried and canned. Much space was occupied by minerals, including gold, silver, copper, iron, building stone and marble. Woods, both in their natural state and manufactured into timber, and fruits, such as apples, peaches, pears and grapes, were shown. Alberta made an extensive display of small grain and grasses, some fruit and an exhibit of woods and coal. Great Britain, Austria and Denmark jointly occupied 1,000 square feet of space, though their exhibits were separate. Art, manufactured goods and jewelry constituted the major portion of the exhibit. The art display included work of the oldest masters, down to those of the present day. In the manufactured goods' section only the best and most interesting articles that the countries produced were on display. Denmark displayed a large quantity of crockery and terra cotta ware. Russia made a small, but interesting, exhibit, showing a beautiful collection of tapestry and wood-carving. Besides this, there was quite an extensive agricultural display, including wheat and barley from the northern portion of the country and from Siberia. There were goods from the forests and samples of coal and iron ore from the Siberian mines. There was also a small but select exhibit of jewelry and manufactured goods. Italy occupied 1,000 square feet with a display of art, art-goods, marble, statuary and manufactured goods. While shown under the sanction of the Government of the country, the exhibit was made by private parties and art museums. It included many valuable works   of art, some of them dating back to the period when Rome was in the zenith of its glory. Many pieces of the marble were by the famous sculptors who lived centuries ago. France had 4,000 feet of floor space, occupied by 75 firms, companies and societies. The ceramic display was said to be one of the best ever gathered together, containing a large number of pieces of great beauty and value. The exhibit consisted largely of expensive manufactured goods of all classes, yet French art occupied a prominent position, a number of costly oil paintings and pieces of statuary being exhibited. Switzerland occupied 600 square feet of space with its display of fine arts, jewelry and manufactured goods. The display of watches was large, including some of the earliest manufacture. They were crude looking affairs, as large as saucers. The art consisted of statuary and a number of paintings of the Alps, mountain and rural scenery. In the manufactured goods section, carpets, draperies and many lines of novelties were shown.

The unique exhibit of the Hawaiian Islands may not have been properly classified as foreign, but it was most interesting, the chief feature being a colony of natives who occupied primitive huts used in the Islands during the early period of civilization. Household furniture for kitchen and bedroom and costumes worn when Islanders were in savage state were shown, and an educational exhibit showing progress of the nation was made; also clothing and manufactured goods, fruits, grains, sugar, rice and an immense exhibit of coffee. Rice, timber and flowering shrubs were shown in profusion.

The International building was located on the Twentieth street boulevard, north of the Manufactures building. The design was of Ionic order, the studied simplicity producing rich architectural effects. The main façade presented the usual stylobate, wall veil and enriched entablature. The wall A panels were marked by highly ornamented Ionic pilasters. terminated at p either end by pavilions of severe outline and treatment. Its dimensions were 100x125 feet, with 18,583 square feet of exhibit space.

The official letter of the State Department was addressed to United States diplomatic officers throughout the world. The following copy of letters to the Government of the Argentine Republic will indicate to the reader the scope of all such letters of invitation. These letters read:

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

WASHINGTON, June 15, 1897.

To Diplomatic Officers:

SIR: I transmit herewith a letter dated May 1, 1897, addressed by the President of the Trans-Mississippi International Exposition, extending a cordial invitation to His Excellency, the President of the Argentine Republic, and the citizens thereof, to take part in an Exposition to be held at Omaha, Nebraska, from June 1, to November 1, 1898, agreeable to the act of Congress, approved June Io, 1896, "for the exhibition of the resources of the   United States of America and the progress and civilization of the Western Hemisphere, and for a display of the arts, industries, manufactures and products of the soil, mine and sea."

I enclose several copies of a circular issued by the Secretary of the Treasury on January 11, 1897, which hot only embodies the laws of Congress on the subject, but prescribes the regulations under which all articles imported from foreign countries for the sole purpose of exhibition at the proposed Exposition and on which duties are to be collected under the laws of the United States, shall be admitted free of the payment of duty, customs, fees or charges, except, of course, whenever any such dutiable articles may be sold or withdrawn for consumption in the United States.

According to Section 3 of the Act aforesaid, there shall be exhibited at the Omaha Exposition by the Government of the United States from its Executive Departments, the Smithsonian Institution, the United States Fish Commission, and the National Museum, such articles and material 35 illustrate the function and administrative faculty of the Government in time of peace, and its resources as a war power, tending to demonstrate the nature of our institutions and their adaptation to the wants of the people.

It is the earnest wish of the Executive head of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, that the Government to which you are accredited may find it practicable to participate therein in a manner befitting the importance and character of the enterprise.

You may take an early occasion to deliver the enclosed invitation to the Minister of Foreign Affairs to the end that it may reach its high destination. In doing this and making known to him the statements herein contained, you may express the satisfaction it would give your Government to know that the Government of His Excellency had consented to accept the courteous invitation. You should, however, be careful to explain that although the Government of the United States purposes to be represented in accordance with the cited provision of the law, the proposed Exposition is in nowise under the auspices or patronage of the Federal Government; neither is the latter held in any manner responsible on account of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition Association.

Respectfully yours,

JOHN SHERMAN.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

WASHINGTON, July 22, 1897.

To Diplomatic Officers:

SIR: Referring to the Department's invitation of June 15, 1897. I have now to apprise you of the following resolution of the Senate of the United States, adopted by that body on June 28, 1897:

"Resolved, That the President be, and he is respectfully requested, if in his judgment it would not be incompatible with the public policy, to invite by proclamation or in such other manner as he may deem most proper, foreign nations to make exhibits at the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, to be held at the city of Omaha, in the State of Nebraska, between June 1st and November 1st, Anno Domini, 1898."

You may communicate to the Government to which you are accredited a copy of this supplementary invitation and say, in view of the fact that the Government of the United States intends to prepare an exhibit for that Exposition in accordance with Section 3 of the Act approved June 10, 1896, that it would be exceedingly gratifying to the President and to this Government should the Government of the Argentine Republic find itself able to accept the invitation heretofore so courteously extended, and send a representative exhibit.

Respectfully yours,

ALVEY A. ADEE,

Acting Secretary.

 

By direction of the Board of Managers, President Wattles wrote a formal letter of invitation to rulers of foreign nations, inviting them to participate in the Exposition. A set form was used in composing the letter, the phraseology employed by the Department of State being followed, and the letters were artfully indited in the handwriting of Clement Chase. Following is a copy of the letter of invitation sent to China:

His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of China, Peking:

I have the honor to call the attention of your Imperial Majesty to the following:

The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, recognized by the Congress of the United States of America, will be held at Omaha, Nebraska, U. S. A., from June 1 until November I in the year 1898. This exposition will particularly represent the products of soil and mine, arts and manufactures of the states and territories west of the Mississippi River, an area comprising twenty-four states and territories, of great fertility and immense resources, with a surface of 2,720,345 square miles and a population of 16,000,000 inhabitants, but will be patronized by all the states in the Union and by the general government of the United States. By act of the Congress of the United States, articles imported from foreign countries for exhibition will be admitted duty free, under rules and regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury, copy of which beg to inclose herewith, and I also inclose a copy of the act of Congress, showing the participation in the exposition of the government of the United States.

All nations will be invited to participate in this exposition to the end that, by friendly rivalry and mutual intercourse, the commercial relations and general prosperity of all may be increased.

In the name of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition corporation I have the honor to extend to the empire of China a cordial invitation to participate. May I indulge the hope that this invitation will be brought to the attention of your subjects at an early date, and that the products and wares of your great and powerful empire may be exhibited. I have the honor to be your Imperial Majesty's most obedient servant,

GURDON W. WATTLES,

President of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition.

 

A GENERAL EXHIBIT

 

DESCRIPTION OF GENERAL EXHIBITS

CHAPTER VIII

THE ultimate aim of a great Exposition is to mark the degree of progress made in the arts and industries and to reveal to the popular eye the developed resources of the country as well as to give some idea of its undeveloped wealth. This is done largely through the medium of object lessons or exhibits from the various lines of industry and from natures storehouses—the workshop, the soil, the mine. A widespread desire to apprise the world of the advance or progress of civilization and industry in the Western States gave rise to the idea of holding the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in 1898. The attainment of the object sought was attested by the installation of general exhibits hitherto unmatched in many important particulars. The amazing wealth of the Trans-Mississippi States was exploited as never before, and the revelation thus presented proved to be of inestimable value to the people of the West. These exhibits, for the most part, were placed in the great buildings located in the Grand Court. In another chapter these splendid structures are described. They afforded an enormous amount of space for an infinite variety of exhibits. The area of floor space approximated 5000,000 square feet; space in galleries 75,000 square feet. There were 5,119 separate exhibits and the total number of exhibitors was 1,252. Forty States and ten foreign countries were represented in the general exhibits. Each state was given 1,000 feet in the collective exhibits free of charge. Space occupied by private exhibits in the buildings yielded $1 per square foot, and in the grounds 50 cents. The total receipts of the exhibits department were about $200,000. Men who acted as 'judges numbered nearly one hundred, most of whom were experts in the particular lines in which service was rendered. Commemorative medals to the number of 464 were awarded, with 2,530 go diplomas. In addition,   cash prizes amounting to $35,000 were awarded to winners in the live-stock department. The medals were of gold, silver and bronze.

LIVE EXHIBITS

The term "live" exhibits is intended to describe exhibits shown in motion, as if in actual use. In the Transportation building, the Baldwin locomotives stood with their great drive wheels revolving. The windmills of a local firm continually revolved. Threshers and other farm implements moved as if actually at work, and the wheels of horseless carriages and bicycles spun constantly.

In the Electricity and Machinery building, the General Electric Company exhibited the latest electrical illuminations. A saw manufacturing company made its saws "go round," and a lens maker ground lenses. A gas engine works had a sample line of machines constantly performing their functions, and a self-lifting elevator med up and down with its passengers. A gas engine company demonstrated the facility with which power was transmitted from its connections with a gas main. An electric company exhibited X-rays, and the Winchester Arms Company illustrated the modern methods of utilizing rifles, shotguns and ammunition. There were looms in operation and a miniature train of cars attracted attention.

In the Liberal Arts building a graphophone. produced songs, music and speeches. A concern also illustrated the processes incident to amateur photography. An incubator hatched little chicks at another point and a Swedish firm turned out fine embroidery from its embroidery machine. Perhaps no exhibit in the Liberal Arts building exceeded in novelty: that of a firm engaged in making artificial limbs. A legless man rode a bicycle, performed feats on roller skates and in other ways proved to the observer the perfection reached by the makers of these articles.

The Manufactures building was alive with machines producing results. Sewing machines turned out ready-made clothing. A Wisconsin genius made twine from prairie grass. A packing house exhibited a revolving refrigerator of mammoth proportions and a harness and saddlery firm manufactured saddles and harness every day. A yeast company illustrated the process of bread-leavening.

In the Agricultural building the Nebraska Millers' Association had an expert demonstrating the extra quality of bread and pastry made from Nebraska flour. Manufacturers of food products made and distributed their goods. Tobacco growers and manufacturers were actively at work and the processes which convert fibre into twine and rope were all illustrated.

On the Bluff tract, a leading tobacco firm conducted a tobacco plantation, and in its special building exhibited its processes for curing the weed and   showed immense quantities of the marketable product. A bag factory maintained a cotton field in a small enclosure adjacent to its building. An enterprising electric company had an exhibit showing how electricity can be utilized by the farmer and plowed up the turf from day to day by an application of this power in the ordinary held work. The Chinese Exhibit Association maintained a building on the Bluff tract where ivory novelties and bamboo furniture were made to order. In the Utah exhibit silkworms at work were shown. In the mining exhibit the process of panning placer dirt was illustrated. In the gallery of the Manufactures building was an exhibit of manual training in the public schools, showing finished products of school-boy skill with lathes and other tools. An irrigation company illustrated methods of irrigating farm lands in Western Nebraska and maintained a field on the North tract for that purpose in which grains and vegetables were grown.

THE MINING EXHIBIT

The mining exhibit at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition was a well-nigh complete exposition of the economic mineral resources of every State west of the Mississippi River. The fundamental object of these exhibits was to show every mineral substance produced in commercial quantity, and by the character of the specimen to indicate the condition in which each useful mineral substance is found in nature. The different processes of extracting precious metals from the crude ore were shown. In addition to this, an effort was made to familiarize the public with the appearances of the chief mineral, localities; the geological conditions under which the minerals themselves are found in each locality, and the character of the smelting and other mining operations carried on in each State. These features were illustrated by maps and photographs or by water colors. Utah and Montana were the only States for which there were State appropriations for a mining display, but by individual subscriptions, Kansas, Oregon, Minnesota, Missouri, New Mexico, Alaska, Nevada, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Washington, Oklahoma, South Dakota and California were represented by systematic collections made by State commissioners. In addition to these, the mineral resources of Texas, Arkansas, Arizona, Iowa and North Dakota were shown by exhibits obtained from individual producers in these several States. While it is impracticable to give a detailed description of the exhibit from each a State, it may be said in general that special attention was paid rather to a complete showing of such minerals as had proved to be of economic value. Perhaps the greatest revelation of the extensive display was that which illustrated the limitless resources of the West in such important materials as clay, building stone and coal. The exhibit was not permitted to tell simply   a tale of the Western stores of precious metals. The coal exhibits of Kansas, Oregon, Montana, Utah, Missouri, New Mexico, Texas, Arkansas, and even North Dakota, were greater than were ever made before. A convenient comparison with the coal deposits was made by one or two typical exhibits of Eastern coals, such as the very large specimens of anthracite from Mauch Chunk, Pa. In clay exhibits the resources of Nebraska were striking, there being over one hundred products of bricks, tiling, terra cotta, fire brick and other products of clay in Nebraska alone. The effort to show the production of gold was phenomenal; there was a large store of nuggets and gold from Alaska, one exhibit alone containing a specimen from every camp in that faraway territory. The State of Washington told a story to the effect that that is a gold State, and Oregon taught the same lesson. This was done not only by showing specimens from that State, but by actually bringing supplies of placer dirt and panning it out at short intervals during the Exposition. The process of gold extraction from refractory ores was shown quite thoroughly in an exhibit from the Black Hills of South Dakota. A portion of the gallery was set aside for a lecture hall for illustrations of various processes of extracting precious metals from their ores, and conventions of mining men were held during the Exposition. The rest of the gallery was chiefly devoted to loan collections of minerals and exhibits from the United States Geological Survey, and a series of metallurgical exhibits indicative of the progress in that line since the World's Fair. This included a line showing in the manufactures of carborundum, calcium carbide, etc., and was perhaps the most attractive of all. The collection of the gems of the West by Mr. George E. Kuntz, gem expert, was another striking feature.

There was a cross-sectional view of the largest electric furnace known, and a large piece of artificial graphite made therein, together with useful articles manufactured from the new form of graphite. There was a complete collection of all varieties of crude petroleum, including specimens from a field in Alaska. Rich telluride gold ores were shown. New deposits of onyx from Utah attracted much attention, as did the siliceous gold ores of the Black Hills, where gold contents of an acre can be measured with greater accuracy than anywhere else save in South Africa. There were iron ores of the Mesaba region in Minnesota. There was a good representation of the free-milling gold ores of the newly discovered districts of British Columbia, including the famous Camp McKinney region. The Omaha & Grant Smelting Company displayed 48 pure silver ingots worth $40,000—one day's product. California made by private parties an exhibit of gold medals, nuggets and the Verd-antique of Santa Catalina Island which is described as the result of a revival of the ancient fashion of cutting vases. bowls, etc., out of solid rock and polishing them to translucent thinness. New Mexico   made brilliant exhibits in turquoise in its inclosing rock, comprising some of the rarest specimens. There were gold exhibits from many States, including various kinds of gold-bearing rocks. Some of the States showed ton lots of low-grade gold-bearing placer dirt and the process of panning. There were large-size water-color reproductions of mines, smelting works, etc. The Utah commission permitted the use for decorative purposes of a large flag 150X87 feet, made by the ladies of Utah at the time of admission to statehood. There were also many large photographs on glass illustrating mining properties and mineral regions throughout the West. There were uncut diamonds from Central Africa and diamonds in the original clay. Mexico and Canada were represented by splendid exhibits of gold, silver, copper and stone. There was an exhibit of ore from the Comstock lode of Nevada, showing ore which produced $20,000 per ton, pure gold. In the Colorado exhibit there was a nugget weighing 21 pounds containing 10 pounds pure gold. There were over 6,000 specimens in the exhibit of the Centennial State. In the New Mexican exhibit were specimens of silver, gold, iron, coal, lead and copper, as well as topaz, turquoise, agate, rubies and garnets. Missouri exhibited lead, zinc, nickel, iron, coal and stone. In the South Dakota exhibit there was ore assaying $200 to the ton. There were specimens of mica, tin, lead, copper, zinc, silver and building stone. In addition to Utah's exhibit mentioned above there were specimens of free-milling and refractory gold ores, huge blocks of bullion, refined gold and silver, lead and copper, as well as soda ash, salt, sulphates, asphaltum and building stone. Oregon contributed specimens of native copper, free-milling gold ore, mineral point, jasper, clay and building stone. There was a fine exhibit of pure gold from the Snake River mines. In the Montana exhibit there were two bars of solid silver weighing 200 pounds each. There were 4,000 pounds copper ore which assayed 72 per cent. There were gold nuggets worth $350 apiece. Washington displayed free-milling and other gold ores also silver and copper. Georgia contributed aluminum ores, building stone, marble, granite, clay, mica, graphite and asbestos. Minnesota displayed iron ores and building stone.

The Mines and Mining building was said to be the best ever constructed for the purpose. It was large. strongly built and well lighted. Its dimensions were 150x400 feet. On the first floor the. available space measured 41,455 square feet. and in the gallery there were 20,205 square feet.

AGRICULTURE

Situated in the heart of a great grain-growing region, the Exposition naturally was expected to devote large space to exhibits of the agricultural products of the West. In the collective exhibits in the great Agriculture building 15 States were represented and in addition thereto there were many   exhibits by private parties and corporations. A distinctive feature of the interior of this building was the large use made of the various grains in a decorative way. Corn, the chief product of the prairie States, was much in evidence in these decorations, yet cereals of all kinds were thus employed to good effect. Marked skill was shown in the friendly rivalry of the different States in the graceful arrangement of the exhibits and in their unique decorations. Some of the latter took the form of liberty bells, canopies, spinning tops, Candelabra, flags, statues. cornucopias and hour-glasses in parti-colored grain; wreaths, festoons, scrolls and arabesques of wheat, barley, oats and rye. A table spread with Nebraska food-products surrounded by a family dressed in the latest style of clothing made of cornhusks and seeds was one of the finest decorative designs. A cannon with ammunition of glass balls filled with grain came from Cuba. An American flag made of corn blades was a novel feature. Pictures of Western farm life made a beautiful frieze, the flag drapery being very effective. Oregon's forestry display was unique—a sawed log 62 feet long, sections or trees 6 feet in diameter, others less in girth and finer in grain.

The Nebraska exhibit occupied a position in the middle of the lower floor to the right of the main aisle. The pillars were decorated with grains

Cereal Exhibit
Nebraska Products
 
Agriculture
and grasses. From the front arch hung the great seal of the State, above which was suspended a large horseshoe, both worked out in vari-colored seeds. Underneath, on either side, were the figures 1867-1808. The color scheme of the decorations partook of yellow, green and red, the Ak-Sar-Ben colors. The arches were hung with sheaves of grain. There was a column 4 feet in diameter and 30 feet high covered from top to bottom with corn in the ear. Most of the counties of the State exhibited grain, grasses, vegetables, sugar beets, etc. There were 31 kinds of timber.

Oregon exhibited grains, grasses and fruit, lumber, fish, oats, wheat and timber. Texas displayed woods of all kinds, walnut, cherry, mulberry, birch, locust, pine, hickory, ash, cypress and the Judas tree. Arkansas exhibited 58 varieties of wood. Minnesota erected a pavilion on the north aisle displaying wheat, oats, barley, corn, rye, buckwheat, millet and timothy, most artistically arranged. There was a pile of flour in sacks from floor to roof containing 120 varieties of flour from 400 mills. There was an exhibit of flax and another of wool. The State Experimental Farm of North Carolina made an exhibit of photographs, illustrating fruits, vegetables, etc., descriptive of intensified farming. Nearly every county in Kansas was represented by exhibits   of grains, grasses and woods. Montana placed a large forestry exhibit showing mountain timber standing. A small section of a forest was shown in which were stuffed wild animals and birds. The Oklahoma booth was decorated with cotton. Grains, grasses, vegetables and fruits were shown. Utah exhibited silk, raw and manufactured; also an exhibit of silkworms at work. North Dakota displayed an excellent variety of grains. The Missouri exhibit was remarkable-showing all kinds of grain; there was displayed the native cotton on stalk, in bulk and in bales. There was an exhibit of wool and tobacco, forestry and grasses. Idaho displayed wheat, oats, barley, sugar beets and vegetables. Illinois displayed an immense exhibit of grains, native woods, etc. Wyoming showed sugar beets, grain and grasses. Wisconsin exhibited many kinds of grain, vegetables and woods. Iowa had one of the largest exhibits in the building, including a great variety of grains, seeds, grasses and woods. Colorado, in addition to exhibiting grains and grasses and seeds, showed samples of soil. In the Washington exhibit there was a large display of lumber, both raw material and manufactured stuff. There was one log 4 feet in diameter and 90 feet long. There was a display of wheat and other small grain.

The agricultural exhibit was said to be one of the greatest ever made, illustrating the immense strides in the farming industry in the West. Dimensions of the building were 148x400 feet and 40 feet high. It contained 84,260 square feet floor space.

Nebraska Fruit

 

Horticultural Exhibit

HORTICULTURE

Competent critics expressed the opinion that the exhibit of horticulture had never before been equaled. The interior of the great Horticulture building was beautiful beyond description. The main rotunda was roofed by an enormous double dome, each surrounded by a circle of Corinthian pillars, forming the imposing and striking effect of an arch within an arch. From the middle of the space below the dome arose an immense pyramid of shrubbery, splendid palms, feathery ferns and prickly cactus, carrying this foliage well up into the dome, the whole surmounted by a stately century plant of extraordinary size. The rotunda was beautiful with a lavish display of horticulture, forming a splendid representative exhibit. All told, there were 600 exhibitors in the horticulture exhibit. In many places throughout the building there were urns filled with rare flowers and huge hanging baskets of ferns and other decorations intended to produce the appearance of semi-tropical conditions. There were pyramids of ferns, tropical plants and flowers through and about which trickled streams of pure water. Inside of the great pyramid was a spring of cool bubbling water, and all about it, springing from the rocks,   were aquatic and flowering plants. There were many exhibits of fruit which were replenished with fresh supplies frequently. The Nebraska exhibit occupied 2,000 square feet and contained 70 varieties of apples, peaches, pears, berries, and all other fruits in season. California's exhibit consisted of apples, oranges, lemons, apricots, berries and wines. Late in June a carload of melons from Texas was received, and on July 1 the melons were distributed to the people. Missouri exhibited 30 varieties of peaches, apples, plums, cherries, berries, etc. Iowa displayed 20 varieties of fruit. There were notable exhibits from Oregon, Kansas, Idaho, Colorado, Illinois, Wisconsin, Texas, Missouri, New Mexico, North Dakota and North Carolina. California, Nebraska, Iowa and Missouri made extensive displays of wines and cider.

The Horticulture building stood on the Bluff tract. It was a structure of great beauty. Its architectural plan is described in another chapter. It stood in the center of park-like grounds; directly in front of it a fountain played softly into a basin surrounded by shrubbery, and beds of shaded velvet pansies were scattered over the grass plots. The landscape gardener worked out his plans in the vicinity of the Horticulture building to a degree of perfection not hitherto attained.

The center portion of the building was 300x300 feet, with wings on east and west 300x70 feet, 29 feet high, with center dome 110 feet in height.

THE ART EXHIBIT

The high character of the art exhibit from an artistic standpoint, no less than its representative character, made a lasting impression upon patrons of the Exposition. Among the 700 pictures shown were many by the greatest artists of the earlier periods and schools. There were good examples of Corot, Troyon, Van Marke, Pourbus, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Titian, Van Dyke and works of most of the living artists of eminence. The aim was to have a representative exhibit of good examples of the best painters only, and the plan succeeded beyond the expectations of those who had the matter in charge. The Fine Arts building was the gathering place and center for the large number of persons interested in art and artists. There is no doubt that the exhibit was the most potent educational feature of the Exposition. Modern examples of reproductions of famous masterpieces, the originals of which were found to be unavailable for exhibition purposes, were gathered here. To persons who had not had the opportunity of visiting the foreign galleries and who desired to know something of the historic pictures, this department was especially instructive. The catalogues were complete in biographical detail of the artists represented, and contained about forty half-tone reproductions of pictures suitable for such process. There was an important   collection by Scotch artists and the great painting "Charles the Bold Entering the Church at Lisle," by Boybet, from the Art Exposition at St. Louis. A number of pictures from the Nashville Exposition were shown, and many were loaned by art institutions. From the best collections of private citizens creditable selections were made. Aside from the paintings there were 200 black and white drawings loaned by the Century and Scribner's magazines— creations of the foremost painters and illustrators. George Busse loaned a collection of reproductions of drawings of highest merit. A distinct feature was the Copley collection of reproductions of the important mural and decorative paintings. There was a fine collection of Braune autotypes, comprising reproductions in carbon of the masterpieces. By many of these copies visitors were enabled to get a good idea of the best art of the world. One painting that attracted attention was the "Return of Spring" (nude in art by Borgereau), a life-size figure of a young woman surrounded by cupids and flowers. The picture, valued at $50,000, came into prominence years ago when hung in an art loan exhibit in Omaha. At that time a young man, Cary J. Warbington, threw a chair through the canvas, which was subsequently repaired. It now hangs in the Lininger gallery of Omaha. The group of pictures indicated below attracted a great deal of attention:

"Students on a Lark;," by Amell. "The Miniature," by Birney. "Dordrecht," by Boudin. "Rocks at Low Tide," by Bricher. "An Awful Yarn," by Brown. "After the Bath," by Caliga. "Souvenir de la Tomise," by Clays. "Departure of the Fishermen," by Dessar. "A Kitten Family," by Dolph. "In the Pasture," by Dupre. "Lord Howe's Levee," by Ferris. "Spanish Scene," by Fortuny. "Waste Lands," by Gay. "Vegetable Market," by Gilbert. "Surrender of New Amsterdam," by Harris. "Departure of the Mayflower," by Harrison. "Autumn," by Hassam. "Norman Bull," by Howe. "Arabs Bathing Horses," by Huguet. "Gone," by Joullin. "St. Ives, Priez pour Nous," by Kendall. "The Seine at Paris," by Lapostolet. "Leaving the Desert," by Lazerges. "Morning in the Woods," by Leigh. "Minuet," by Lemaire. "A Wordless Farewell," by Lorenz. "Boar Hunt," by Melin. "Last Moments," by Mosler. "Dressing the Baby," by Neuhuys. "Sunlight on the Sea," by Nicoll. "Roses," by Park. "The Widow," by Berrault. "Neptune," by Perry. "Rabbit," by Pirie. "Hen and Chickens," by Pirie. "Dawn," by Reid. "Off Sark" by Richards. "Charles the Bold" (fragment), by Roybet. "In the Pool," by Sieber, "The Coming Shower," by Wiles.

In the statuary department were many fine reproductions in marble, bronze and plaster. One wing of the building was used for the exhibition of oil paintings, great and small, which adorned the walls. The other wing was devoted to a display of water colors, pastels, crayons, and black-and-white  

A Wordless Farewell—Lorenz
An Awful Yarn--Brown
Surrender of New Amsterdam—Harris
Leaving the Desert—Lazerges
  work. Each wing of the building was divided into two large and four smaller galleries. The galleries in either building surrounded a rotunda, lighted by a large Byzantine dome. The rotundas contained statuary.

The French Commissioner of the Exposition, Frederick Mayer, of Paris, secured a special concession from the French Government, permitting a copy of the famous statue of "Winged Victory" to be made for the Exposition.

"Winged Victory" is one of the most famous ancient statues. It was unearthed in the valley of Samothrace in 1867, by a representative of the French Government. It was in fragments and was removed to the Louvre and put together. About. eight years later the gigantic pedestal was discovered, and this was also removed to the Louvre, where pedestal and figure were restored to their original positions as far as possible. The pedestal represents the stony prow of a galley, below which are sea waves. The figure, more than double life size, towers above this massive and lofty hulk. The statue is badly mutilated. but it shows a fully draped female figure which has alighted on the prow of a ship, sweeping down with lightning speed, the powerful form, with rushing drapery, seeming to force a way for this imposing goddess of victory. The dainty wings of the goddess are extended, and might and power are delineated in every line of the figure and drapery. The figure is of Parian marble, and the exquisite nicety with which every detail is worked out marks this as one of the most remarkable examples of the great genius of the Hellenic sculptors ever discovered. Careful calculations by antiquarians place the origin of this figure in the third century, B. C.

In the open court between the wings of the buildings at the center of a peristyle was a fountain in the middle of a garden of flowers, while scattered about were groups and single figures of statuary. The success of the fine arts exhibit was due to the discriminating taste of Armand H. Griffith, superintendent. As director of the Detroit Museum of Art Mr. Griffth had knowledge of the means of getting the best pictures. He was assisted by committees whose membership was as follows:

Advisory Committee—Paul Charlton, chairman; C. S. Huntington, F. W. Parker, Z. T. Lindsey, C. H. Hamilton, Clement Chase, Earl W. Gannett, W. S. Poppleton, Herman Kountze. Honorary Commissioners and Committee of Selection—Jules Rolshoven, England; Frederick Mayer, France; Dr. C. Hofstedel, De Groot, Holland; W. M. R. French, Illinois; John L. Griffith, Indiana; Stephen N. Crosby, Massachusetts; Chas. L. Freer, Michigan; Thos. B. Walker, Minnesota: F. L. Ridgley, Missouri; John W. Bookwalter, New York; Frank Duvenick, Ohio; Daniel Baugh. Pennsylvania; Theo. Cooley, Tennessee; John L. Mitchell, Wisconsin.

 

Electrical Exhibits

MACHINERY AND ELECTRICITY

The electricity exhibit was no less wonderful than that of the Columbian Exposition of 1893. The intervening five years enabled the exhibitors in some of the branches to illustrate the advancement made in the expanding science. To that extent the Omaha exhibit surpassed the Chicago display. Latest phases of development in the art of applying the subtle fluid were shown. Edison, Tesla, Thompson and Squiers each was represented in some instrument or appliance which made his name celebrated in the scientific world. Most of the great electrical supply companies placed interesting exhibits, while the lighting, telephone and telegraph companies made comprehensive exhibits illustrating the progress made in those branches of the art. The mysterious power was illustrated in stages of evolution from the primitive glass disc for the generation of frictional electricity with its necessary adjunct, the Leyden jar, down to the mammoth dynamo; from the old, original "Hudson" light of 1845 down to the latest improved arc and incandescent lights. One exhibit illustrated the formation of thunder and lightning and other mysterious things; another showed the original Edison electric-light dynamo. There was   a display of dynamos ranging from 1-16 of one horsepower to 1,000 H.P. Most interesting was an historical exhibit of the telephone from the experimental stage down to 1898; and a similar exhibit of telegraphy, from the old Morse paper-tape recording instrument down to the multiplex. Deep-sea electric communication was illustrated, as was an improved system of underground wiring, together with devices for controlling and measuring electricity. Methods of application of electric heat and power were shown. The X-ray exhibit was highly interesting.

The machinery exhibit was limited for the most part to machinery and engines for the transmission of power, together with tools and appliances required by artisan, mechanic and farmer. These were immense stationary engines and many others ranging in size down to the diminutive dynamo; printing presses, gasoline engines, pumps, scales, etc. Of two small steam engines, one could have been placed inside of a small-size pistol cartridge— a complete horizontal engine in perfect running order. Another exhibit was a complete boiler and engine which made its own steam and would run nearly 20 minutes with 20 drops of water.

There was a creditable exhibit of everything in firearms, including the larger projectiles and specimens of four-inch Harveyized-steel armor pierced by six-pound steel projectiles.

There was a comprehensive exhibit of tools of all kinds.

The exhibits covered 14,404 square feet of floor space and 7, 500 square feet of gallery space.

In the powerhouse at the north end of the Bluff tract, not far from the north viaduct spanning Sherman Avenue, there was a massive battery of tubular boilers capable of transforming tons of water into steam hourly. This plant furnished the energy for the mammoth engines which transmitted power to all parts of the grounds, and for the dynamos which generated the electricity for illumination. This vast plant of machinery was installed as exhibits, and was visited by hundreds of thousands of people.

MANUFACTURES

The general exhibit of manufactures was open to the world. There were linens from Belfast, silks and carvings from the Orient, furs from the Russias, woolens from Australia and Thibet, laces from France, cutlery from England, toys and art goods from Germany—in fact, all the European states were represented in the vast array of manufactured goods displayed. Articles of domestic manufacture predominated, forming a collective exhibit of manufactures of surpassing interest and value. The exhibit booths were more elaborate and costly than those of any other building and presented a greater variety of design. All available space was taken and exhibits were compactly   placed. The display of packing-house products was elaborate, including a new system of meat refrigeration. This embraced a huge refrigerator of octagonal shape, 20 feet in smallest diameter, 30 feet high, with large, doubled, plateglass sides mounted on a circular track and was made to revolve slowly around its axis by a system of powerful cogs impelled by electricity. It contained all kinds of dressed meats. Another booth was constructed entirely of canned meats arranged for artistic effects. In a substantial pavilion near the center of the great building a manufacturer of chocolate gave free samples of his product. From the upper floor of this booth arranged to resemble a roof garden, orchestral concerts were given. A stove-pipe maker erected a booth entirely of planished iron. All kinds of oil were exhibited and the many biproducts of petroleum were shown. There were large exhibits of cut glass, silverware, jewelry, ecclesiastical art goods, embroideries, art lingerie, sewing machines; furnishings for both sexes, pure foods, leather goods, carvings and art work, footwear of all kinds, ancient and modern, from all parts of the world; soaps, perfumes, confections, etc. There were large exhibits of prepared foods. The wine-makers and brewers made fine-exhibits. A hat factory in operation attracted much attention, as did a saddle and harness factory.

Manufactures Exhibit
  Sewing machines in operation turned out samples of work done. In the millers' exhibit section a small mill illustrated the process of the manufacture of flour. There were several exhibits of boots and shoes, and many exhibits of small utensils used about the home. Bread and cake making was exemplified in a cooking school. The interior of a model home was shown, containing stores and household furniture. Exquisite wearing apparel and laces of great value fascinated feminine visitors. Every contrivance for the comfort and convenience of mankind was seen in these exhibits, which contained the finished products of the genius of inventors. To describe them all would require far more space than can here be devoted to the subject. The diversified interests represented and the multiplicity of ideas and tastes displayed in decorative effects produced combinations which were harmonized in a most attractive way, presenting a picture of rare beauty. The total exhibit space on the main floor was 49,669 square feet, and in the gallery 19,884 square feet, all of which was occupied. In the gallery were placed the Hawaiian and Mexican exhibits, consisting of manufactured goods and the raw material used in making them. On this floor also were placed the educational exhibits, which occupied 14,000 square feet of space. The east end was covered by the exhibits of the University of Nebraska and the State Normal schools. There were contributions from 183 high and graded schools and 322 rural schools. Out of 90 Nebraska counties, 72 exhibited drawings, paintings and kindergarten work. In the manual-training exhibit of the Omaha high school, machinery in motion was shown. There were noteworthy exhibits from the Kearney Industrial School for boys, and from the Geneva School for girls, from the State Institute for the deaf, the State Institute for the blind, business colleges and other private schools.

LIBERAL ARTS

The exhibit of the liberal arts measured the progress and development of taste in the useful and ornamental articles of everyday use. Distinguishing features were attractive fabrics, embroideries, and countless articles for house adornment; stained glass, art furniture, pianos, musical instruments, drugs, chemicals, fine pottery, typewriters, improved educational appliances, photographic exhibits, stoneware, porcelains of elaborate finish, draperies and laces of exquisite beauty, jewelry and bric-a-brac from all countries, furs from all parts of the world, and many other articles of utility. A large exhibit showed the agrarian products of the world. The fiber exhibit of the U. S. Government was complete, showing an extensive collection of varieties of flax and hemp from various States and foreign countries. The Puget Sound country had a large exhibit on panels, ranging from the raw straw as harvested to bundles of flax worth $500 per ton and ready for the mills. Samples  

Emergency Hospital
from Wisconsin, Minnesota, the Dakotas, Iowa, Washington, Oregon, Nebraska and other Western States were shown. There was an exhibit of four cases on panels showing jute, cotton, ranlie, sisal, palmetto, cocoanut and brush fibers from the South, Cuba, Mexico and the Philippines. An exhibit of corn-pith cellulose, used for packing bulkheads of armored vessels, attracted attention. The women of Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota and South Dakota placed extensive exhibits of lace, needlework, fancy embroidery, etc., in the galleries, occupying a large portion of the space. Creditable displays were made by Columbia College and the Art Institute of Chicago. There were several interesting and excellent exhibits made by colored women's associations of the county. The numerous booths were tastefully decorated. The total space covered by exhibits aggregated 46,128 square feet.

TRANSPORTATION EXHIBIT

A building of large dimensions was erected especially for the transportation exhibit—300x430 feet. The exhibit comprised every style of vehicle, and illustrated the various means of transportation and appliances of modern rapid   transit. There was also a large exhibit of agricultural implements. Four railway tracks entered the building—1,728 feet of track, which was filled with locomotives, coaches, cars and railway appliances. There was a palatial Pullman vestibule train through which 520,000 persons passed during the Exposition season. There were types of early locomotives and those of modern pattern. The old "Lincoln coach" was exhibited. It was an armor-clad coach, built in 1864 especially for President Lincoln, and used by him in making journeys during the Civil War. At his death the car was used to convey his remains to Springfield. It was exhibited by the Union Pacific Railway, and attracted wide attention. In this great exhibit there were wheeled vehicles and instruments used in many lines of industry. Machines were exhibited by all the great manufacturing concerns of the country. There were 151 exhibitors and the exhibits covered 59,158 square feet.

DAIRY—APIARY—FINE STOCK

The dairy and apiary exhibits are described in the chapter on State Exhibits. There were five separate butter exhibits in each class during June, July, August, September and October, the total number of exhibitors being 205, and the average score 93.25. The exhibit of bee industries occupied

Dairy Exhibits Building
  1,340 square feet in the apiary building, and was said to be the finest exhibit of its class every opened to the public.

The fine stock exhibits numbered 2,692, compared with 1,842 at the World's Fair of 1893. Cash prizes aggregating $35,000 were awarded. This great industry was well represented, there being exhibited many of the finest specimens of fancy stock every shows. Judges and competitors concurred in the opinion that the exhibit, in many respects, had never been surpassed.

Nebraska Exhibit Building

 

CHIEFTAINS OF THE INDIAN ENCAMPMENT

 

INDIAN ENCAMPMENT

CHAPTER IX

A LITTLE more than a generation prior to the opening of the Exposition, the ground upon which it was erected was the abiding place of a once powerful tribe of Indians. To the northward, perhaps a mile, and at the base of the declivity which marks a lower plane of the river bottom, is the erstwhile site of the chief village of the Omahas or Mahas about which there clusters many interesting traditions of the tribal life of an Indian nation whose chieftains dominated a wide expanse of territory for centuries prior to the advent of the white man. Eastward of the Exposition site and halfway down the side of the bluff from which the Bluff Tract took its name, was Sulphur Spring, first discovered by the red man, who pointed it out to the pioneers, explaining that its sparkling and somewhat odoriferous perpetual fountain possessed a mystic power in the hands of the tribal medicine man. It was regarded by the Indians as a thing of priceless value. Among the tall trees above and below Sulphur Spring, wandering Indians had many times set up their wigwams and located their temporary habitations. In fact, the region round about the Exposition site was rich in Indian lore, as the topography of the country, its sightliness and natural beauty, made it no less inviting to the aborigine than it has ever been to the white man.

For a decade prior to the Exposition year periodical literature had devoted much space to the decadence of the American Indian. Often the prediction was expressed that before the lapse of another generation of time a once populous and dominant race would be almost extinct. The government, through its scientists in the division of anthropology, had devoted itself to a study of the vanishing race of redmen and had begun to publish large volumes known as the annual reports of the Bureau of Ethnology. There existed in  

A Sioux Chieftain
the minds of well-informed men a conviction that the slow processes of time and the encroachments of a relentless western civilization were working to the ultimate extermination of the race of American Indians.

These considerations led to the idea of having a large congress of Indians during the Exposition season embracing representatives of every important tribe. The managers believed that such an assembly of the various types would not only afford a highly attractive spectacle. but would at the same time possess an educational value to the government as well as to the patrons of the Exposition. The Exposition management deemed it a fitting time in which to provide for an assemblage of the various tribes of Indians who would, by their equipage, dress, actions and participation in the rites and ceremonies peculiar to their race, show to the younger generation in an interesting and instructive manner the kind and character of people the early settlers had for neighbors. The Trans-Mississippi region has been the scene of many bloody conflicts waged between Indians and white men; within the same territory had been put forth the greatest effort on the part of the Indian to withstand the encroachment of his white brother; and lastly, it was in that section where the Indian was forced to acknowledge for all time the superiority of the Caucasian, accept the conditions offered, and retire peacefully, if not willingly, within the reservation provided for him. In light of these facts of history the idea of holding an Indian congress was happily conceived, and without doubt much hitherto unknown of the Indian character and customs was learned as a result of this exhibit; while the Indians themselves enjoyed fraternizing with members of the various tribes gathered together, and the ocular demonstration afforded by this unique exhibit enabled thousands of visitors to see what the government had done for the benefit and welfare of the aborigines.

 

The first efforts put forth to secure federal legislation looking to the holding of an Indian congress proved futile, but finally an item was inserted in the Indian appropriation bill, which became law July 1, 1898, appropriating $40,000 and authorizing the holding of an Indian congress at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. The Exposition had been in operation a month, nothing had been done toward assembling the Indians for participation in the encampment or congress, but, despite this delay, the matter was taken hold of with such degree of energy that the exhibit (the first of its kind) was presented upon August 4 and proved to be a great success. The Exposition city was fortunately located within easy reach of the large Indian reservations, and it was not difficult to assemble many families of the Indians, most of the tribes being represented by an aggregate number of some 500. The exhibit occupied more than four acres of ground in the north tract. Upon July 11, 1898, the Department of the Interior detailed Captain W. A. Mercer, of the Eighth United States Infantry, then acting agent of the Omaha and Winnebago agency, Nebraska, to install and conduct the congress of Indian tribes at the Exposition: and on July 13, 1808, the Department granted Mr. J. R. Wise, a clerk in the office of the commissioner of Indian affairs, leave of absence, and appointed him as assistant manager to aid Captain Mercer at the Exposition. Not all the

Indians expected to be present on opening day were on hand, but the exhibit was an entire success, about 450 individuals taking part in the ceremonies. The Indians attending the congress brought with them, as far as possible, their cooking utensils, their ponies, and either their tepees or material with which to make them; tools and material with which to prosecute their customary occupations, and the articles they made were readily disposed of to patrons of the Exposition. The Wichita Indians had with them a typical grass house. which had been razed from   its site on the reservation, hauled to the railroad, go miles distant, and then transported by rail to the Exposition grounds, where it formed an interesting feature of the Indian settlement. In setting it up the original materials were used, requiring the labor of several squaws for about one week. The house was built in a substantial manner, the inside support being formed of a square framework of stout logs, about eight inches in diameter, planted upright in the ground, supporting cross-pieces of the same size laid in crotches at the top. These are dome-shaped structures, and the circular form is obtained by bending half-round timbers over the frame above mentioned, said timbers being driven into the ground in a circular trench. To the above are then attached small flexible poles, at regular intervals, from the ground up, being fastened with elm bark. The structure is then covered with grass, the coating resembling a thatched roof. Grass doors are furnished, a smoke hole is left near the top, but a little to one side of the center, while in the middle is a fire hole with support from which to hang a pot, Seven families lived in the grass house, the remainder occupying several canvas tents adjoining. There was also a grass-thatched arbor built in the same fashion, with a sweat lodge of willow rods.

At the close of the Exposition the grass house was purchased for the National Museum, and the materials shipped to Washington and set up in the National Park.

The Kiowa Apache was also an interesting delegation, every man and woman coming to the Exposition dressed in full buckskin, beautifully fringed and beaded. They set up their canvas tepees adjoining the Wichitas, enclosing one of them with a circular wind-break of leafy willow branches, after the manner of the winter camps of the plains Indians. Suspended from a tripod in front of the same tepee was a genuine, old-time "buffalo shield"—the last shield remaining in the tribe. It is now the property of the National Museum.

The Sioux were conspicuous by their eagle-feather war bonnets, for the wearing of which they evinced a special fondness. Following the custom of the plains tribes this delegation set up their tepees in the form of a circle. many of them being very tastefully decorated. The language of this tribe was reduced to writing many years ago, as a result of which a large proportion of the men are able to correspond with each other in their tribal language.

The Crow delegation proved an interesting one because of the fact that with it was White Swan, a former scout and sole survivor of the Custer massacre, in 1876, in which notable engagement he was shot and hacked almost to pieces and finally left for dead, but managed to save his life by covering himself with the blanket of a dead Dakota. With his hearing destroyed by blows of the tomahawk, his hands crippled by bullets, and his whole body   covered with enduring scars, he was still able to tell the story in fluent sign language. It is interesting to note that this tribe of Indians has never been at war with the whites, but, on the contrary, often furnished a contingent of scouts for the Government service in the various Indian campaigns of that region.

The Omaha Indians had with the Wah-tun-num-she, a warrior 73 years old, who recounted in an interesting manner his story of the last battle his

Sioux Litter
tribe had with the Sioux in Nebraska. The spot where the battle occurred is now occupied by the city of Columbus. It was the name of their tribe which was adopted for that of the city in which the great Trans-Mississippi Exposition was held. The word "Omaha" signifies upstream, serving to distinguish them from tribes which lived lower down the stream. Most of these Indians now live in frame houses, but a few of them still prefer the old-time earth lodge.

The Flathead delegation was a small one, and was made up of representatives from three different tribes closely allied, speaking practically the same dialect and having the same dress and general appearance. Those who   sought to discover flat plates on these Indians were unsuccessful, as the fact is they are "Flatheads" only in name.

The Sac and Fox tribes were well represented. These Indians live in round-top wigwams, which they cover with mats of rushes, and carpet the floors thereof with like material. Several of these wigwams were erected upon the grounds and covered in the manner above indicated. the appearance of which, when complete, differs in structure from the conical tepee of the plains tribes. The Tribe weave rush into mats and do fine bead-work, as was demonstrated by the delegation.

The Tonkawa delegation was a small one, but interesting from the fact that they were on the verge of extinction; further, that so far as present knowledge goes, they constitute a distinct linguistic stock, and are the only existing cannibal tribe in the United States, while historically they are the sole representatives of the Indians of the old Alamo mission, whose most tragic incident had its parallel in the massacre that practically wiped out their tribe, There were only 53 survivors, and they lived on land allotted to them in eastern Oklahoma.

Geronimo, Apache Chieftain

 

Kiowas

No little interest attached to the band of Apache Indians from Ft. Sill. Okla., by reason of the fact that the famous chief, Geronimo, was of their number, together with his able lieutenant, Nachie. Being military prisoners they were housed in army tents, but visitors had an opportunity of seeing them at work making baskets, canes, and beaded-work, which they readily disposed of.

The tepees of the Blackfeet Indians attracted no little attention because of the fact that most of them were made of hides of deer or buffalo, painted and decorated with scenes representative of the chase. The tepees of the Assiniboines were also covered with pictures. the painting indicating some skill in that direction on the part of the artist.

A reproduction in miniature of the Kiowa camp circle as it was pitched at Medicine Lodge, Kans., in 1867, proved an interesting exhibit and was first presented to the public in connection with the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, occupying a small space at the east end of the Indian village and being surrounded by a fence eight feet high. The time of the gathering depicted in miniature was June, the season of the blooming of the cottonwood tree, and the occasion was the celebration by the Kiowas of their great animal ceremonial which is known as the sun dance, or torture dance, this being the last great gathering of the tribe before the signing of the treaty which placed   them with other tribes on Government reservations. The tribe, according to the report of the Commissioners, consisted of about 1,000 people. They were encamped in a circle about a mile in diameter, each of the 250 tepees being set with precise exactness, facing the center of the ring and at a uniform distance there from on either side. The miniature reproduction of this camp is the property of the Smithsonian Institution, it having been prepared through the efforts of Prof. James Mooney, of the United States Ethnological Bureau, who expended thereon more or less of his time during a period of five years. The camp, as arranged by Prof. Mooney, was 80 feet in diameter and consisted of 80 tepees, he having selected those deemed to possess the greatest interest from uniqueness of design and historic association. In front of each tepee, hung on a tripod, was the shield emblematic of the family to which it belonged. Passing in at the entrance of the circle which was on the south in the reproduction, but always faced the east in the original encampments. the first tepee on the left was that of the family of the man whose task it was to provide the buffalo, the skin of which was used in the sun dance. When the day was set for the propitiatory ceremony, he was obliged to go without food until he had captured his animal. The office of "Buffalo man" was hereditary and was considered the highest honor, as evidenced by the fact that his tepee was allotted the first place in the circle. The second was the warrior tepee. Its decorations consisted of numerous pictures representing battles in which the famous warriors of the tribe had achieved distinction. It was painted by the warrior himself and the occasion was one of feasting and sports. In the miniature tepee these pictures were reproduced by one man. A little farther around the circle was the tepee belonging to the only remaining signer of the peace treaty. It was decorated with black and white circles. Near this was the porcupine tepee, the property of the last chief of the tribe. Almost opposite the entrance was the turtle tepee, made by one of the famous medicine men of the tribe. Next to this was the home of a member of the tribe, who claimed to understand the language of owls. One of the birds. wrapped in a red cloth, hung to the pole before the door. Following the circle around, the visitor passed several tepees decorated with rude pictures of water monsters, eagles and rainbows. Then came the scalp tepee, hung with a collection of scalp-locks taken from enemies in battle. Day and night were represented on the opposite sides of the next, with fantastic representations of the sun and stars. Conspicuous among the shields on the right of the entrance was one painted with representations of rain drops, from which the name of "rain tepee" was given to the home of the owner.

The Kiowa Apaches, an associated tribe of the Kiowas, were assigned to a place in the circle adjoining the entrance on the right hand side. Their   chief. "Whiteman," occupied a tepee decorated with the arms, a bear, which was his guardian. In front of the door stood a shaft of wood wrapped with a beaver skin. This he carries into battle and drives into the ground to fasten himself to the spot where he takes his stand. In the center of the circle stood the medicine lodge built for the celebration of the dance which called all of the members of the tribe together once a year. This was built of cottonwood branches interwoven on 17 poles standing in a circle round the

Ghost Dance of Cheyennes and Arapahoes
center poles seven paces apart. Hanging to the center pole was the medicine image, which was kept hid in a bag under strict surveillance of the priests during the year, and only brought out at the annual June festival. It was the head and shoulders of a man carved out of stone and grotesquely painted. above the image hung a strip of buffalo skin cut from a point a little in front of the ears to the tail. This was wrapped around a branch of cottonwood. An arbor of cottonwood boughs, which formed the secret chamber of the priests during the dance, completed the interior of the lodge. The shields. all of which were consecrated to the sun, were arranged in rows front and back of the lodge. All were painted yellow—the sun color—and decorated   according to the designs revealed in visions. Those facing the entrance were arranged in two lines of seven and five respectively. Behind the lodge were I nine others, hung on poles, and two on tripods painted black and white. These stood before the tepee which was occupied by the priests in preparing the ceremony., The dance for which these elaborate preparations were made was a propitiatory sacrifice to the sun god or medicine image. It continued for four days and nights, during which time those who participated in it took neither food nor sleep. The dancers offered themselves as voluntary sacrifices. Some painted themselves yellow, meaning that they intended to hold to the end; others covered their bodies with white chalk, which signified that they would dance as long as their strength would allow. In with their arms hanging at their sides and the eagle bone whistle in their mouths, they circled around and around the lodge, keeping their eyes fixed on the image. While the dance is sometimes called the torture dance, there was no cutting, as the sight of blood was abhorrent to the god in whose honor it was given. The miniature reproduction of the Kiowa circle exhibits with a minuteness of detail all the features of the original. Each part of the exhibit, even to the whittling of the tepee poles, was prepared by members of the Kiowa tribe. Each tepee was made by some member of the family who occupied the original. This was in accordance with the Indian custom, which allows no one to imitate in any way the property of another family.

The Pueblos were housed in adobe or sun-dried brick buildings erected by them with brick they had previously made on the ground in a primitive manner.

Interesting ceremonies were carried out by the various Indian tribes, notably the ghost dance of the plains tribes, the mounted horn dance of the Wichitas and the war dance and devil dance of the Apache, the latter performed at night by firelight, a clown and other masked characters taking part.

Indulgence in a dog feast was one of the incidents enjoyed by the Indian during his sojourn on the Exposition grounds. In order to be entitled to partake of the feast an Indian must have been a warrior at some time in his existence, and besides this he must have returned to his people with some scalps attached to his girdle. These scalps, of course, can be those of white people or of Indians. In looking the camp over, it was found that there were about forty Indians who had done something to entitle them to eat dog flesh. When a suitable dog was found the squaws skinned and cooked it. Everybody had to take a look at the dog, and every few minutes during the afternoon some Indian would walk up to the kettle, give the dog a turn with a stick, and go away satisfied. When it was announced that the dog was ready to be eaten a Blackfeet Indian mounted a dry goods box and   delivered a short speech commending the Indians about him and referring in a forcible way to the many acts of bravery that they had performed, stating it was not often so many Indians or so many different tribes got together to eat dog flesh and for that reason the occasion should be regarded as a most memorable one. The Indian was greeted with applause as he concluded his speech. No second invitation was required, and immediately such Indians as had an indisputed right to eat, gathered around the kettle and began fishing out pieces of the animal. There was enough to go around, but none to spare,

Sham Battle
After the feast, those who had partaken of it formed around the kettle and dying embers and joined in a dance. Later a dance was indulged in by all the Indians without regard to whether they had eaten or not. The utensils, weapons, ceremonies, customs and domestic life of the Indian were as nearly as possible represented just as they existed when Lo was leading his former free life in the forest or on the plains.

By the student such exceptional opportunities for studying the Indian and his ways were duly appreciated and to him the matters referred to in the foregoing were of much interest. To a large majority of the Exposition   visitors the feature of the Indian exhibit was the sham battle indulged in by the red skins at stated intervals. These battles were planned in such a way as to display the Indian's fearlessness, agility, horsemanship, etc., all of which features were fully brought out and when the contending braves mingled one with the other in the excitement of the fray, the spectacle took on so realistic an appearance that the onlooker was often carried away with the excitement of the moment. These contests were entered into with zest on the part of the Indians, and upon the occasion of the visit to the Exposition of the President of the United States, an especially elaborate program was carried out, the Indians appearing in their very best garb and decorated with all the war paint the occasion would warrant. So enthusiastic did the Indians become in their efforts to entertain the Great Father, that it was with difficulty they were persuaded to desist from shooting at each other—and in fact, but few of them did desist short of firing the last blank cartridge which had been served to them. A retreat of the Indians was frequently a feature of the sham battles, and on such occasions the squaws would break camp and in an incredibly short space of time the tents and contents were packed on the backs of their ponies, or otherwise disposed of for movement to the rear. Another incident of these sham battles was the capture of prisoners and the burning of them at the stake. However, before any serious harm befell these prisoners the tide of battle changed and their rescue was effected. The following description of the plan of one of these battles will serve for an understanding of the general character of all: The Sioux, the Wichitas, the Kiowas and the Assiniboines came into camp with a prisoner of the Blackfeet. They tied the victim to a stake and piled brush about his feet. Round and about him the Indians danced and taunted him in anticipation of the burning. A couple of scouts were thrown out to protect the camp from the enemy. The latter located the camp of the Blackfeet, but while they were spying about it they were killed and scalped by a couple of scouts of the enemy. The latter rushed into their camp with information of the other encampment, and just as the match was applied to the brush about the feet of the victim at the stake, the Blackfeet descended upon the Sioux and swept them away. In the fight four prisoners were taken, and the now victorious party were preparing for a stake burning of their own. But before their arrangements were completed the Sioux had secured reinforcements and returned to rescue their tribesmen. A pitched battle ensued, in which men were killed and scalped and the bodies of the dead warriors were mutilated by the women of the respective parties.

Among incidents of the Indian congress the following may be mentioned: A few days after the opening of the Indian congress a son was presented to her spouse by Mrs. Spotted Back. A remarkable coincidence is connected   with the birth of little Spotted Back in that, 32 years before, his mother's people were passing through Omaha and camped for the night at Sulphur Spring under the bluff east of the Nebraska State building. Here during the evening the mother of little Spotted Back was born. The place is less than a mile from where the little fellow in the Omaha camp was born.

An Indian brave died during the encampment and was buried. Before being placed in the coffin his hair was carefully braided, a winding sheet of soft blue material was laced around him, and he was dressed with fine

Dress Parade
leggins and moccasins. Food, water, tobacco, etc., were placed in his coffin to furnish sustenance and comfort during his long journey to the happy hunting grounds. At the grave-side the brave's arms were freed from the shroud and each of his friends took a parting handshake.

The Indians were reviewed by President McKinley during his visit to the Exposition. Tribe by tribe passed before him, the leader of the various tribes being introduced to him by name. First, came the women in blankets covered with brilliant figures in red, green, yellow and blue: some were accompanied by toddling children and others had pappooses strapped to their backs. Then came the warriors on foot, bedecked in gaudy costumes, and   finally came the horsemen. The salutations with which the Indians greeted the President were interesting and novel. Few removed their head-gear. The first to salute the President was Geronimo, the once dreaded chief of the Apaches. He doffed his head-gear and a dignified smile passed over his wrinkled features as he made obeisance. He was the only Indian who had discarded the dress of savagery, and he appeared in scout's uniform with a few brilliant adornments.

After the sham battle the Indians lined up as spectators and sent word to the President through Captain Mercer that they had been introduced to him, and they now wanted that he should be introduced to them. To this request the President acceded, and, hat in hand, he started at one end of the line and went to the other. Captain Mercer introduced him to the Indians with "This is the President." The President bowed and passed to the next.

General Miles has been one of the greatest Indian fighters in the history of the country. It was he who captured Geronimo and negotiated the terms of surrender. During the Jubilee week General Miles and members of his staff occupied front seats in the reserved section, and the Indians from the camp were lined up for review. Geronimo looked up into the thousands of faces, apparently trying to locate a familiar one. Finally he caught sight of General Miles and looked steadily at him for perhaps a couple of minutes, and then, dismounting from his horse, he started toward the seats. He brushed aside the crowd with his hands and was soon at the side of General Miles. Mustering the best English at his command, he extended his hand and exclaimed: "How, General, I am glad to see you." The General reached for the extended hand, but suddenly it was withdrawn, and instantly Geronimo clasped the white warrior in his embrace and hugged him as affectionately as would a father who had not seen his son for years. The embrace was returned by General Miles, and for several minutes the great chiefs stood there, neither saying a word. The head of Geronimo dropped over on General Miles' shoulder, and the old man appeared as contented as a babe laying its head upon the breast of its mother. Unclasping their arms, Geronimo grasped both of the General's hands in his and pumped them up and down vigorously, then let them go, only to clasp them again. When the real meaning of this greeting was understood by the audience a cheer went up that was echoed far and near, and was taken up by the Indians and carried to the most remote parts of the camp. After the friendly greeting between the two men, General Miles took from the coat that he was wearing a Peace Jubilee badge and pinned it to the blue uniform worn by Geronimo. The old chief looked at it in a most admiring manner, and simply responded "Good." After that both occupied chairs near together, and both seemed   interested in the battle that ensued. Later they held a conversation through the medium of an Apache interpreter.

During the closing days of the Exposition, it was a familiar sight to see wagons piled high with empty trunks making distribution of same among the Indians. It was estimated that 400 trunks found their way into the Indian congress. Every buck or squaw possessing $2.50 bought a large trunk, and those possessing $4.00 bought very large ones. Quality did not figure. While other Indians were busying themselves in getting their things packed up ready for starting homeward, Geronimo turned many an honest penny by selling his autograph and pictures, charging go cents and a dollar for each. The Sioux were the last of the Indians to leave the Exposition grounds for home.

American Horse, a man who had always been a power among the Sioux Indians, and who has always been a staunch friend of the whites, happened to discover General Miles soon after the beginning of the battle. Dropping his gun, he hurried into the grandstand and was soon greeting the General in a most cordial, though not affectionate, manner. American Horse has always been a great admirer of General Miles, and has always referred to him as the "Great White Chief." He had not seen the General for a number of years, and it was the great desire to see him that brought him from his home, 500 miles away.

 

STAGE AND SECTION OF INTERIOR AUDITORIUM

 

CONVENTIONS AND CONGRESSES

CHAPTER X

THE manifold attractions incident to a great exposition afforded good basis for a call to moving spirits of many parties, societies, leagues, lodges, who had not yet chosen meeting places for their annual gatherings. The entire country was scoured for information leading to prospective conventions, congresses, etc., and many agencies were exerted to induce the men in control of such bodies to appoint Omaha as the meeting-place in 1898. From the very beginning of organized effort, the Department of Promotion engaged in a campaign to make Omaha pre-eminently the convention city during the months of the Exposition. This was done by enlisting the co-operation of all classes of men in Nebraska affiliating with the various organizations or societies P whose annual meetings for 1898 had not yet been fixed. In this work the Commercial Club did good service in the way of the Exposition. This was done by enlisting the co-operation of all classes of men in Nebraska affiliating with the various organizations of societies whose annual meetings for 1898 had not yet been fixed. In this work the Commerical Club did good service in the way of pointing out Omaha's attractions, and giving assurance of ample hotel facilities. Obviously this campaign was most successful during 1897, and engagements were for the most part made by vote of the annual conventions that year. The net result was that nearly one hundred conventions, congresses, national and state gatherings of fraternal societies, etc., were secured for 1898. A glance at the list appended will enable the reader to see that in most cases it was possible to enlist the active aid of a few local members of each body or society in efforts to secure the annual meetings. The more important events are indicated as follows:

The Mixed Congress
National Philatelic Society
Royal House of Midi
National Dental Congresses
Daughters of Sphinx
Society of American Florists
National Cricket Clubs
Nebraska Dental Association
National Indian Institute
The Western Star Court
Trans-Mississippi Turnfest
Swedish Epworth League
 
Liberal Congress of Religions
Independent Order of Foresters
Nebraska Veteran Free Masons
National Detective Association
Western Negro Press Association
Swedish Evangelical Convention
Afro-American Protective League
Dairymen's National Association
American Institute of Homeopathy
Travelers' Protective Association
Danish Lutheran Church of America
The American Maize Propaganda
National Association of Postal Clerks
National Good Roads Parliament
National Pure Food Congress
National Labor Congress
Western Editorial Federation
National Congress Retail Liquor Dealers
Nebraska Retail Grocers' Association
State Association Retail Liquor Dealers
Nebraska State Jewelers' Association
Nebraska State Photographers' Association
Grand Commandery Knights Templar
Trans-Mississippi Fruit Festival Association
Nebraska State Pharmaceutical Society
Western District Bohemian Tournament
Western Traveling Men's Accident Association
National Convocation of Women's Clubs
National Funeral Directors' Association
Nebraska State Homeopathic Medical Society
National Convocation of Bohemian Turners
Association of Theatrical Stage Employes
National Encampment of Sons of Veterans
Scottish Rite Masons of the United States
Trans-Mississippi Convention of Phtographers
American Institute of Electrical Engineers
National Association of Dental Examiners
American Association of Fairs and Expositions
National Household Economic Association
Nebraska Grand Lodge Knights of Pythias
American State Association of State Weather Service
National Bee-Keepers' Association
National Eclectic Medical Society
Fire Underwriters' Association of the Northwest
Nebraska Eclectic Medical Association
Nebraska Saengerbund Saengerfest
Annual Convention of American Cemetery Superintendents
State Federation of Women's Clubs
Old Time Telegraphers' Association
The Society of the United States Military Telegraph Corps
American Association of Nurserymen
United States Veterinary Association
United League of Building & Loan Associations
Western Association of Wholesale Nurserymen
American Association of Farmers' Institute Managers
Superintendents of Railway Telegraph
Grand Lodge of Nebraska A. F. & A. M.
Annual Tournament of Northwestern Cricket Associations
National Association of Dental Faculties
National League of Republican Clubs
The Western Surgical and Gynecological Associations
National Poultry Association
National Live Stock Exchange
General Assembly of United Presbyterian Church
American Forestry Association
American Fisheries Association
Nebraska State Association of Funeral Directors
Nebraska State Medical Society
National Congress of Musicians

CONGRESSES AND BOARD OF EDUCATION

The management and control of the congresses of philosophic and scientific societies, the educational features of the Exposition, as well as all branches of woman's work were assigned to the Board of Education, composed exclusively of women. The officers of the board were as follows: President, Mrs. Winona Sawyer, Lincoln; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. Thos. L.   Kimball, Omaha; Mrs. Kittie L. Dutton, Hastings; Mrs. Frank Johnson, Crete; Secretary, Mrs. Frances M. Ford, Omaha. The members of the board were chosen from prominent cities in Nebraska and Iowa. The board I had charge of the exhibits of public schools, kindergartens, manual training and industrial schools, art schools, reform schools and all schools of special instruction. The Boys' and Girls building, of beautiful design, costing nearly $10,000, was erected by the board from funds contributed by school children of the Trans-Mississippi States.

Under authority and direction of the Bureau of Education there were sixty-four meetings of congresses and educational gatherings. some of which, being of national importance. attracted hither many noted men and women.

Mrs. Winona B. Sawyer
Mrs. T. L. Kimball
Mrs. William Dutton
The Congress Committee consisted of Mrs. Keysor, Mrs. Sawyer, Mrs. Reed, Mrs. Feil, Mrs. Sudborough. Mrs. Towne and Mrs. Martin. There was a committee on program and another on ways and means.

The congress on art held a three-days' session. The chief feature was a series of illustrated lectures on art topics by the best-known critics and artists in the West.

The congress on music was of four days' duration, and presented programs of absorbing interest, containing the names of over thirty artists and composers. Indian music day proved to be highly attractive. Miss Alice Fletcher, of Harvard University, and Miss Frances La Flesche, of Washington, gave results of original investigations, while a group of Omaha Indians illustrated the addresses by native songs.

The last item of interest in connection with the Indian congress was a banquet given to the Indians by Captain Mercer. For this feast he had   ordered a big, fat steer, two sheep, two hogs, ten bushels of potatoes, live barrels of apples and one thousand loaves of bread. The fireplace was built just south of the adobe house of the Pueblos. All night long the carcasses roasted and sizzled over the embers from cords of dry hickory, and at ten o'clock the following morning all was ready. The Indians had expressed a wish to be alone on this occasion, saying that they wanted to eat one meal without being gazed upon by the white people. Their wishes were respected. The barbecue given by Captain Mercer to the Indians at the congress undoubtedly had beneficial effect looking to the growth of a still better feeling upon the part of the Indians toward the white man. That the feast was greatly enjoyed by the Indians goes without saying, and it was a happy

Mrs. W. W. Keysor
Mrs. W. P. Harford
termination of an exhibit the like of which was never before seen, and the possibility is extremely remote for a reproduction in future of an exhibit of the kind which would in any considerable degree possess the same value from an ethnological standpoint, or even from the standpoint of an interesting exhibit of the Indian in his primitive condition.

Great difficulty was encountered in assembling the proper kind of Indians for the exhibit, partly because they were suspicious of the objects and aims of the white men in removing them from their reservations. However, once they were at the Exposition and realized that they were being and would be well treated, they became contented and happy with their lot, and entered into the project with zest and enthusiasm, so that not only did the exhibit become a popular one, but it became the strongest and most attractive amusement feature on the grounds.

 

The National Council of Women held a five-days' session, Mrs. May Wright Sewall, of Indianapolis, presiding. Miss Mary Fairbrother was local chairman.

The Trans-Mississippi Congress of Woman's Clubs was largely attended. Mrs. Belle M. Stoutenborough, of Plattsmouth, presided, the local chairman being Mrs. Philip Potter.

The W. C. T. U. held one session, Mrs. S. T. Walker, of Lincoln, presiding. Mrs. M. G. Andrews, local chairman.

The Mothers' Congress held a two-days' session, Mrs. Theo. Birney, of Washington, presiding. Mrs. H. H. Heller, local chairman.

The Jewish Council of Women was presided over by Mrs. A. Polack. Among other noteworthy events were: Trans-Mississippi Teachers' Convention, the Library Congress and the Congress of Charities and Corrections. In all there were 103 sessions, for which the ladies of the Omaha Woman's Club provided the meeting places.

The Exposition management gave all the credit for originating and erecting the Boys' and Girls' building to the women of the Bureau of Education. School children throughout the West were induced to contribute to the building fund, subscriptions being acknowledged by means of certificates of artistic design—the handiwork of Miss Lydia McCague.

In all, 1,737 certificates were issued. The beautiful building, erected near the east end of the lagoon, was completed June 15, and dedicated with appropriate ceremonies July 4. The creche, conducted by Mrs. A. Moore and five assistants, cared for over 2,000 small children while parents viewed the Exposition. For the benefit of the creche, the international doll collection was sent from Boston and exhibited by Miss Arabella Kimball. There were children's entertainments, lectures on cooking, etc. George Tilden had nominal charge of the restaurant on the gallery floor. The Girls' and Boys' building, with its accessories, was a successful feature of the Exposition.

The educational exhibits were not numerous. Frances M. Ford, Secretary of the Bureau, in her report, describes briefly exhibits from Columbia University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of California and from several business colleges. There was a collection from the Chicago Art Institute, and exhibits of ceramics and art needlework. Large collective a exhibits were made by State institutions and paid for out of State appropriations. About 200 awards were made.

 

BUREAU OF EDUCATION

Conducted under the auspices of the Woman's Board of Managers.

President ....................................................... Mrs. A. J. Sawyer, Lincoln
Vice-President ............................................. Mrs. Thos. L. Kimball, Omaha
Second Vice-President ..................................... Mrs. William Dutton, Hastings
Third Vice-President ......................................... Mrs. Frank Johnson, Crete
Secretary .................................................... Mrs. Frances M. Ford, Omaha

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.

Mrs. W. P. Harford, Chairman, Omaha.
Mrs. A. J. Sawyer, Lincoln Miss Kate McHugh, Omaha
Mrs. Thos. L. Kimball, Omaha Mrs. J. R. Reed, Council Bluffs
Mrs. W. W. Keysor, Omaha Mrs. D. C. Giffert, West Point

BOARD OF MANAGERS.

Congressional District.

First—Mrs. A. J. Sawyer, Lincoln; Mrs. A. W. Field, Lincoln.
Second—Mrs. Angelina Whitney, Elk City; Miss Helen Chase, Papillion.
Third—Mrs. D. C. Giffert, West Point; Mrs. Nettie Hollenbeck, Fremont.
Fourth—Mrs. J. B. McDowell, Fairbury; Mrs. Frank Johnson, Crete.
Fifth—Mrs. William Dutton, Hastings; Miss L. W. Fyffe, Hastings.
Sixth—Mrs. M. A. Hunter, Broken Bow; Mrs. J. H. Kerr, Ansley.
Omaha—Miss Anna Foos, Miss Kate McHugh, Miss Alice Hitte, Mrs. O. S. Chittenden.
Mrs. S. R. Towne, Mrs. W. W. Keysor, Mrs. W. P. Harford, Mrs. E. A. Cudahy, Mrs. Stella R. Feil, Mrs. T. L. Kimball, Mrs. Euclid Martin.
South Omaha—Mrs. E. B. Towle, Mrs. A. A. Munro.
Council Bluffs—Mrs. J. R. Reed, Mrs. S. C. Key.
 

Mr. Kirkendall, Mr. Bruce, Mr. Reed, Chairman Lindsey, Secy. Wakefield, Mr. Rosewater, Mr. Babcock, Prest. Wattles.

 

SYNOPSIS OF REPORTS OF DEPARTMENTAL MANAGERS

CHAPTER XI

THE active management and control of the Exposition was first placed into the hands of seven departmental managers comprising the Executive Committee, at a meeting of the Board of Directors held December 16, 1896. The President advised with the Executive Committee. participating in all sessions. Each manager was empowered to establish such bureaus as might be found necessary in carrying out the purposes of the department.

As first organized the department of promotion was placed in charge of G. M. Hitchcock, whose resignation later led to a consolidation of his department with that of publicity.

The official roster, as published by the Exposition, was as follows:

OFFICERS.

Gurdon W. Wattles, President. Alvin Saunders, Resident Vice-President. John A. Wakefield, Secretary. Herman Kountze, Treasurer. Carroll S. Montgomery, General Counsel.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.

Zachary T. Lindsey, Chairman and Manager Department Ways and Means.
Edward Rosewater, Manager Department Publicity and Promotion.
Freeman P. Kirkendall, Manager Department Buildings and Grounds.
Edward E. Bruce, Manager Department Exhibits.
Abraham L. Reed, Manager Department Concessions and Privileges.
William N. Babcock, Manager Department Transportation.
T. S. Clarkson, General Manager.
Walker & Kimball, Architects-in-Chief.
 

At the close of the Exposition, managers of departments made official reports of the conduct of its affairs, which were placed with the archives of the great project in the vault of the Omaha Public Library. Following is a A synopsis of such departmental reports:

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

Gurdon W. Wattles, President; Thaddeus S. Clarkson, General Manager; Alvin Saunders, Vice-President; John. A. Wakefield, Secretary.

In addition to the exercise of a supervisory control of the affairs in general of the Exposition company, the President was called upon to devote considerable time to the service of receiving and entertaining prominent visitors. In working out the manifold details of such entertainment and in making up the programs for special days, the President was assisted by the General Manager.

A Bureau of Entertainment, composed of fifty ladies of the city, was organized for the purpose of providing entertainment for notable guests. The work of this bureau was more particularly looked after by the following officers and executive committee: President, Mrs. Clement Chase; Vice-President, Mrs. Henry T. Clarke; Treasurer, Mrs. Freeman P. Kirkendall; Secretary, Mrs. William A. Redick. The Bureau's Executive Committee was composed of the following ladies:

Mrs. Clement Chase, Chairman; Mrs. Gurdon W. Wattles, Mrs. Freeman P. Kirkendall, Mrs. Gilbert M. Hitchcock, Mrs. Charles W. Lyman, Mrs. Wm. A. Redick, Mrs. John L. Webster, Mrs. Henry T. Clarke, Mrs. John E. Summers, Mrs. George A. Joslyn.

DEPARTMENT OF WAYS AND MEANS

Zachary T. Lindsey was elected manager of this department, and he installed as adjuncts the Bureau of Subscriptions, the Bureau of Admissions, the Bureau of Souvenir Coins, the Bureau of Music and the Bureau of Special Attractions.

Bureau of Subscriptions.—This bureau had an existence under the old organization, reference to which is made in the chapter dealing with organization and reorganization. It had secured subscriptions amounting to $404,720 at the time it was attached to the Department of Ways and Means, and immediately upon his appointment Manager Lindsey applied himself to the task of securing additional subscriptions, and to collecting assessments on subscriptions. This work he prosecuted with energy and success, increasing the subscriptions by $221,242.70, so that the aggregate sum subscribed to   the Exposition amounted to $625,96270. Of this latter amount 88 per cent was collected, or $550,84717.

Bureau of Admissions.—This Bureau dealt with the matter of issuance of tickets, providing for checks upon ticket sellers and ticket takers, promulgating necessary rules and regulations with reference to the use of tickets and passes, all of which involved a large amount of work on account of the great numbers dealt with and the various conditions to be considered in connection with admissions to the Exposition grounds. The total number of admissions to the grounds during the period of the Exposition is shown by months in the following table:

June ....................................................................... 289,351
July ....................................................................... 331,684
August ..................................................................... 474,177
September .................................................................. 593,168
October .................................................................... 925,128
Total .................................................................... 2,613,508
Paid .............................................................. 1,778,250 or 68%
Free ...........................................,....,............... 835,258 or 32%
Total admission receipts were .......................................... $801,515.47
Average cash receipts for each admission at gates ....................... .37
Average cash receipts for paid admission at gates ....................... .42
Smallest day's total attendance, June 3 .................................. 4,756
Smallest day's paid attendance, June 6 ................................... 1,752
Largest day's total attendance-President's Day, October 12 ............... 98,845
Largest day's gate receipts-President's Day, October 12 ................. 42,822.00
Week of largest gate receipts, October 9 to 15 ......................... 116,320.10

SPECIAL DAYS' ATTENDANCE.

Date. Total Free. Total For Day.

Opening Day ........................................ June 1 ........... 2,886 27,998
Nurserymen's Day ................................... June 8 ........... 3,764 6,559
Maccabee's Day ..................................... June 11 ........... 3,956 7,789
Nebraska Dedication Day ............................ June 14 ........... 4,744 16,470
Postal Clerks' Day ................................. June 15 ........... 4,266 12,160
Ohio Press Day ..................................... June 16 ........... 4,098 8,523
Wisconsin Day ...................................... June 18 ........... 5,003 11,338
Illinois Day ....................................... June 21 ........... 5,334 14,733
Kansas Dedication Day .............................. June 22 ........... 6,805 14,216
Iowa Dedication and Iowa Press Day ................. June 23 ........... 4,894 13,400
Swedish-American Day ............................... June 24 ........... 4,563 11,217
Royal Arcanum Day .................................. June 25 ........... 4,913 9,657
Electrical Engineers' Day .......................... June 27 ........... 4,616 8,194
Trans-Mississippi Educational Day .................. June 28 ........... 4,575 9,038
Montana Dedication Day ............................. June 29 ........... 4,931 9,709
 

Date. Total Free. Total For Day.

Turnfest Day .................................... } June 30 ........... 5,114 9,118
Musical Congress Day ............................ ........... 5,111 9,847
Texas Melon and Grape Day .......................... July 1 ........... 5,111 9,847
Christian Endeavor Day ............................. July 2 ........... 4,441 8,708
National Congregational Church Day ................. July 3 ........... 3,418 7,888
Independence Day ................................... July 4 ........... 5,834 44,452
Louisiana Press Day ................................ July 7 ........... 4,904 8,656
Rev. Lloyd Jones at Auditorium ..................... July 10 .......... 3,263 10,486
Massachusetts Day .................................. July 11 .......... 4,754 8,122
State Republican League Day ........................ July 12 .......... 4,742 9,048
National Republican League Day ..................... July 13 .......... 4,802 10,270
Ida County and Children's Day ...................... July 14 .......... 5,458 14,310
San Antonio Day .................................... July 15 .......... 5,214 9,312
Military (3d Nebraska Regiment) Day ................ July 16 .......... 8,239 20,226
Forecasters' Day ................................... July 19 .......... 4,610 8,584
Minnesota Dedication Day ........................... July 20 .......... 5,001 10,843
Fishermen's Day .................................... July 22 .......... 4,596 8,440
Building and Loan Association Day .................. July 26 .......... 4,347 8,597
Flower Day ......................................... August 2 ......... 4,968 16,462
Indian Day ......................................... August 4 ......... 5,339 19.648
Second Flower Day .................................. August 5 ......... 5,361 21,441
Kansas City Day .................................... August 6 ......... 5,105 10,694
Knights of Pythias Day ............................. August 9 ......... 4,939 12,608
Red Men's Day ...................................... August 10 ........ 5,233 15,399
First Life Saving Service Exhibition ............... August 11 ........ 5,225 17,750
First Organ Recital ................................ August 12 ........ 5,243 13,770
St. Joseph (Mo.) Day ............................... August 13 ........ 6,003 14,953
Wheelmen's Day ..................................... August 15 ........ 5,485 13,378
Florists' Day ...................................... August 16 ........ 5,243 15,269
Texas Day .......................................... August 18 ........ 5,660 21,225
Colored People's Day ............................... August 19 ........ 5,238 14,030
Black Hills Day .................................... August 22 ........ 5,236 12,258
Des Moines (Iowa) Day .............................. August 23 ........ 5.695 16,220
World Herald Day ................................... August 24 ........ 6,116 23,663
Sioux City Day ..................................... August 25 ........ 6,023 24,316
Bohemian Day ....................................... August 27 ........ 5.971 18,967
Bankers' Day ....................................... August 29 ........ 5,729 16,972
"Buffalo Bill's" Day ............................... August 31 ........ 5,951 22,540
Kansas Day ......................................... September 1 ...... 5,779 26,210
Peach Day—Mask Carnival ...................... September 2 ...... 6,890 23,324
Editors' Day ......................................
Burlington Day .................................... }September 3 ...... 5,987 14,793
Firemen's Day ...................................... September 5 ...... 5,477 18,318
Montana Day ........................................ September 6 ...... 6,067 18,003
Military (2d Nebraska) Day ......................... September 7 ...... 7,224 22,303
Druggists' Day ..................................... September 8 ...... 6,355 21,750
Woodmen of the World ............................... September 9 ...... 5,816 17,541
Norfolk Day ........................................ September 10 ..... 5,147 10,568
South Dakota and Sons of Veterans .................. September 12 ..... 4.566 7,994
Wisconsin Day ...................................... September 13 ..... 5,835 14,660
 

Date. Total Free. Total For Day.

Shriners' Day ...................................... September 14 ..... 6,308 19,902
Monetary Congress Day .............................. September 15 ..... 6,601 22,800
Oklahoma Day........................................}September 16 ..... 6,169 16,005
Washington Editors' Day ............................
Railroad and Children's Day ........................ September 17 ..... 6.280 19,477
Wyoming Day ........................................ September 19 ..... 6,177 14,871
Government Day ..................................... September 20 ..... 5,946 18,680
Iowa Day ........................................... September 21 ..... 6,762 39,090
Modern Woodmen ..................................... September 22 ..... 7,328 52,725
22d (U. S. A.) Infantry Day ........................ September 23 ..... 6,460 28,238
Commercial Travelers' Day .......................... September 24 ..... 6,441 22,365
Millers' and Manufacturers Day ..................... September 27 ..... 6,108 16,396
Swedish Day .......................................
Knights of Maccabees .............................. }September 28 ..... 6.155 19,540
Georgia and Children's Day ......................... September 30 ..... 6,668 19,540
Chicago Day ........................................ October 1 ....... 6,923 21,251
Live Stock Day ..................................... October 3 ....... 6,290 15,266
Michigan Day ....................................... October 4 ....... 6,021 19,998
Pennsylvania Day ................................... October 5 ....... 7,576 29,589
Ohio Day ........................................... October 6 ....... 7,145 27,473
New York Day ....................................... October 8 ....... 7,686 26,067
Mayor's Day, Missouri Day .......................... October 10 ....... 7,525 29,378
Governor's Day ..................................... October 11 ....... 7,670 48,051
President's Day .................................... October 12 ...... 10,953 98,845
Army and Navy Day .................................. October 13 ....... 7,893 49,710
Civil Government Day ............................... October 14 ....... 8,609 32,400
Children's Jubilee Day ............................. October 15 ....... 8,253 35,960
Wind, rain and snow ................................ October 16 ....... 5,049 13,354
Odd Fellows' Day ................................... October 17 ....... 4,935 14,910
German Day .........................................}October 18 ....... 6,397 22,983
A. O. U. W. Day ....................................
Nebraska Day ....................................... October 29 ....... 7,210 24,957
Utah Day ........................................... October 20 ....... 7,189 21,682
Apple Day .......................................... October 21 ....... 6,763 17,698
Children Free ...................................... October 22 ...... 21,139 33,383
German Day ......................................... October 23 ....... 6,380 23,984
Railroad Day ....................................... October 24 ....... 6,102 17,985
Railroad Day ....................................... October 25 ....... 5,993 22,991
Davenport ..........................
Tri-City Day Rock Island ........................}October 26 ....... 6,563 35,975
Moline .............................
Railroad Week ..................................... October 27 ........ 6,538 36,167
Railroad Week ..................................... October 28. ....... 6,472 27,825
Railroad Week ..................................... October 29 ........ 6,845 26,657
Omaha Day ......................................... October 31 ........ 6,625 61,236
Total attendance, including every day ............................. 835,258 2,613,508
 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS.

Following is a statement showing ledger balances at closing, debit and credit. Also statements showing total receipts of the Exposition from all sources, the disbursement of said receipts, both by departments and by requisition, and a summary of Treasurer's statement, showing all funds disbursed:

STATEMENT OF BALANCES FROM GENERAL LEDGER.

October 1, 1902.

DEBITS.

Distribution of assets (90 per cent) ..................................... $ 292,482.00
Subscriptions unpaid ........................................................ 77,547.50
Bills Receivable, scrip of State of Washington ................................. 851.85
Expense prior to December 1, 1896 ............................................ 3,898.36
General Expense ............................................................. 56,694.18
Ways and Means Department .................................................. 138,691.62
Publicity and Promotion Department .......................................... 97,784.92
Exhibits Department ........................................................ 100,126.40
Concessions and Privileges Department ....,.................................. 52,745.25
Transportation Department .................................................... 6,575.94
Buildings and Grounds Department ......................................... 1,104,265.74
Interest and Discount ........................................................ 3,634.20
War Balloons (balance of freight charges advanced) ........................... 2,537.94
Indian Congress (cash advanced) .............................................. 4,597.62

$1,942,432.58

CREDITS.

Capital Stock (stock subscriptions) ....................................... $ 411,745.00
Donations (donation subscriptions) .......................................... 141,670.20
Exhibits (receipts) ......................................................... 200,110.48
Concessions and Privileges .................................................. 286,146.68
Buildings and Grounds (receipts) ............................................. 38,128.22
Admissions (receipts) ....................................................... 801,515.47
Music (receipts) .............................................................. 3,520.85
Publicity and Promotion (receipts) .............................................. 525.33
Water (receipts) .............................................................. 2,879.22
3 Souvenir Coin Medals (receipts) ............................................. 5,963.00
Power and Light (receipts) ................................................... 28,550.96
Indian Congress (receipts) ...................................................... 159.05
Salvage (sales of buildings and appurtenances) ............................... 21,519.12
$1,942,433.49

STATEMENT OF TOTAL RECEIPTS.

Total receipts reported to June 26, 1899 .............................. $1,972,194.49
Received from Bond Guarantee Account, Collected in ............... $3,800.00
Received from Frank Murphy, trustee .............................. 1,265.00
Received on account Exhibits Department .......................... 79.20
Total receipts since June 26, 1899 ............................ 5,144.20
Total receipts to the conclusion ............................ $1,977,338.69
 

DISBURSEMENTS BY DEPARTMENTS.

Distribution of assets, 90 per cent ...................................... $ 293,884.50
Ways and Means Department .................................................. 138,949.57
Publicity and Promotion Department .......................................... 97,784.92
Exhibits Department ........................................................ 100,161.40
Concessions and Privileges Department ....................................... 52,846.96
Buildings and Grounds Department ......................................... 1,103,542.01
Transportation Department .................................................... 6,575.94
Interest and discount ........................................................ 3,634.26
General expenses ............................................................ 56,610.06
Girls' and Boys' building .................................................... 9,438.35
Refunds ...................................................................... 4,671.04
Indian exhibit (cash advanced) ............................................... 4,597.62
Union Stock Yards (special premiums) ........................................... 875.00
War balloons (freight charges paid) .......................................... 3,126.46
Bond Guarantee account ...................................................... 36,800.00
$1,913,498.09

DISBURSEMENTS BY REQUISITION.

Capital stock (90 per cent) ............................................... $ 293,884.50
Salaries and wages .......................................................... 356,831.75
Freight and express .......................................................... 19,634.19
Advertising .................................................................. 16,303.16
Printing and stationery ...................................................... 37,623.88
Photographing ................................................................. 4,844.60
Commissions paid ............................................................. 11,816.80
Souvenir medals ............................................................... 3,027.63
Furniture and miscellaneous ................................................... 4,031.83
Telegraph and telephone ....................................................... 4,213.60
Interest and discount ......................................................... 3,637.56
Amusements ................................................................... 65,444.27
Insurance .................................................................... 16,104.43
Traveling, messenger and livery .............................................. 30,134.66
Pictures and painting ........................................................ 22,957.03
Postage and revenue stamps ................................................... 11,593,68
Taxes and license ............................................................ 17,273.69
Steam and electricity ........................................................ 76,842.34
Miscellaneous .............................................................. 125,3573.49
Utensils ..................................................................... 10,599.82
Grounds ..................................................................... 111,994.55
Buildings ................................................................... 598,450.46
Sewers ........................................................................ 3,690.54
Water ........................................................................ 40,220.14
Awards ....................................................................... 26,985.49
$1,913.498.09
Expenses prior to December 1, 1896 ........................................... 3,898.36
General fund warrants redeemed .............................................. 35,488.17
Bills payable redeemed ...................................................... 23.602.22
Bills receivable on hand .................................................... 851.85
$1,977,338.69
Total disbursements since June 26, 1899 ................................ 6,975.71
 

TREASURER'S STATEMENT.

Mr. Herman Kountze, Treasurer.

From the detailed report of the treasurer, the following summary is taken:

June 26, 1899, balance on hand ............................................ $1.831.51
Deposits since June 26, 1899 ............................................. 5,144.20
$6,975.71
Vouchers paid since June 26, 1899 ........................................ 975.71
Balance on hand, October 1, 1902, none.

At a meeting of the Board of Directors held May 23, 1898, it was A decided to make an issue of negotiable bonds in the sum of $200,000, secured by a mortgage on 50 per cent of the gate receipts, and upon all the buildings and other property of the Exposition. The bonds and the mortgage to protect them were prepared, providing that Joseph H. Millard, president of the Omaha National Bank; Charles W. Lyman, then president of the Commercial National Bank, and (the late) Frank Murphy, president of Merchants' National Bank, should be a board of trustees for the bonds. For various reasons the bonds were never issued, and were finally destroyed.

Bureau of Coins.—In giving official recognition to the Exposition, the Government provided for the operation of a United States coin press in its building on the Exposition grounds, and this bureau had under its supervision the matter of preparing an Exposition souvenir coin. The dies for these coins were made at the United States mint in Philadelphia, at a cost of $400. The reverse side of the medal was modeled after a design submitted by Thomas R. Kimball, of Omaha, representing an Indian spearing a buffalo. The obverse of the medal received the impress of a composite picture produced from photographs of the most beautiful women in the Trans-Mississippi country. About twenty-five thousand of these coins were sold at a net profit of nearly three thousand dollars.

Bureau of Music.—Thomas J. Kelley was the director of this Bureau, and through it arrangements were made for the following, among other bands, to fill engagements during the Exposition period ranging from four to seven weeks: The United States Marine Band, Phinney's United States Band, the Seventh Cavalry Band of Mexico, F. N. Innes' Band, and Theodore Thomas' orchestra. The Apollo Club, of Chicago, 200 voices, also filled an engagement of two days during the month of July. These musical organizations were supplemented and supported by a finely disciplined chorus of 150 voices, maintained during the whole period of the Exposition. The music of the Exposition cost $52,703.28; the receipts from concerts given were $3,520.85.

 

Bureau of Special Attractions.—The principal work performed by this Bureau was in securing side attractions in the way of fireworks, which were secured from a fireworks company of Cincinnati, Ohio. In addition to the foregoing, other attractions were secured, but at a comparatively small expense. The total expense of the Bureau was $12,000.

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICITY AND PROMOTION

Up to July 9, 1897, the department of promotion was managed by G. M. Hitchcock, whose activities are recited in another chapter. Upon the resignation of Mr. Hitchcock, his department was merged with that of publicity and the work continued under the management of Edward Rosewater. The work of promotion was participated in by many well-known Nebraskans. Due to their efforts nearly one hundred conventions, congresses, national, interstate and State gatherings of fraternal societies, etc., were induced to hold their meetings at Omaha during 1898. At the suggestion and through the efforts of the manager of this department, the United States Postoffice Department issued a series of postage stamps commemorative of the Exposition, scenes, actions and accomplishments incident and pertaining to the Trans-Mississippi region, which stamps are described in a chapter of this work relating to the Government buildings and exhibits.

The publicity work of the department was both thorough and far-reaching, it being estimated that the various great dailies, weeklies, magazines, etc., exclusive of Omaha newspapers, published as much as sixty-five million words concerning the Exposition. In addition to this, the department sent out. under the superintendency of James B. Haynes, nearly a million and a half issues of 32-page pamphlets, news letters, cuts of buildings, photographs, bird's-eye views, framed pictures, posters, etc.

To the energetic work of the promoters is partly due the fact that thirty-five States and territories appointed commissions to provide and look after State and territorial representation at the Exposition. In this connection it should also be said that State appropriations were made amounting to $4.38,000, and funds were raised privately to secure representation by other States and territories to the amount of $170,000, or a grand total of $608,000.

DEPARTMENT OF BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS

The plan of the Executive Committee contemplated exhibit buildings of the highest type of architecture, with a view to producing artistic effects as well as affording adequate space for the principal exhibits; the grounds were to be beautified by the generous planting of flowering bushes and plants, and ample shade provided by a plenteous supply of large trees: the grounds to be   brilliantly lighted by electricity. With a view to carrying out this general plan, the manager of the department, Freeman P. Kirkendall, was empowered to arrange for the services of Messrs. Walker and Kimball, of Boston and Omaha, respectively, as architects-in-chief; Mr. Rudolph Ulrich, of New York, N. Y., as landscape architect, and Mr. Luther Steiringer, of New York, N. Y., as consulting electrical engineer. A superintendent of construction, Dion Geraldine, was employed to supervise the building operations, and upon his resignation in October, 1897, Mr. A. C. Foster, of Omaha, was called to the position.

The matter of fixing upon a suitable site was a difficult and important one, and even after one location had been chosen by the Board of Directors, through the efforts of Manager Kirkendall, a reconsideration of the matter was had and the merits of another proposed site were considered, following which the board rescinded its action, and upon March 17, 1897, adopted a site which was made historic by the completed Exposition.

The first important work commenced under the direction of this department was that of the construction of the lagoon, which began April 28, 1897, and the first contract awarded for the construction of a building was on July 1, 1897, for the Administration Arch, work thereon being under way eight days later, or just ten and one-half months in advance of the time set for the opening of the Exposition.

It was this department that assumed the responsibilities incident to the construction of the numerous buildings erected upon the Exposition grounds, the manager thereof having general supervision of the entire work, which entailed an expenditure of nearly $600,000, as will appear from the list of the buildings erected, the cost shown being exclusive of architects' fees, office expenses and salaries, superintendence, etc.

Administration building ................................................... $ 11,621.24
Mines and Mining building ................................................... 42,250.55
Manufactures building ....................................................... 56.256.13
Auditorium building ......................................................... 12,358.29
Agriculture building ........................................................ 60,987.51
Machinery and Electricity building .......................................... 30,019.90
Liberal Arts building ....................................................... 31,183.26
Fine Arts building .......................................................... 46,163.05
Power Plant building ........................................................ 10,063.05
Horticulture building ....................................................... 35,130.33
North viaduct, Sherman avenue ................................................ 4,679.95
East Colonnades ............................................................. 11,842.29
Mirror Colonnades ........................................................... 15,979.90
Administration Colonnades .................................................... 2,094.00
Sanitary kiosks .............................................................. 2,968.65
Warehouse building ........................................................... 3,022.03
South viaduct restaurants ................................................... 24.832.00
 
South viaduct (Sherman avenue) .............................................. 6,531.31
Band Stand .................................................................. 3,861.66
North and South Colonnades .................................................. 5,652.00
Hospital building ........................................................... 1,821.00
Press building .............................................................. 3,548.46
Dairy building .............................................................. 7,858.04
Service building ............................................................ 7,022.65
Apiary building ............................................................. 6,341.48
International building ...................................................... 7,846.61
Fire and Police building .................................................... 6,248.58
Transportation building .................................................... 40,804.38
Arch of States .............................................................. 7,353.00
Ticket booths, exits and gates .............................................. 6,671.74
Refreshment kiosks .......................................................... 3,292.00
Girls' and Boys' building ................................................... 9,154.42
Live Stock buildings ....................................................... 19,157.13
$564,616.59

The department also spent large sums of money for grading, macadamizing and laying brick walks throughout the grounds. The cost of construction work on the lagoon was $25,507. As soon as practicable after the site had been selected the landscape architect submitted plans for transforming the rough topography of a cornfield into a series of beautiful gardens, flanked by greensward and supplied with an infinite variety of foliage plants, shade trees and flowering plants in great profusion. Within the confines of the several tracts over 14,000 trees, bushes and shrubs were planted. Upward of twenty-one acres of bare ground were covered with turf, while more than 100,000 plants and flowers contributed a wealth of beauty to the floral display in the grounds. The cost off the landscape department was $127,70791.

Electrical Illuminations.—At previous expositions arc lights had been used for the purpose of illuminating large areas like the Grand Court, but at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition it was decided to use incandescent lights instead, and the soundness of Superintendent H. B. Rustin's prediction that the effect would be satisfactory was fully borne out by the splendid results following their installation.

Cost of machinery and electricity was ...................................... $119,273.81
Revenue from power and light furnished ....................................... 28,550,96
Net cost to the Exposition ................................................. $ 90,722.85

Guards.—The Exposition Guards were under the direction of Commandant C. E. Llewellyn, who at one period of the Exposition had 304 names on the pay-roll. However, the average number of guards on duty was 160. A lost-and-found bureau was established at guard headquarters, which was instrumental in restoring much lost property to owners.   Medical Bureau.—This Bureau was in charge of E. W. Lee, M.D., as Director. The total number of cases treated during the Exposition period was 3,095. Total expenses of maintaining the hospital, $4,075.13. Average number of patients per day, 20.25. Average cost per patient, $1.31.

DEPARTMENT OF EXHIBITS

Under the management of Edward E. Bruce and H. B. Hardt, assistant. the plan of operation for the department of exhibits involved the formation of ten bureaus, referred to hereafter. Receipts from the sale of exhibit space in the buildings and grounds amounted to $200,11048, while the expenses and costs were 50 per cent of that sum. The total space available in buildings devoted to exposition purposes aggregated about 50,000 square feet. and was occupied by 5,110 separate exhibitors.

Bureau of Education.—This exhibit, the Girls' and Boys' building, and the Congress of Women, were in the hands of a board of lady managers, Mrs. W. P. Harford being chairman of the Executive Committee. which operated under rules and regulations prepared by the Department of Exhibits. approved by the Board of Directors of the Exposition. The exhibit made by Nebraska ranged from the kindergarten class to the university, and every institution for dependent or defective classes was represented. The educational institutions of a number of the States had exhibits, and a good showing was made of what was being done along educational lines. Much labor was entailed in collecting these exhibits.

The Girls' and Boys' building, erected at a cost of about ten thousand dollars, largely by small subscriptions collected from school children and others, attracted considerable attention on the grounds. A creche was maintained within the structure, in which upward of two thousand children were cared for while their parents viewed the Exposition. The operation of this building was so successful that the revenues exceeded the expenses by $937.82.

Bureau of Fine Arts.—This exhibit was in charge of Armand H. Griffith as Superintendent. It contained many valuable paintings, and besides the seven hundred or more pictures which adorned the walls several hundreds of drawings were displayed, many of which possessed great merit and attracted considerable attention, as did the statuary. This fine exhibit is described in another chapter.

Bureau of Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry and Irrigation.—These exhibits were both numerous and interesting. The decorative scheme was well executed, and the exhibit as a whole was highly instructive, and greatly appreciated by the hundreds of thousands of people who viewed it. Mr. F. W. Taylor was in charge as Superintendent.

 

Bureau of Mines and Mining.—David T. Day, Superintendent. The aim and object of this exhibit was to illustrate the mineral wealth within the entire region west of the Mississippi river, and by exhibits from States farther east to show the principal achievements in mining and metallurgy attained since the Columbian Exposition at Chicago. Many of the exhibits were in line with this plan, being both instructive and comprehensive.

The Bureau of Live Stock, Dairy Products and Poultry.—This Bureau was in charge of John B. Dinsmore, Superintendent, and three assistants:

Live Stock.—C. H. Elmendorf, assistant superintendent. In the procuring of this exhibit considerable work and expense were involved. The exhibit was quite satisfactory and premiums aggregating $35,000 were distributed to successful exhibitors in the live stock and poultry departments.

Dairy Products.—S. C. Bassett, Assistant Superintendent. There were two hundred and five exhibitors of dairy products, the display being of much interest. The exhibit of cheese was not as extensive as could have been wished and the quality was somewhat lacking for an occasion of the kind.

Poultry.—J. Llewellyn, Assistant Superintendent. The poultry exhibit was not an extensive one, although the birds exhibited possessed great merit, and to that extent the display was satisfactory. The failure to secure a larger display of poultry was probably due to the fact that the superintendent of that branch of the exhibits was appointed too late to enable him to make the exhibit a complete success.

Bureau of Bee Industries.—The bee-keepers' exhibit was an interesting one and was shown in a building erected for that purpose at a cost of nearly $6,500. This exhibit was in charge of Superintendent E. Whitcomb, of Friend, Nebr.

Bureau of Liberal Arts.—This exhibit was in charge of Mrs. Frances M. Ford as Superintendent. The building contained a collection of articles and appliances indicative of the advance of civilization, for here was to be found the modern typewriter and calculating machines—instruments fully demonstrated to be of the utmost importance and utility in the present-day commercial world; photographs, pianos, incubators and the like were also displayed in a pleasing manner, so that the capacity of the building, 46,128 square feet of floor space, was crowded to the limit.

Bureau of Machinery and Electricity.—The machinery exhibit was a very satisfactory one and of a character calculated to secure the attention of the Western man, for whose especial benefit it was installed; but it was quite evident that the war waged between this country and Spain had quickened   an interest of the entire people in matters martial, for the exhibits of arms and ammunition were scrutinized very carefully by them, while machinery. which would at other times have claimed their attention, was passed by almost unnoticed.

The progress made in the field of electricity was exhibited in a comprehensive and instructive manner, and every foot of floor space within the building was occupied by exhibits either of machinery or electrical appliances.

The superintendent of this building, Prof. H. B. Owens, having resigned, the supervision of same fell upon H. B. Hardt as assistant to the manager of the department.

Bureau of Manufactures and International Exhibits.—The buildings embraced in this Bureau were in charge of H. B. Hardt as superintendent, and all the space available for exhibition purposes was used to display specimens of interesting, novel and useful things arranged harmoniously. The exhibit booths in the Manufactures building were more elaborate and costly than those found in any of the other buildings.

International Hall.—This structure was built for and devoted to the foreign exhibits and to the concessionaires in foreign goods and souvenirs. The floor space amounted to 18,583 square feet. Because of the novelties displayed in the way of foreign exhibits, this building received more than ordinary attention from visitors.

Bureau of Transportation and Agricultural Implements.—Delay in reaching a decision as to the size and character of the building to be constructed for this exhibit prevented the management from securing some very interesting exhibits illustrating the progress and development of transportation facilities in the United States, so it happened that all the space was utilized for the display of modern and practical implements and conveyances. Within this structure were four railroad tracks, which aided in the matter of unloading and disposing of the heavy exhibits within the building, and later they were filled with a variety of locomotives, railway cars, etc., as features of the Exposition. Fifty-nine thousand one hundred and fifty-eight feet of floor space within this building were sold to and occupied by one hundred and fifty-one exhibitors. D. H. Elliott was in charge as superintendent.

Bureau of Awards.—The committee on awards was composed of J. M. Woolworth, chairman; John E. Utt, assistant chairman, and E. E. Bruce, manager of the Exhibits Department.

A circular was sent to all the exhibitors asking each to name some man as juror, and from the names thus secured a list was selected. A system of checks was introduced calculated to prevent the perpetration of fraud. Out   of five thousand one hundred and nineteen separate exhibits, only thirty appeals were made from the findings of the juries.

Highest Award Gold Medal Silver Medal Bronze Medal Honorable Mention

Manufactures ........................... 17 501 296 155 120
Mines and Mining ....................... 0 38 68 777 44
Agriculture ............................. 1 51 32 136 73
Horticulture ............................ 2 63 86 24 72
Apiary .................................. 0 2 41 24 12
Dairy .................................. 0 6 32 96 0
Commemorative medals and diplomas ............................................... 464
Total medals and diplomas awarded ................................................. 2,580

LAW DEPARTMENT

Carroll S. Montgomery, General Counsel of the Exposition Company, gave oral advice to the Executive Committee, prepared and passed upon A contracts and agreements during the preparatory period of the Exposition work and during the period of operation written counsel or opinions were furnished almost daily. Of contracts, 406 were made, 159 being general and 247 concessions. In February and April, 1898, the Board of Directors A ordered the prosecution of delinquents for their subscriptions remaining unpaid. A large number of actions were commended, but later, upon a showing that the affairs of the company would be in shape to enable it to pay back at least ·a portion of the subscriptions made, such suits were abandoned. In addition to the foregoing, 34 cases were prosecuted to settlement or final judgment.

Considering the many and varied matters which were involved in connection with the affairs of the Exposition, the litigation was small in volume. Five suits were for damages arising from personal injuries, and aggregated $105,000. These particular suits were settled by payment to the parties of the aggregate sum of $6,860. The services of Mr. Montgomery as above outlined were given to the Exposition Company without compensation.

CONCESSIONS AND PRIVILEGES DEPARTMENT

Under the management of Abraham L. Reed, assisted by S. E. Wadley, Superintendent, the operations of this department assumed large proportions, its receipts aggregating $308,569.80. The results are shown as follows:

Number of concessions and privilege contracts ....................................... 247
Number of employes in the department ................................................. 91
Number of employes of concessions and privilege contract holders .................. 2,762
 

RECEIPTS.

Total rent charged to concessionaires ............................ $ 65,851.25
Paid-up privileges concessionaires ................................. 50,802.35
Percentage concessionaires ......................................... 177,294.58 $293.948.1
Cashiers' salaries, concessionaires .................................. $ 12,139.88
Cash register rent, concessionaires .................................. 1,494.00
Tickets ............................................................ 989.45 14,623.33
Total charges to concessionaires ................................... $308,571.51

DISBURSEMENTS.

Voucher credits for rebates and errors ............................... $ 4,208.02
Cashiers, registers and tickets charged concessionaires ............... 14,370.52
Office expense, salaries, etc .......................................... 12,415.25
Claims, attorneys' fees and costs ..................................... 12,390.65
Miscellaneous expenses ............................................. 5,931.41
Transferred to Exhibits and Educational Departments ................ 16,181.94
Total Disbursements ......................................... $ 70,497.79
Amount collected ...................................................... 2,033.16
Net cash earnings........................................................ 236,040.56
$308,571.51

TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT

William N. Babcock, Manager. The object sought to be attained through the medium of this branch of the management of Exposition affairs was the obtaining and promulgating of favorable railroad and steamboat rates for exhibits at the Exposition; to handle and account for exhibits upon their arrival and effect their safe return to owners at the close of the Exposition. The department handled 5,417 consignments, consisting of 127,749 packages, weighing 10,603 tons, which business was transacted with such degree of efficiency that not a single loss or damage suit was filed against the Exposition Company.

 

WEST MIDWAY, LOOKING NORTH

 

MIDWAY PLAISANCE AND MUSIC

CHAPTER XII

THE educational value of a great exposition is everywhere conceded. It is in many respects a school of information in which tens of thousands of visitors acquire a first knowledge of things in which they feel a special interest. Many instances might be cited, if necessary, in support of this fact. In a great international exposition displaying in the aggregate acres of special and collective exhibits, the visitor soon finds the task of viewing and studying the varied collections somewhat irksome. After spending a portion of the day in such pursuit, he feels the need of diversion, just as does the college student after a hard day's work at his studies. This self-evident fact led the Exposition managers to provide a playground containing many forms of amusement, in order to add variety and zest to the daily bill of attractions and thus relieve the monotony of the serious side of the Exposition proper. The amusement section of the Omaha Exposition proved to be a most attractive adjunct. It was not permitted to descend to the low plane of questionable attractions, and because of this rule it maintained unusual popularity to the end.

Reference to the map of the Exposition grounds shows two sections of the Midway—one on the Bluff tract began at the Grand Plaza and extended northward parallel to Sherman Avenue to the northernmost viaduct spanning that thoroughfare. Crossing over this viaduct, the visitor entered the West Midway, comprising the main attractions. This section lay north of and parallel to the Grand Court, terminating at a point opposite to the axis of the Court—the length of four city blocks from the viaduct. The two sections thus lay in the form of a letter L, the base line of which extended east and west from Sherman Avenue.

 

These show features proved to be a constant attraction to visitors as well as a constant source of revenue to the Exposition. The manager of concessions reported aggregate receipts in the sum of $276,112. In order to

Turkish Minstrel
give an idea of the general characteristics of the Midway Plaisance it is necessary to mention only the main attractions, a description of which will not be attempted.

"Streets of all Nations" held an attraction attempting to present types of many different races, running largely to the Oriental, with camel-riding, fortune-telling, curio-selling, etc.—not unlike the chief characteristics of "Streets of Cairo," occupying a more advantageous site on the West Midway, near Twentieth Street. The architecture of the latter was somewhat artistic, with domes and minarets and stately mosque. These effects, with the many types of men and women of the Orient, created an atmosphere of Egyptian life fascinating to patrons of the Exposition. There were Turkish Minstrel characteristic dances, camels, donkeys, etc. The Moorish Palace was a large Algerian temple of highly pleasing architectural design. It contained wax figures of men and women; a chamber of horrors, said to be a reproduction of the Inferno. The German village on the Bluff tract was of quaint architecture—"Bratwurst Cloecklein," a famous inn of Nuremburg, centuries old, was reproduced. The "Deutsch Dorf" afforded show features. The Afro-American Village was a reproduction of a typical Southern plantation, with patches of cotton, sugar cane and tobacco.

Morrish Palace
Native darkies sang old plantation melodies. The Philippine Village on the West Midway was a genuine attraction, presenting various types of men and women from the far-away archipelago, illustrating their customs, songs, language, habitations, avocations, etc. The visitor to the Chinese Village could well have imagined himself walking in the streets of Pekin, so closely did the buildings resemble those of the great capital of China. There was bamboo matting of fantastic design, and a bazaar containing a great variety of Chinese handiwork and curios of rare design. In the Chinese theatre there   were native actors and magicians. One of the chief attractions was Hagenbeck's Trained Animal Show. There was a miniature railway with a locomotive in operation weighing 450 pounds. "Havana and the Maine" was a reproduction of Havana harbor and its environs, with a realistic representation of the sinking of the big battleship. A cyclorama, "Merrimac and Monitor," illustrated the historic battle of those warships. On the East Midway the "Magic Maze" presented a labyrinth of flowers. A Japanese
A Section of the North Midway
Tea Garden was set in a scene of rare beauty. Among other attractions were these: Haunted Swing, Giant See-Saw-elevating passengers 100 feet; Scenic railway, a switch-back; grottoes containing optical illusions in electricity; shooting the chutes, Wild West show, mirror maze—an illusion—Morro Castle, Plymouth Colony, Bohemian Inn, California gold-mining tunnel, glass-blowers, ostrich farm, "incubator" for the nurturing of very young infants, a camera obscura, Edison's wargraph, depicting the bombardment of Matanzas, Cuba; Italian villa, the flying lady—an illusion—and others.

 

U. S. MARINE BAND

 

A Streets of Cairo

MUSIC

The music of the Exposition was from first to last of unfailing excellence. No single feature contributed more to the success of daily programs and special events, while the many musical feasts served to patrons marked an epoch in the development of musical appreciation, enhancing the popular taste for good music. No other exposition did more in the way of creating a general desire for the higher quality of music, Omaha people, particularly, receiving a liberal education from musicians of first rank whose artistic productions delighted everybody. During the five months of the Exposition season many strong musical organizations participated in the programs. The celebrated Theodore Thomas Orchestra of Chicago held sway for five weeks under the skillful conductorship of Mr. Arthur Mees, for some time assistant conductor to Mr. Thomas, later conducting the "People's Concerts" in New York, and eminent as an authority on musical matters, as well as a writer of ability. Emil Bare (now of Paris) was concert meister, Bruno Steindel was the solo cellist, Schuecker the harpist and Quensel the solo flute, while other instruments were represented by artists of high standing. The Apollo Club   of Chicago gave several concerts under the personal direction of Mr. William L. Tomlins, who was the conductor of the society. This organization presented the "Swan and Skylark" (Goring-Thomas), "The Messiah" (Handel) in part, and the "Elijah" (Mendelssohn) in combination with the Exposition chorus of 150 voices in "al fresco" concerts. The Minneapolis Choral Society, under its conductor, Mr. Willard Patten, gave "Isaiah," a work composed by him, bringing to the production a chorus of 200 voices. The Dubuque Choral Society, under the conductorship of Mr. Portius Gane, gave the "Creation" (Haydn) and "Barbara Frietszche" (Jules Jordan), with about 150 voices. The Exposition Chorus of Omaha gave (with its 150 singers) "Fair Ellen" (Max Bruch), the "Rose Maiden" (Cowen), the "Daughter of Jairus" (Stainer) and innumerable miscellaneous numbers at concerts in the Auditorium, on the Grand Plaza and by the Lagoon, Assisting in the production of these works, which were given with the full orchestra, were the following distinguished artists: Genevieve Clark Wilson, Helen Buckley, Jenny Osborn, Sophia Markel, Anna Metcalf (sopranos); Katherine Fisk, Mabelle Crawford and Estelle Rose (contraltos); George Hamlin, Holmes Cowper and Stowe (tenors); Charles W. Clark (now of Paris) and Homer Moore (baritones); Frank King Clark and Edmund Kuss (bassos), and many others. There were bands galore: The United States Band, under the baton of Mr. Phinney, formerly of the Iowa State Band; The Mexican Band. under the chivalrous and suave Capitane Ricardo Pacheco; Innes and his famous fifty, who captivated the people beyond measure at the close

Thomas J. Kelley
of the Exposition; Santelmann and his great U. S. Marine Band, the President's own band from Washington, D. C., who opened the Exposition. Many smaller bands did good service, and were engaged a week at a time. The organ in the Auditorium, a fine three-manual, was a feature of the programs, organ recitals being given daily at 1:30 p. m. by Thomas Kelley and others. The work of the Bureau was outlined largely by Zachary T. Lindsey, chairman of the Executive Committee, and was developed and carried out by Willard Kimball of the Nebraska University up to June 30, and by his successor, Thomas Kelley of Omaha, from July 1 to the close of the Exposition on October 31. Miss Julia Officer of Council Bluffs was engaged to assist the Bureau as a manager of artists. The music of the Exposition was planned in such   a way as to please all classes of visitors. It was broad in its scope, and while entertaining, it was also highly instructive.

The music hall or auditorium was located near the east end of the basin, and near, also, the Sherman Avenue entrance. Architecturally it was in keeping with the general style of buildings in the Grand Court. The seating capacity was 1,100. It was the scene of many notable gatherings.

GRAND PLAZA

On the Bluff tract, east of and nearly opposite to the Grand Court, at wide, open space was provided for purposes of out-door gatherings of all kinds, open-air band concerts, day and night, and especially for displays of fireworks, which proved to be a constant source of pleasure to visitors during the mid-summer season. The managers named this section the Grand Plaza. Thousands of temporary chairs were provided, and the auditors faced a large bandstand having a high sounding-board rising from the rear, by which the sound of voices and instruments was deflected to a remarkable degree, thus enhancing the effects of the music. The popularity of the Grand Plaza was very great. It became the theatre of some of the chief historic events of the Exposition season. Happily the official photographer, Frank Rinehart, made a few striking pictures, which formed the only permanent record remaining of some of the brilliant scenes enacted there. These grand spectacles will live long in the memories of thousands of witnesses.

The Grotto

 

DINNER TENDERED TO OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

 

PROMOTION

CHAPTER XIII

THE work promoting the interests of the Exposition on the beginning was accomplished by the President of the Exposition Company, the stockholders and others who earnestly desired to aid the projectors. Their first efforts were bent to bring about a crystallization of sentiment on the part of the Trans-Mississippi State legislatures favorable to the Exposition, and to enlist the co-operation of their congressional representatives with the Nebraska delegation in Congress, to the end that the United States Government be prevailed upon to participate; and subsequently, such State legislatures were invited to provide for a proper representation by their several States.

The Department of Promotion, which was formed in December, 1896, at the reorganization of the company, had a very difficult and important task to perform in connection with the affairs of the Exposition; in difficult because of the fact that the project was entered upon at a time when Nebraskans, especially, were suffering from the combined ill-effects of the financial panic of 1893, and the drouths of 1894 and 1895, with incident crop failures-a period when men were little disposed to invest money in a venture which many prophesied would be a dismal failure. However, the indomitable spirit of courage and energy of those who had undertaken the great task of building an exposition was shared by those who directed the affairs of the Department of Promotion, so that in spite of the croakings and dire forebodings of many, the work was taken hold of with a zeal and earnestness which brought good results.

The initial State legislation in behalf of the Exposition was secured through the efforts of a joint committee of Omaha and Council Bluffs people, comprising the following: G. W. Wattles, John A. Wakefield, ex-Governor Alvin Saunders, Judge W. S. Strawn and Z. T. Lindsey of Omaha, and  

Charles F. Manderson
Frank Murphy
J. H. Millard
Messrs. E. H. Odell, Charles R. Hannan, I. M. Treynor, G. Moore and Thomas C. Dawson of Council Bluffs, which committee went to Des Moines on February 10, in pursuance of a resolution introduced by C. S. Montgomery, and adopted at a directors' meeting held January 27, 1896. The result of the efforts of the committee at that time was the passage of a resolution by the Iowa State legislature approving the movement to hold an exposition at Omaha in 1898, and calling upon its Senators and Representatives in Congress to co-operate with the Nebraska delegation in an effort to secure the enactment of legislation then pending, the purpose of which was to provide for participation on the part of the United States by the erection of a Government building on the Exposition grounds and the installation of exhibits therein.

In furtherance of the work of promotion it was deemed proper to act upon the suggestions received through the mails that delegations be sent to State capitals to lay the matter of the Exposition project before the different Legislatures, and Messrs. Wattles, Lindsey and Babcock were delegated to act as a committee to arrange for such trips.

During the month of February, 1897, several trips were arranged for and were made by members of the Board of Directors, to the north, the south, and the west. Perhaps the most notable of these journeys was that of the delegation which traveled west in a private Pullman car which was hauled by the Union Pacific Railroad and other railroads leading to the capitals of nine different western States. In most of these States the delegation was given a hearing before a special joint session of the Legislature, and while on account of depleted treasuries, due to hard times, some of the States failed to make appropriations, yet much work to the advantage of the Exposition was accomplished by this delegation, which comprised the following directors, who were   accompanied by their wives: G. W. Wattles, President; W. S. Poppleton, G. M. Hitchcock, Clement Chase, John L. Webster, and H. E. Palmer. The itinerary of this party included visits to the capitals of the following States: Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and California. Another expedition was headed northward about the same time, reaching the capital of the State of Minnesota February 17, 1897, and thereafter visiting, among other places, the capitals of North and South Dakota. The personnel of this party was as follows: Z. T. Lindsey, L. C. Crofoot and

The First Promotion Expedition
I. W. Carpenter of Omaha, and C. M. Harl of Council Bluffs. This delegation occupied the private car of General Manager Bidwell of the Northwestern Railway.

The South Dakota Legislature adjourned without making an appropriation in aid of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, but passed resolutions heartily commending it and recommending that South Dakota be well represented through the medium of private subscriptions. The Nebraska delegation believed that the wealthy citizens of that State would take such an interest in the matter that Marcus Daly's generosity, hereafter referred to, would be out- done, and that a fund of not less than $25,000 would be raised wherewith to  

G. M. Hitchcock
Thomas Kilpatrick
John L. Webster
make a proper exhibit. A snow storm prevented the Omaha delegates from leaving Pierre as soon as they had expected to do, but the week they spent there was not wasted, as the legislators were likewise weather bound and ample opportunity was presented wherein to do missionary work, of which the Exposition boomers duly availed themselves.

Still another expedition left Omaha during February, this excursion being headed southward, the points it was planned to visit including Jefferson City, Mo., Little Rock, Ark., Texarkana, Waco, Ft. Worth, El Paso and Austin, Tex., the City of Mexico, and Guthrie, Okla. However, due to unforeseen contingencies arising, some changes were made so that the party, comprising Messrs. Euclid Martin, C. S. Montgomery, O. Phillippi, E. J. Cornish, Rev. S. Wright Butler, and Major E. H. Crowder from Omaha, and Judge A. Cornish of Lincoln, visited instead St. Louis and Jefferson City, Mo., Little Rock and Hot Springs, Ark., San Antonio, Tex., and the City of Mexico, Orizaba and Cordova, Mex. In Mexico the delegation received a private audience with President Diaz, who took great interest in the enterprise and intimated that as soon as his Government received an invitation from the proper officials of the United States to participate in the Exposition, Mexico would take steps to be properly represented.

About this time other excursions were made by individual directors, or committees appointed by the board, to points less distant from Omaha, and A such visitations were productive of much good in creating a sentiment favorable to the great undertaking, and also by securing contributions and subscriptions to stock in the enterprise; members of State Legislatures in the Trans-Mississippi country to the number of considerably more than 2,000 were communicated with and copies of proposed bill helpful to the cause  

H. A. Thompson
C. M. Wilhelm
George F. Bidwell
were sent forward; circular letters were furnished to business men which set forth the merits of the cause, and they distributed among their customers copies thereof to the number of 50,000. Congressman Mercer visited the Embassies in Washington and endeavored to persuade the diplomatic corps to send consuls to Omaha during the Exposition period so that exhibitors and would-be exhibitors could have resident representatives of their respective countries upon whom they might call or inquire of concerning the Exposition. The hearty co-operation of Mr. H. N. Higginbotham, former President of the World's Fair, was secured, and he accompanied a delegation of Nebraskans to Springfield, Ill., in the interest of a bill then pending before the Illinois State Legislature, and in meeting the claims that the State treasury was depleted and retrenchment necessary, he called attention to the aid Nebraska had rendered the World's Fair project, asked for reciprocal action, and indicated that assistance given the Trans-Mississippi Exposition in the form of appropriate State representation would be highly advantageous to the State of Illinois. So convincing were the arguments adduced by the delegation in question, that the Illinois Legislature later appropriated $45,000 with which a State exhibit was made, which occupied 60,000 square feet of floor space in the various exhibit buildings, while a magnificent State building was created at a cost of nearly $10,000, which contained, among other things, famous paintings by John R. Key, and which was visited by 10,000 residents of Illinois, many of whom were privileged to take part in the notable ceremonies of two special days set apart for the State of Illinois. One of these was designated as "Illinois Day" and the other "Chicago Day."

Manager Hitchcock of the Department of Promotion instigated and made considerable progress with a plan to secure the mobilization at Omaha during  

G. W. Holdrege
C. W. Lyman
R. S. Wilcox
the Exposition period of the National Guard, and a portion of the United States army, but resigned his position as the head of that department before the scheme had fully matured. Before anything definite was accomplished in regard to it, war clouds appeared and actual hostilities later entirely prevented the accomplishment of what would have been a great feature of the Exposition.

The Governor of Nebraska was prevailed upon to issue a proclamation to citizens of Nebraska inviting active co-operation to make the undertaking a success, and he also issued a similar proclamation to the Governors of the Trans-Mississippi States.

A movement was set on foot to secure a Congress of Agricultural Societies at Omaha, during the Exposition, and the good will of the Secretary of Agriculture was secured to this end. He stated that his department would be represented and he himself would endeavor to be present. United States Consuls were furnished with information regarding the Exposition, and their interest and assistance enlisted and generally secured in the cause.

Manager Rosewater called on the Postmaster-General and prevailed on him to issue a series of commemorative postage stamps, but not without some effort. Under the impression that the Exposition would be but local in character, the Postmaster-General at first declined to look with favor on the suggestion, but proof being furnished him from the Department of State that the United States, Government had recognized its international feature by issuing invitations to foreign nations to participate, the Postmaster-General consented to order a special issue of stamps, which was done.

A large party of representative Nebraskans left Omaha in two Pullman cars on February 13, 1898, bent solely upon performing missionary work in  

John A. Creighton
W. A. Paxton
J. L. Brandeis
the interest of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. This excursion to the south was planned by Mr. W. H. Green. The itinerary of the tour embraced seven- teen of the principal cities of the central east and far southern districts of the country, traveling over eleven lines of railroad and through twelve great States. Following is the personnel of the party. Rev. S. Wright Butler, Hon. E. Cornish, R. Corbett, C. Orcutt, W. D. Edwards, R. Dinning, Robert Purvis, H. F. Cady, G. F. Munro, Gibson, M. F. Sears, J. A. Frenzer, F. D. Wead, E. W. Arthur, L. Patterson, A. R. Edmiston, W. F. Lorensen, of Omaha; L. P. Davis, H. P. Victor, W. H. Rehlaender, N. C. Brock, F. B. Harris, Jos. Junge, Chas. Newbrandt, Ernest Hopper, Herman Pobenz, J. W. Bowen, of Lincoln; F. A. Cameron, R. A. Smith, E. W. Peterson, R. R. Latta, Edward Latta, of Tekamah; E. A. Dean, E. Johnson, I. Brown, of Holdrege; G. B. Darr, J. L. May, E. M. F. Leflang, of Lexington; E. H. Grist, A. O. Shaw, of Tecumseh; C. P. Parrish, L. Rosenthal, of West Point; R. D. Philips, S. A. D. Henline, of Kearney; A. E. Hunter, G. L. Day. of Superior; Jno. Snodgrass, A. G. Burbank, of Springfield; B. P. Sprague, of Beatrice; F. E. White, of Plattsmouth; R. H. Peyton, of Creighton; D. H. Frahm, of Wakefield; P. O. Avery, of Humboldt; H. E. Norton, Kenesaw; Dr. S. S. Glover, Arlington: C. R. Glover, of Valentine; R. McConaughy, M.D.. York; C. W. Kaley, Red Cloud; Z. T. Noyes, Missouri Valley, Iowa; D. L. Heinshmeier, Kenwood, Iowa; E. A. Wickham, Council Bluffs, Iowa; B. W. Carlisle, of Missouri Valley, Iowa.

At St. Louis, Louisville, Cincinnati, Dayton, Springfield, Columbus, Richmond, Indianapolis, Terre Haute, East St. Louis, Jackson, Mobile, New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Memphis, stops of several hours' duration were made, and at most of the places arrangements had been effected for meeting in some  

John H. Evans
I. W. Carpenter
Edw. Dickinson
public place where opportunity was offered to members of the delegation to make known the object of their visit, and by visiting clubs, etc., considerable work was done in the direction of awakening an interest in favor of the Exposition; also, by the distribution of literature and otherwise, the people were made familiar with the magnitude and importance of the Exposition project.

Having, by commingling with the people, exercised an influence boding good for the Exposition, the department later kept in touch by correspondence with those sections where encouragement seemed needful to secure desired action; and where apathy or non-action appeared, representatives of the Exposition were sent again among the people and the work persisted in, despite the existence of discouraging conditions, until success was attained. Then, desiring "to be shown," people from other States, sometimes under commissions from the Governors, visited Omaha to determine for themselves whether or not the representations made to them by interested parties with reference to the Exposition were borne out by the facts in the case. Their visits were frequently productive of immediate good, as the delegates would return with such glowing accounts of the Exposition plans and progress being made thereon, that their sponsors became fired with enthusiasm for the enterprise and a desire for representation.

Much of what has been written with reference to the various excursions inaugurated for promotion purposes may not appear to be very material in a history of this character, and would not be, but for the fact of the incalculable benefits accruing to the enterprise by reason thereof. A strong sentiment had been fostered in many quarters that the proposed exhibit would be a very commonplace affair; was local in character and that its promoters in efforts  

Casper E. Yost
John C. Wharton
Arthur C. Smith
at exploitation had allowed their enthusiasm such latitude as to lead them into making extravagant claims concerning the project, and it was in large part to overcome this erroneous impression that representative Nebraska citizens went forth to interview and to convince the leading citizens of other States, that the Exposition would be just such a one as claimed; and, judged by results, the method adopted succeeded where no other plan could have done so.

The treasuries of many States were not in a healthy condition, some completely depleted, only nine Trans-Mississippi States promising an exhibit at the time the bill was signed which gave assurance of the United States Government participating; yet when the gates of the Exposition were opened, each and every State and territory in that vast region was represented by exhibits of an intensely interesting character.

One of several instances might be cited where success was snatched from a situation which spelled failure. A visit of a Nebraska delegation to the Montana capital was had on Washington's birthday, 1897, and the situation then did not look promising. The party on leaving Helena went to Butte, where Manager Hitchcock, of the Department of Promotion, met Mr. Marcus Daly, a man of prominence and great influence in that State. The mission of the party was unfolded to that gentleman, and the outcome of the visit to the State Legislature was made known to him. He at first was disinclined to become interested, but the argument made by Mr. Hitchcock soon secured from him a promise to do what he could to help out the Exposition. The delegation proceeded on its way, but had traveled less than goo miles when a telegram apprised them of the fact that an offer of Mr. Daly to duplicate any amount appropriated by the State of Montana for representation at the  

Charles Metz
J. J. Brown
J. E. Markel
Trans-Mississippi Exposition, had been considered, and $15,000 appropriated by the State, so that an exhibit from Montana costing not less than $30,000 was assured.

Considerable effort had been put forth by Manager Rosewater of the Department of Publicity and Promotion, to secure favorable consideration of a scheme to hold an Indian Congress at the Exposition, and by dint of hard work on the part of those interested in promoting the welfare of the enterprise, a bill was passed by Congress which guaranteed an exhibition of the character referred to, which proved to be a stellar attraction, for never before had such a large and interesting gathering of the tribes of red men been effected as that which distinguished the Omaha Exposition of 1808.

A bureau of special attractions was organized, but much was accomplished by the Promotion Department along those lines, notably the work done in connection with the engagement of the Marine band, as well as the assembling of representatives from numerous tribes of Indians at a so-called Congress.

The Exposition project contended with many untoward conditions, passed through many trying situations, and succeeded only because of the unwavering faith its promoters had in the outcome, and the good generalship displayed in the management of its affairs. When first mooted, the idea of sending out excursions was frowned down, and not until demands were made by residents of neighboring States for representative Nebraska citizens to be sent among them with a view to enlightening them concerning the true status of the Exposition, was the importance of such a move appreciated by many of the Exposition directors. The work which presented itself for the delegations to perform, and the resulting benefits which later became manifest,  

Thomas Hoctor
L. H. Korty
J. A. Johnson
demonstrated beyond peradventure the wisdom of such a move, and especially notable are the results thus accomplished in view of the fact that during the period of greatest activity, the Exposition boomers who traveled through many States, endeavoring to enthuse and move to action the people of the western States, were unable to point to very great results actually accomplished in the way of securing material support outside of the city of Omaha. The pending bill in the Nebraska State Legislature had not been passed, so that when asked what the State of Nebraska had done to help the work along, the delegations were compelled to make the humiliating admission that it had done nothing. Hence, it is not surprising that the task of securing the desired co-operation on the part of the surrounding States was a difficult and discouraging one. The opposition to passage of the bill pending before the Nebraska State Legislature was met and successfully overcome by those upon whom had fallen much of the burden of the promotion work. The bill in question carried an appropriation of $100,000; thereafter Douglas County raised a like sum, and the city of Omaha augmented the total by some thirty thousand dollars expended in parking and such work in aid of the Exposition. These events, in connection with the bill passed by Congress providing for a Government building and exhibit, gave great impetus to the promotion work, increased the growing interest in the Exposition, and brought about such a demand for space in the exhibition building provided for in the general plan, that the construction of additional buildings became imperative. Thirty-five States appointed Exposition commissioners and the following appropriations were made to cover expenses of participating in the Exposition:

State of Nebraska ............................................................... $100,000
Douglas County, Nebraska ......................................................... 100,000
 

Dr. E. W. Lee

Lucius Wells

W. S. Jardine

State of Illinois ............................................................ $ 45,000
State of Iowa .................................................................. 30,000
State of Montana* .............................................................. 30,000
State of Georgia ............................................................... 10,000
State of Utah ................................................................... 8,000
State of Ohio ................................................................... 3,000
State of New York .............................................................. 10,000
Territory of Arizona ............................................................ 2,000
Total ........................................................................ $338,000
Funds raised privately:
Kansas ........................................................................$ 22,000
Minnesota ...................................................................... 30,000
South Dakota .................................................................... 5,000
Wisconsin ...................................................................... 25,000
Oregon ......................................................................... 10,000
Washington ..................................................................... 15,000
Oklahoma ........................................................................ 5,000
New Mexico ...................................................................... 3,000
Wyoming ........................................................................ 15,000
Los Angeles County, Cal. ....................................................... 10,000
Missouri ....................................................................... 15,000
Colorado ....................................................................... 10,000
Texas .......................................................................... 10,000
$175,000
State appropriations ......................................................... $338,000
Private subscriptions ......................................................... 175,000
Grand total .................................................................. $513,000
*One-half of this amount was given by Marcus Daly, of Butte, Montana.

Nearly one hundred conventions of various organizations, national, State. etc., were induced to meet at Omaha during the Exposition period; and many  

Ernest E. Hart
E. C. Price
F. B. Hibbard
"Special Days" at the Exposition were arranged for with appropriate ceremonies.

The strained relations existing between this country and Spain during the early part of 1898, followed by the declaration of war, naturally interfered with some of the plans of the promoters of the Exposition, but not to the extent of postponing the date for opening the Exposition, the gates to which swung inward on the appointed day. About this time the Washington Post remarked that "the people out at Omaha are quite enterprising, but they will be sure to ascertain that this thing of running an Exposition in opposition to a war, is no good job." Those interested had doubtless become cognizant of that fact, but undismayed, they applied themselves with redoubled ardor to get out the crowds, and so well did they succeed that the Exposition has title to the claim of being the first of the kind in America to pay back to the stockholders any considerable amount of the money invested—the Trans-Mississippi Exposition Company returning to its stockholders 90 per cent of the face value of their stock.

The war with Spain being at an end, a "Peace Jubilee" at the Exposition was suggested, the idea was adopted, and steps were taken to bring it about. The President of the United States, his cabinet officers, the diplomatic corps, United States Senators, and others of prominence, were invited to participate. The President and his official family accepted the invitation given, a large number of the diplomatic corps did likewise, and the week of October 9-15 was the time fixed upon for the visit, which week was destined to be the banner one of the Exposition period. The attendance was immense, and the interesting scenes incident to the visit of so many notables to the Exposition were features of the occasion.

 

A. H. Noyes

Dudley Smith

Fred M. Youngs

The campaign for congressional recognition began in January, 1896, and culminated June 6 of that year by the passage of an act providing for the erection of a Government building on the Exposition grounds and the placing therein of exhibits illustrating the operations of the various departments of government. For these purposes the bill carried an appropriation of $2000,000. Later, Congress appropriated $45,000 for the Indian exhibit. In both instances the action of Congress was due in great part to the ceaseless activities of many of Omaha's most prominent men.

Illinois Exhibit Building

 

ADMINISTRATION BUILDING

 

ORGANIZATION AND REORGANIZATION

CHAPTER XIV

DURING the fall of 1895, a number of prominent and public-spirited Omaha citizens decided that an Exposition of a character and on a scale calculated to portray the resources and development of the Trans-Mississippi country should be held, in Omaha; and as a result of such conclusion a resolution strongly favoring such a movement was introduced in and adopted by the Trans-Mississippi Congress at its session in Omaha during November of that year. The men who took the initiative in the matter were those who had been the leading spirits in the Omaha Fair and Speed Association, whose efforts to induce the State Board of Agriculture to hold the State Fair in Omaha had been successful. These men were among the first to see the need of a larger Exposition, and were firm in the belief that Omaha possessed strength enough to project it. Most of these men were called to serve in the first directory of eleven men, named on the following page. Among others were John A. Wakefield, Z. T. Lindsey, Frank D. Brown, Geo. H. Kelley, William Krug and Wm. A. Paxton, Jr.

Meetings were subsequently held in furtherance of the object, and on January 18, 1896, a citizens' meeting effected an organization by adopting articles of incorporation, prepared by C. S. Montgomery, which contemplated an Exposition to be held June 1, to November 1, 1898, instead of from August to October as provided in the tentative draft of articles of incorporation presented by the committee. The authorized capital stock was $1,000,000 at $10 per share, complete organization to be effected after $10,000 had been subscribed.

Subscriptions were called for and those attending the meeting promptly subscribed $10,650 whereupon the assemblage resolved itself into a stock-  

C. F. Weller
W. R. Bennett
G. H. Payne
holders ' meeting; the articles of incorporation as amended were read and forthwith, on motion, approved.

Eleven directors were then elected, as follows: Gurdon W. Wattles. Jacob A. Markel, W. R. Bennett, John H. Evans, Dudley Smith, Dan'l Farrell, Jr., Geo. H. Payne, Charles Metz, Isaac W. Carpenter, Henry A. Thompson and C. S. Montgomery.

The first meeting of the Board of Directors was held January 20, 1896, and the following officers were then elected: Gurdon W. Wattles, President; Jacob E. Markel, Vice-President; John A. Wakefield, Secretary.

Mr. E. H. Odell, representing the Manufacturers' and Merchants' Club at Council Bluffs, appeared at this meeting and made manifest the friendly interest which the people of Council Bluffs entertained for the undertaking, which led to the formation of a committee representing Council Bluffs. The subsequent co-operation of this committee with the efforts of the Exposition management was of no little benefit in securing the enactment of federal legislation on June 10, 1896, providing for representation by the United States at the Exposition.

On January 24, 1896, Herman Kountze was elected treasurer, Carroll S. Montgomery, general counsel and John E. Utt, railway commissioner. At the same meeting by-laws were presented and adopted.

At a meeting of the Board of Directors held May 23, 1898, it was decided to make an issue of negotiable bonds in the sum of $200,000 secured by a mortgage on go per cent of the gate receipts and upon the buildings and other property of the Exposition. The bonds and the mortgage to protect them were prepared, providing that Joseph H. Millard, President of the  

T. S. Clarkson
Allen T. Rector
J. H. Hussie
Omaha National Bank, Charles W. Lyman, President of the Commercial National Bank, and (the late) Frank Murphy, President of the Merchants' National Bank, should be a board of trustees for the bonds. For various reasons the bonds were never issued and were finally destroyed.

At a meeting of the Board of Directors June 19, 1896, it was decided to call a meeting for July 20, and to issue special invitations to leading citizens to serve as a bureau of finance for the Exposition. The meeting was held. and after full discussion a resolution was adopted recommending that the sum of half a million dollars be raised through stock subscriptions, and that a permanent finance committee be named which would have custody of all funds and have general financial management of the Exposition. The resolution named the following men as members of the committee: Herman Kountze, Joseph H. Millar, Frank Murphy, F. P. Kirkendall, Z. T. Lindsey, G. W. Wattles G. W. Lininger, Alvin Saunders, H. W. Yates, V. B. Caldwell, A. L. Reed, E. E. Bruce, E. Rosewater, Edwin A. Cudahy, Alfred Millard, Lucius Wells, Guy C. Barton, Frank Colpetzer, W. S. Poppleton, C. E. Yost, W. A Paxton, J. A Creighton. C. F. Manderson, Harold McCormick, David Anderson.

This committee pursuant to instruction prepared a report which was submitted at a meeting of citizens on June 22, 1896. This report recommended a plan of organization which was for the most part adopted by the Board of Directors who based the reorganization plans upon the recommendations of the committee whose special report was signed by the following men: Herman Kountze, Joseph H. Millard, Henry W. Yates, Guy C. Barton, C. E. Yost and F. P. Kirkendall.

 

At the citizens' meeting held on July 20, a soliciting committee was appointed for the purpose, as follows:

STOCK SOLICITING COMMITTEE

Capitalists and real estate owners, bankers, brokers, collection agencies and their employes—H. Kountze, chairman; G. W. Wattles, E. A. Benson, A. L. Reed, W. L. Selby, W. G. Shriver.

Transportation companies and franchised corporations and their employes—Z. T. Lindsey, chairman; C. F. Weller, E. E. Bruce, F. P. Kirkendall, Edgar Allen, O. C. Holmes, F. Colpetzer, et al.

Retailers and their employes—H. A. Thompson, chairman; A. Hospe, Jr., O. D. Kiplinger, John Hussie, et al.

Hotels, restaurants, boarding houses, theatres and their employes—I. W. Carpenter, W. R. Bennett, E. Brandeis.

Brewers, liquor dealers and their employes—Charles Metz, chairman; Otto Seimssen, H. E. Palmer, Jno. A. Johnson, Dudley Smith.

Printers, publishers, engravers, advertising agents and their employes— I. W. Carpenter, G. M. Hitchcock, A. M. Comstock.

Judges, lawyers, court and public officials and their employes—C. C. Belden, chairman; C. H. Klopp, W. Connell, R. WV. Richardson.

Physicians, dentists and their employes—J. H. Evans, chairman; Dr. E. W. Lee, Dr. W. H. Hanchett, Dr. C. E. Smith.

Livery and boarding stables, dairymen and their employes—Jacob E. Markel, chairman; H. K. Burkett, L. Littlefield.

Fire and police department—Alfred Millard, chairman; W. C. Bullard. Frank B. Johnson.

Teachers, musicians and artists—G. H. Payne, chairman; Clement Chase, C. G. Pearse, J. H. McIntosh.

Fire and life insurance companies, agents and their employes—G. H. Payne, chairman; John Steele, W. H. Alexander.

Architects, civil engineers and contractors—John H. Harte, chairman; A. J. Vierling, W. S. Wedge.

Laundrymen and barbers—M. Collins, chairman, Fred Buelow, L. W. Pains, John A. Johnson.

Packing houses, stock yards and their employes—W. A. Paxton, chairman; W. N. Babcock, E. A. Cudahy, A. C. Foster, T. W. Taliaferro, Walter Woods.

Organized labor and trades unions—H. A. Easton, Machinists' Union; Robert M. Kenna, Carpenters' Union; T. F. Sturgis, Typographical Union; Julius Meyer, Musicians' Union; B. P. Flood, Pressmen's Union.

 

South Omaha—T. H. Ensor, Mayor, T. J. O'Neill, David Anderson.

Council Bluffs—Lucius Wells, chairman; Geo. F. Wright, C. R. Hannan, Wm. Moore, E. W. Hart, J. A. Patten, N. P. Dodge, Thos. Officer, W. D. Hardin, Geo. Carson, Mayor; Clarence Judson.

Letter carriers, postoffice employes and railway postal clerks—A. H. Fuller, Geo. J. Kleffner, Ernest Beale Brady.

At a directors' meeting held September 12, 1896, a report was received showing that $320,000 had been subscribed and that $40,000 additional was assured. The articles of incorporation provided that when $300,000 had been subscribed a board of not less than fifty directors should be elected. In compliance with that proviso a call was issued for a meeting of stockholders for October 1, 1896, which action, at the earnest solicitation of heavy stockholders, was later rescinded and a new call issued for December 1, instead.

REORGANIZATION

At a stockholders' meeting December 1, 1896, called for the purpose of electing a board of fifty directors, an election was had resulting in the following persons receiving a majority of all votes cast, whereupon they were declared duly elected as directors of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition Company:

1. Manderson, Charles F.
2. Murphy, Frank
3. Millard, J. H.
4. Lindsey, Z. T.
5. Kilpatrick, Thos.
6. Bruce, E. E.
7. Thompson, H. A.
8. Wilhelm, C. M.
9. Wells, Lucius
10. Holdrege, G. W.
11. Rosewater, Edward
12. Wilcox, R. X.
13. Creighton, John A.
14. Paxton, W. A., Sr.
15. Babcock, W. H.
16. Evans, J. H.
17. Bidwell, Geo. F.
18. Dickinson, Edw.
19. Noyes, A. H.
20. Hoctor, Thomas
21. Smith, A. C.
22. Metz, Charles
23. Wattles, G. W.
24. Brandeis, J. L.
25. Weller, C. F.
26. Smith, Dudley
27. Carpenter, I. W.
28. Markel, J. E.
29. Kimball, T. L.
30. Kirkendall, F. P.
31. Yost, C. E.
32. Hitchcock, G. M.
33. Kountze, Herman
34. Payne, G. H.
35. Korty, L. H.
36. Wakefield, John A.
37. Reed, A. L.
38. Hussie, John H.
39. Price, E. C.
40. Jardine, Walter
41. Lyman, C. W.
42. Montogmery, C. S.
43. Saunders, Alvin
44. Brown, J. J.
45. Johnson, John A.
46. Webster, John L.
47. Hibbard, F. B.
48. Lee, Dr. E. W.
49. Wharton, J. C.

At a meeting of the Board of Directors held on December 8, 1898, Fred M. Youngs, representative of organized labor, was elected to fill the existing vacancy on the Board.

At this meeting it was resolved that no director should receive compensation for services performed in any way for the corporation.

 

December 16, 1896, the committee on organization tendered its report, which was acted upon immediately, resulting in the election of the following officers: President, G. W. Wattles; V ice-President, Alvin Saunders; Secretary, John A. Wakefield; Treasurer, Herman Kountze; General Counsel, Carroll S. Montgomery.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

Department of Ways and Means, Z. T. Lindsey; Department of Publicity, Edward Rosewater; Department of Promotion, G. M. Hitchcock; Department of Exhibits, E. E. Bruce; Department of Concessions and Privileges, A. L. Reed; Department of Grounds and Buildings, F. P. Kirkendall; Department of Transportation, W. N. Babcock.

Allan T. Rector was elected as director, vice John A. Wakefield, resigned.

Pursuant to a provision in the articles of incorporation, that there should be a vice-president appointed for each State and territory west of the Mississippi River, the following were so appointed:

Arkansas—Hon. W. G. Vincenheller, Little Rock. California—Hon. Geo. W. Parsons, Los Angeles. Colorado—Hon. Edward F. Bishop, Denver. Idaho—Hon. B. P. Shawhan, Payette. Illinois—Hon. R. Hall McCormick, Chicago. Iowa—Hon. Geo. F. Wright, Council Bluffs. Kansas—Hon. C. A. Fellows, Topeka. Louisiana—Hon. C. Harrison Parker, New Orleans. Minnesota—Hon. Frank H. Peavey, Minneapolis. Missouri—Hon. John Doniphan, St. Joseph. Montana—Hon. W. H. Sutherlin, White Sulphur Springs. Nebraska—Hon. Wm. Neville, North Platte. Nevada—Hon. H. B. Maxson, Reno. North Dakota—Hon. C. A. Lounsberry, Fargo Oregon—Hon. B. S. Cook, Salem. South Dakota—Hon. Thomas H. Wells, Hot Springs. Texas—Hon. E. J. T. Johnson, Dallas. Utah—Hon. Lewis W. Shurtliff, Ogden City. Washington—Hon. Geo. W. Thompson, Tacoma. Wyoming—Hon. Frank P. Graves, Laramie. Alaska—Hon. James Sheakley, Sitka. Arizona—Hon. Charles R. Drake, Tucson. New Mexico—Hon. L. Bradford Prince, Santa Fe. Oklahoma—Hon. Eugene Wallace, Oklahoma City.

The management, under the re-organization effected as outlined in the foregoing, continued until July 9, 1897, when the resignation of G. M. Hitchcock as manager of the Department of Promotion resulted in a consolidation of the departments of Publicity and Promotion, and thereafter the were operated as a single department under the management of Edward Rosewater.

 

With the exception of one or two changes in official titles and the election of Thomas Hoctor as a director to fill the vacancy caused by the demise of Dan'l Farrell, Jr., the affairs of the Exposition Company were conducted by the managers and officers of the six departments created, aided by superintendents who were placed in charge of the various bureaus attached to said departments, until, upon June go, 1902, the business of the company having been closed up, on motion duly made and carried at a directors' meeting then held, the corporation was dissolved.

Administration Arch

 

A VIEW OF OMAHA—LOOKING SOUTHEAST

 

WHAT OMAHA DID

CHAPTER XV

ANY chronicle of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, if it be faithful to the subject must necessarily reflect the loyalty, capacity and strength of the people of Omaha. Indeed, it is difficult to treat of the growth and completion of the project without constant reference, direct or implied, to the unexampled labors and triumphs achieved by Omaha's men and women. Every chapter, in a degree, must measure some element of the city's strength because the completed Exposition was largely created as by Omaha brain and brawn; yet it is thought to be proper and fitting to devote one chapter to a somewhat particular reference to the part played by Omaha in the great undertaking. The genius of her men of affairs proved to be equal to the taking up of a great work upon lines of action entirely original, and to the finishing of an Herculean task, scoring a brilliant success in the face of difficulties, the like of which never confronted the builders of any other exposition. The plain facts of solid achievement may be recorded without vainglorious boasting, and yet the successes attained in some particulars were so extraordinary as to make difficult their recital without laying the chronicler liable to the charge of exaggeration.

The success of every American Exposition has depended upon the energy and capacity of the men of the city wherein it was located. Some of the expositions failed largely because of the shortcomings of the cities projecting them. The simple fact that Omaha was strong enough to create a great Exposition, and carry it to triumphant success, is a high encomium sufficient within itself to raise the city and its people in the estimation of the best men of the country. Perhaps it is true that some of the men who assumed the heavy burdens incident to the work of creating the Exposition, did not at  

City Hall, Omaha
first fully realize the magnitude of the task; nor could they have foretold the outbreak of war with a foreign power at a time when the fate of the Exposition hung in the balance. However, they knew that a colossal enterprise was being projected, calling for greater effort than Omaha men had ever been called upon to put forth, and having put their hands to the plough, that typical western pluck and energy, characteristic of the Trans-Mississippi region, led them on to brilliant achievement and unparalleled success. As the years roll on, bringing to the mind's eye a truer perspective of the completed Exposition and the immense task involved in the building, the results attained seem to be more striking in their magnitude than they ever did before.

From the inception of the project down to the end of the third month of the Exposition season, the paramount problem was that of finance. Omaha's best citizenship addressed itself to the task of solving this problem. At a meeting held on January 18, 1896, to consider a tentative draft of articles of incorporation, voluntary subscriptions amounting to $10,650 were readily made by men who were quick to see the prospective benefits of a creditable Exposition. This chronicle would be incomplete without reference to the first committee appointed for soliciting stock. This action was taken at a citizens' meeting January 18, 1896, the committee being composed of Messrs. Z. T. Lindsey, W. R. Bennett, Charles Metz, I. W. Carpenter and C. C. Belden. The committee at once asked for subscriptions, the response being hearty. Out of the 50 or more citizens attending the meeting the following gave $500 each: Edward Rosewater, W. J. Connell, H. Evans, Dan Farrell, Jr., Lee-Clark-Andreesen Company, W. R. Bennett Company, J. E. Markel & Son, Thompson, Belden & Company, William Krug, Oscar Pick-   ard , Metz Bros., Frank B. Hibbard, Dudley Smith, Kelley, Stiger & Company. One man, John A. Weaver, pledged $400, and Ashton Clemens and G. S. Ambler pledged $300 each. Z. T. Lindsey and Lyman Richards gave $250 and C. 8. Montgomery and L. H. Bradley gave $200 each. The following pledged $100 each: C. S. Hayward, O. C. Holmes, W. C. Bullard, Helin & Thompson, Johnson Bros., Fisher & Lawrie, G. W. Wattles, John A. Wakefield, John E. Utt, Gibson, Euclid Martin, M. H. DeLong, Geo. N. Hicks, W. H. Roberson, Robt. W. Richardson and Isaac W. Carpenter. Three men pledged $50 each: I. E. Burdick, G. A. Rathbun and George A. Payne; A total, $10,650.

Thus did public-spirited men of Omaha give to the Exposition project its first great impulse. Later on as plans were further discussed and developed the projectors decided that Omaha must raise by popular subscription $300,000 in order to put the enterprise upon a solid foundation. Pursuant to this plan of campaign the Board of Directors met June 10, 1806, and issued invitations to a number of citizens to serve as a bureau of finance of the Exposition. The meeting was well attended, adopting a resolution recommending that the sum of $500,000 be raised by stock subscriptions, and naming a permanent committee of finance comprising 24 men, every one of whom had done his part in the work of upbuilding Omaha.

Those who can readily recall the stressful condition of trade and finance in 1806, and the consequent impairment of property values, will not fail to appreciate the difficulties with which these courageous projectors had to contend. Today the raising of half a million dollars for an object equally laudable would present a task comparatively easy, but in those days the promoters met with many obstacles, at times seemingly insuperable. No wonder there were men of prominence who said the money could not be raised; they honestly believed that the people of Omaha could not produce the requisite amount of cash within the prescribed limit of time, because of the effects of

A Glimpse of Omaha
  drouth and panic. But the stout-hearted men who had entered the lists to win turned deaf ears to the plaints of the croakers and proceeded vigorously with the campaign for stock subscriptions. At a meeting of the Board of Directors held September 12, 1896, the soliciting committee reported that $320,000 had been subscribed with $40,000 additional assured. On October it was reported that 6,124 persons had subscribed $343,080. The canvass proceeded with vigor. The money was largely subscribed by residents or corporations directly interested in Omaha. It was given from the purses of the poor as well as from the coffers of the rich. On November 27, 1896, the directors were notified that the Burlington Railway Company had donated $30,000. The announcement was received with cheers. No other railroad company had up to that time donated or subscribed to the Exposition fund. Officials of all the roads centering in Omaha had looked askance at the project, sharing in the doubt expressed by croakers that Omaha had strength and ability necessary to build an Exposition. Their attitude had become a matter of grave concern to members of the Executive Committee and to the directory. Gen. Charles F. Manderson, one of the most active directors and general solicitor of the Burlington Railway, was importuned to lay the situation before President Perkins (deceased), who then resided at Burlington. Enlisting the aid of General Manager Holdrege, it was decided to be advisable to seek an interview with Mr. Perkins, and Messrs. Manderson and Holdrege took the latter's private car and proceeded to Burlington. When Mr. Perkins thus learned what had been accomplished by the people of Omaha in providing financial support, he did not longer hesitate to place the Burlington system on record as a patron of the Exposition. He authorized Gen. Manderson to notify the Exposition management that his road would donate $30.000 in promotion of the great enterprise. The grateful appreciation of the Board of Directors was expressed in a resolution of thanks which was adopted with hearty cheers and ordered to be forwarded to the officials of the road. A clause of the resolution also expressed the thanks of Omaha, and of the Exposition Company, for the notification that the Burlington Company would soon begin the erection of a new passenger station at Omaha.

The donation of the Burlington road was regarded as the harbinger of another era of good luck, for other lines having large interests in Omaha were expected each to donate or to subscribe an equal amount. In fact, there was little doubt that all the roads would aid the enterprise. Some of their lawyers thought the companies could not legally hold stock of the Exposition Company. The delay was attributed to failure upon the part of the railroad managers to reach an agreement, not only as to the amount, but they debated the question (born of their experience with other expositions) whether to   donate or to subscribe to the fund for building the Exposition. The railroad officials may have been warranted at that time in raising the query whether possession of capital stock in the Omaha Exposition would prove to be an asset or a liability. So the Burlington's donation at once solved the problem and set the pace. It came at a most opportune time. Through the active efforts of General Manager Geo. F. Bidwell of the Northwestern lines west of the Missouri River, the higher officials of that great system soon matched the Burlington's donation. As a director of the Exposition Company, Mr. Bidwell was in position to keep President Hughitt posted as to the true status of Exposition affairs. The Union Pacific System donated $25,000; the Missouri Pacific $15,000, and the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul, $10,000, the latter road then having no mileage in Nebraska outside of Omaha. The Rock Island system subscribed to the stock of the Exposition $20,000, thus expressing faith in the ultimate success of the enterprise. That faith was in the end rewarded by the repayment of 00 per cent of the subscription. It is not the province of the historian to determine the relative degree of credit merited by these great corporations whose officials displayed unusual generosity in their treatment of the Exposition. The local public utility corporations were likewise generous. At that time the policy of the Omaha Street Railway Company as well as that of the Omaha Gas Company was dominated by the late Frank Murphy. Each of these companies subscribed $10,000 while Mr. Murphy personally subscribed $5,000. The late Herman Kountze subscribed $10,000 which was perhaps the largest individual subscription to the building fund. The Union Stock Yards Company and the Nebraska Telephone Company, controlled by Omaha men, each subscribed $5,000, as did the Byron Reed Company and the Chicago Lumber Company of Omaha. The New York Life Insurance Company and the late Philip D. Armour, having large interests in Omaha, each subscribed $5,000, as did the late Edward Rosewater, one of the prime movers of the great project. This completes the list of those whose subscriptions or donations ranged from $5,000 to $30,000. Without this munificent fund, and the tremendous moral uplift its bestowal gave to the Exposition at a time when success was problematical, it is perhaps not too much to say that the project would have collapsed. At the time the money was given the donors were by common consent accorded a place on the roll of honor. An analysis of the list makes apparent the fact that every dollar of the $200,000 was given at the behest of Omaha men and because of the influence they could bring to bear. It is the best illustration ever afforded of the high rank attained by Omaha as a commercial center. The campaign waged by these and other influential Omahans in enlisting the support of non-residents who had vested interests here, afforded material for a highly interesting  

FARNAM STREET, LOOKING WEST FROM SIXTEENTH
  chapter of history, which, for the most part, must remain unwritten. Many things were planned and done quietly, a sense of good taste preventing at the time a public statement of what was done. Nearly every railroad man in Omaha was an active agent in work for the promotion of the enterprise. Leading merchants and heavy shippers put their shoulders to the wheel and helped to make a showing of fact upon which the directorates of large corporations could base favorable action. Influential citizens made frequent trips to New York, Chicago, St. Louis and elsewhere for the sole purpose of inducing officials of insurance companies, railways, packing houses, etc., to makes subscriptions to the capital stock of the Exposition.

Meantime, the activity of soliciting committees had produced remarkable results by appeals to all classes of citizens. Sub-committees were formed and assigned to a given group of people, confining their efforts to them alone. By this systematic work the canvass was thoroughly made and the one committee kept out of the territory of the other. The zeal and efficiency of these committees were attested by the large amount of money they raised. In looking back over the forces contributing to the ultimate success of the Exposition it is easy to see the tremendous impetus which these soliciting committees imparted to the work of building the Exposition. Here is a report of their gleanings:

Architects, civil engineers and contractors .............................. $11,740
Brewers, liquor dealers and saloons ....................................... 24,410
City and county officers ................................................... 2,520
Capitalists, Real estate, bankers, brokers and collection agencies ........ 49,600
City Fire Department ....................................................... 2,200
Hotels, restaurants and boarding houses .................................... 4,980
Insurance companies, agents and employes .................................. 11,730
Judges, lawyers, court and public officials ............................... 19,630
Laundrymen, barbers and employes ........................................... 6,190
Letter carriers and railway postal clerks .................................. 4,900
Livery and boarding stables and dairymen ................................... 4,810
Jobbers, manufacturers and employes ....................................... 59,030
Organized labor ............................................................ 4,400
Smelting works employes .................................................... 1,560
Physicians and dentists .................................................... 5,030
Printers, publishers, engravers and employes .............................. 14,210
Pacific Express Co. employes ............................................... 1,210
Railway officers, clerks and trainmen ..................................... 12,605
Retail dealers ............................................................ 67,930
Street car company employes ............................................... 12,560
South Omaha and Stock Yards District ...................................... 19,120
Transfer lines, expressmen and employes .................................... 2,510
Teachers, musicians and artists ............................................ 6,960

By the 1st of December, 1896, the secretary was able to report subscriptions and donations amounting to $350,000. This achievement measures  

A Part of Omaha's Wholesale District
Omaha's faith in the enterprise eighteen months prior to the day appointed for the opening of the Exposition. It was evidence to all that the community had awakened to a realization of the fact that Omaha possessed strength enough to build and complete a great Exposition. This figure expresses in dollars and cents the magnificent result of the labors performed under the direction of the original directory of eleven men who were elected at a citizens' meeting on January 18, 1896, as follows: Gurdon W. Wattles, Jacob E. Markel, W. R. Bennett, John H. Evans, Dudley Smith, Daniel Farrell, Jr., George H. Payne. Charles Metz, Isaac W. Carpenter, Henry A. Thompson and Carroll S. Montgomery. The first meeting of this board was held January 20, 1896, and the following officers were then elected: Gurdon W. Wattles, President; Jacob E. Markel, Vice-President; John A. Wakefield, Secretary.

As the plan and scope gradually broadened, the project, of course, required more financial support, notwithstanding the generous response made by the people to the call of the officers and directors under the original organization. Up to this time the brunt of the battle had been borne by a few men, and the victory they achieved entitled them to more credit than was ever accorded to them. Their failure was predicted by a few men who later jumped into the harness and pulled faithfully to the end. For more than a year, or until the date of reorganization, December 16, 1896, the destiny of the Exposition was shaped by the original directory of eleven men and the officers who executed its plans. In another chapter the action resulting in reorganization is set forth in detail.

The articles of association were amended authorizing an enlarged board of fifty directors. The business of the company having grown to such large proportions, it was deemed advisable to divide the work into seven departments, two of which were later consolidated. The managers of these departments constituted the executive committee, which conducted the enterprise up to the closing day. While under the new regime responsibility for success or failure was to the end shared by the board of fifty directors in whom was vested ultimate power of control, yet the main load rested heavily upon the   shoulders of the men comprising the executive committee, whose members, » acting as managers together with the President, through long, weary months gave nearly all of their time and attention to the promotion of the project. During the last year of the work the committee held daily sessions, the President, with counsel and secretary, being in constant attendance. On the closing day of the Exposition, in his address summing up the results of the Exposition, President Wattles voiced the sentiment of the whole community when he said: "To these managers, who have served without compensation, this community owes a debt that can never be paid; and while it is usual to give the commanding general credit for victory in a great battle, in many instances, as with the Exposition, this credit is equally due to the efficient services of his assistants and to the common soldiers, which includes nearly every representative citizen in this community—for all have worked with one purpose to build up this enterprise and bring to it the large measure of success it has attained."

It would hardly be profitable to rehearse the events incident to recurring crises in the progress of the enterprise, but it is interesting to recall one episode of the winter of 1897, when "huge boulders almost choked the stream of cash, and strong men among the projectors came to the rescue with their financial credit and their money. One of the contractors of a large building in course of construction had waited several days for the payment of money due him on a given estimate, and became noisily importunate. One morning he knocked at the door of the Executive Committee room and sent in word that unless his estimate of $12,000 were paid within thirty minutes he would stop work on the building and publish his reasons for so doing. There was less than $1,000 in the treasury. The threatened action of the contractor, if carried out, would have wrecked the financial credit of the Exposition Company. Such a calamity was averted by Chairman Lindsey and President Wattles. who advanced the money until the Exposition treasury could be replenished and repayment made. In another crisis, the President, managers and Secretary personally endorsed notes and raised money with which to relieve the situation.

Conditions having gradually improved, the outlook, February 1, 1898, was quite favorable, and the projectors of the Exposition felt the inspiration of impending success. But during that month came the unexpected breaking out of hostilities with Spain. This untoward event caused many prospective exhibitors to cancel applications for space. Newspapers everywhere subordinated all matter to war news and pictures; men became dubious; clouds, low and ominous, hung heavily over the Exposition. Some of the directors advised postponement until 1899—others would have abandoned the project  

Sixteenth Street, Looking North
entirely. Only a few men steed pat and urged that plans be proceeded with. A conference was called by the President of members of the Executive Committee and the more steadfast members of the directory. The situation, in all its bearings, was carefully discussed. The proposal to abandon the project could not be entertained, for the reason that such a course would have blasted the reputation of Omaha throughout the country; on the other hand, postponement, it was thought, would inevitably lead to failure and humiliation. The consensus of opinion was that Omaha could not afford to avail itself of either alternative, and therefore it was decided that the only thing to do was to proceed carefully and confidently, with a determination to win success despite all adverse conditions. Every man then and there resolved to redouble his energies; measures of economy were adopted; more effective work was done in all departments, and by the restoration of popular confidence ultimate success was assured. The war cloud precipitated the greatest crisis in the   affairs of the Exposition. Nobody could then foretell the duration of a war with Spain. There was in the popular mind apprehension that the naval strength of that great power might equal that of the United States. Some A men predicted that hostilities would last a year—very few thought that the war could be ended with so little disturbance of industrial and trade conditions as happily proved to be the case. Omaha men responsible, financially and A otherwise, for rapid advancement of the work of building the Exposition were confronted, in the face of the Spanish-American war, with a problem involving higher consequences than any other grappled with in the earlier years of the city's history. The fate of the Exposition, involving the good name of Omaha, hung in the balance. There was no State or city or set of men outside of Omaha that could be appealed to for aid. A great emergency had to be met by men who never lost faith in the people of Omaha and their ability to overcome all difficulties. Every property owner in Omaha owes to these strong and loyal men a lasting debt of gratitude for upholding the financial credit of the Exposition Company in the hour of peril. Had they then abandoned the project to its fate, humiliating failure would have ensued, the consequences of which would have been so damaging to Omaha in the eyes of the whole country that recovery could not have been expected within a generation.

Doggedly persevering in the grand work which lay before them, the men of Omaha accomplished a seemingly impossible task. During the year 1897, most of the money was paid in on stock subscriptions. The record shows that a grand total of $5 53,41 5.20 was pledged by 6,500 stockholders. After the requisite sum and more had been subscribed, the pessimists predicted that a large share of it would prove to be uncollectible, not because subscribers did not intend to pay, but because of prevailing hard times. That they did not know the temper of the men of Omaha was soon demonstrated. The report of the Ways and Means Department gives evidence of the willingness and ability of the people of Omaha to pay their subscriptions to the capital stock of the Exposition.

Incident to the closing-day exercises, President Wattles made an address which was largely devoted to a summary of results. He told his hearers that $454,979.24 had been up to that time paid into the Exposition treasury on account of subscriptions and donations, and that, together with the earnings of the corporation, the grand total of cash receipts up to that time from all sources was $1,761,364.18. Later this was increased to $1,977,338.69. The cash in the treasury amounted to $420,996.48, and after paying all legitimate claims there would remain a cash balance of $356,011.46 Much of this sum was used in reimbursing stockholders. In this connection it is interest-   ing to quote a statement made by Secretary Wakefield by way of summing up results accomplished: "This was the only Exposition in America promptly opening its gates to the public on a completed show on the day and hour originally appointed; the first to open free from mortgage or pledge of all or some of its gate receipts; the first to make money each and every month of the Exposition season, and the first to repay to its stockholders any considerable portion of the funds advanced by them. In these respects the Trans-Mississippi & International Exposition stands without a rival."

CONGRESSIONAL RECOGNITION

A recital of the chief events of the campaign for congressional recognition makes evident the fact that Omaha men initiated and pushed it to consummation. From the inception of the project leading spirits realized the very great importance of getting Congress to endorse the plans and to make an appropriation to cover cost of a Government building and exhibit. The first public meeting to consider the subject of holding an Exposition, pursuant to a resolution adopted by the Trans-Mississippi Congress, was held in the rooms of the Commercial Club on December 22, 1895, Charles E. Weller, presiding; and at an adjourned meeting held December 27, it was "unanimously decided that the project of an Exposition should be carried out." It is a significant fact that Senator William V. Allen introduced in the United States Senate, on

Frank E. Moores, Mayor of Omaha
Hon. David H. Mercer
January 3, 1896, only a week later, a bill to "authorize and encourage the holding of a Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition at the city of Omaha, in the year 1898, and making an appropriation therefor." The bill was referred to a select committee on International Expositions, of which Senator  
Senator William V. Allen
Senator John M. Thurston
Senator William P. Frye
John M. Thurston was chairman. On April 10. the Senate debated, amended and passed the bill. Three days later the Senate bill was by the House referred to the Committee on Ways and Means, and on June 6, 1896, it was amended in the House and passed. The Senate concurring, the bill was on the same day approved by the President. On February 17, Congressman David H. Mercer, of Omaha, introduced a bill in the House asking for an appropriation of $500,000, but circumstances led him and others to think that it would be wise to push the Senate bill, which he did.

Leaders in both houses at first looked with disfavor upon these bills. The bill which Congressman Mercer introduced seemed sure of death by strangulation. Representative Dingley, while not strongly opposing it, thought that properly a provision should be attached requiring the Exposition to raise the A sum of $500,000 before the national act should become operative. The directors of the Exposition considered this suggestion and decided that this was, perhaps, a good proviso, for if the Government passed the bill, it would certainly be necessary to raise such an amount to insure a successful Exposition, and the fact that the Government act required it, might help in the securing of it. As a result the directors advised Senators Allen and Thurston and Representative Mercer that they favored the idea, but that the amount to be raised by the Exposition should not properly be much, if any, greater than the Governments appropriation. It was finally agreed that the figure placed in the bill for Government appropriation should be $250,000, and that the Exposition be required to secure bona fide subscriptions of undoubted character, in the sum of $250,000, before the Government act should become operative. On April 10, 1896, Senators Allen and Thurston decided to push the Senate bill, as it was becoming clear that favorable action by the Ways and   Means Committee of the House on Mr. Mercer's bill could not be counted upon soon enough to secure passage at that session of Congress. They had the bill called up, and after amending it, on demand of Senator Allison, to carry p $200,000 instead of $250,000 as the bill read, it was passed by the Senate that day. Senator Allison stated that the appropriation for Atlanta, Ga., was for but $200,000 and he thought that sum would be sufficient for and satisfactory to Omaha. The bill went to the House at once and Mr. Mercer soon discovered that he would have to fight to secure its passage. On the request of the directors of the Exposition, President Wattles went to Washington to endeavor to assist, as he might, in passage of the bill. A newspaper account of his visit says that within fifteen minutes of his arrival at Washington, President Wattles had a conference with Congressman Mercer, when it was determined to ask the Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee to call a special meeting of his committee and to permit Messrs. Wattles and Mercer to address it, stating the exact situation of affairs relating to the Exposition. On April go, 1896, the Ways and Means Committee of the House made a favorable report on the Exposition bill, tacking on the requirement that the Exposition secure $250,000 in subscriptions in order to make valid the Congressional appropriation. President Wattles returned from Washington and reported the status of the House and Senate bills. The directors, feeling again the need of a special representative in Washington in order to aid Congressman Mercer in any additional way possible, requested ex-Senator Chas. A F. Manderson and Hon. Edward Rosewater to go to Washington. Mr. Rosewater started at once on May 7, 1896; Gen. Manderson was unable to leave the city at the time.

On May 10, Mr. Rosewater, in Washington, met H. Manley, of Maine, and interested him in the Exposition bill. Mr. Manley told him that he would do everything in his power to secure Speaker Reed's consent to bring up the bill and place it on its passage. William Pitt Kellogg, of Louisiana, told Mr. Rosewater that he would try to induce Speaker Reed to favor the Exposition measure and have it acted upon at an early date. Next day Mr. Rosewater, accompanied by Senator Gear, of Iowa, discussed with Speaker Reed, of Maine, the features of the Exposition bill appropriating money for a building and exhibit at Omaha, pointing out the magnitude and scope of the Exposition and the interest felt in it throughout the West. Speaker Reed was assured that the people all favored the measure, and he reluctantly promised that the bill should receive consideration. Passage of the bill by Congress was now felt to be assured, but vexatious obstacles prevented and annoying delays ensued, and as the session was fast drawing toward its close, the A fear of failure was strong, and great anxiety was felt over the situation. It   was expected that the bill would be called up for passage early in May, and again at several later dates in May. One obstacle after another intervened and the anxiety grew greater, notwithstanding the able assistance of Senators Allison and Gear of Iowa, Senators Allen and Thurston of Nebraska—of practically the whole Iowa and Nebraska delegations and their friends. A demand upon the Speaker for a set day met with no response. All that could be done was to watch and wait.

On June 5 Mr. Mercer found his opportunity. The request for consent to place the bill on its passage was made only to be met by objection on the part of Omar M. Kem, sent to the House of Congress to represent the Sixth Congressional District of Nebraska. In this case, however, he misrepresented his constituents, as the rain of denunciatory telegrams from his district fully attested; but, stubborn to the last, he kept up his opposition and did what he could to obstruct the passage of the bill. On June 9, at 6:30 p. m., Mr. Mercer again secured recognition by the Speaker, and again he was doomed to disappointment, for Mr. Bailey, of Texas, objected he said from conscientious motives) to unanimous consent to a consideration of the bill. It now looked like certain defeat, as Congress was scheduled to adjourn the following day; but on June 10 recognition was again secured, and, Mr. Kem having left for home and Mr. Bailey being absent at luncheon, unanimous consent was obtained; the bill passed; hurried over to the Senate which body Senator Allen had held in session purposely); the amended bill approved by the Senate; finally engrossed and taken at once by Mr. Mercer to President Cleveland, who signed it.

Speaker Thomas B. Reed stated that no bill that he knew of had been so well exploited as this one; that the bombardment of Congress was not only courteous and of good and convincing argument, but that it had been continuous—never letting up fro m the introduction to the final passage of the bill. This was due to the ceaseless efforts of the men of Omaha, and yet without the untiring and well-directed efforts of Hon. David H. Mercer, aided and assisted though he was by many others, the Congressional bill would not have passed in time to be of benefit to the Exposition.

The news of the passage of the Congressional bill when received at Omaha relieved the tension of anxiety, and confidence in ultimate success prevailed generally. Congressional recognition was effected two years in advance of the date set for opening the Exposition. The achievement was one of incalculable benefit to the enterprise. It was evidence to members of legislatures of Western States that the Omaha Exposition would rank with other similar enterprises, having received the sanction of Congress; it was evidence to prospective exhibitors that the Exposition would attain a high plane of excellence and that they could not afford to ignore it; and it was notice to the   people all over the country that Omaha was producing all Exposition well worthy of the patronage of sight-seers. Frequently men remarked that Congressional recognition was the turning point in the promotive work, which, more than any other one thing, inspired popular confidence and insured success. This may have been true; but those who hold this view will not overlook the fact that the federal appropriation was predicated upon the official assurance that the promoters of the Exposition had raised a very large cash fund, without which Government aid would not have been extended. Moreover, the record proves conclusively that both Congressional recognition and the raising of the subscription fund were due to the forethought, energy and indomitable courage of Omaha's best citizens, who thus earned and received the larger share of credit in the popular mind for the brilliant achievement attested by the completed Exposition.

Leading men in the Omaha Commercial Club regarded the action of Congress as one of the highest importance. They suggested and arranged for a grand civic demonstration to celebrate the event, which occurred Friday evening, June 26, 1896. the popular support accorded to this demonstration makes evident the fact that the people were mot only aware of the true significance of Congressional action, but that they fully appreciated the services rendered by the Omaha men whose indefatigable labors had won the confidence and support of members of Congress. A procession several miles in length, composed of many civic and military organizations, was the chief feature of the day's program. There was booming of cannon, music by many bands and in the evening a display of fireworks. It seemed that all the people of Omaha and neighboring cities had turned out to take part in or to witness the celebration. The procession started at 8 p. m., commanded by Major Robert S. Wilcox, proceeding to Jefferson Square, where it disbanded. On a raised platform prominent men made brief addresses. On request of Charles F. Weller, President of the Commercial Club, President G. W. Wattles, of the Exposition, presided. With a few complimentary words he introduced Governor Silas A. Holcomb, who was greeted with applause and spoke briefly in congratulation. When Congressman recognition David H. Mercer arose to speak the people cheered long and loud, attesting their appreciation of his tireless and successful efforts to secure Congressional recognition. The speaker complimented the managers and officers of the Exposition and others who ably assisted in behalf of the Congressional bill. In conclusion he presented to President Wattles the pen with which President Cleveland signed the Exposition bill. Senator William V. Allen was cheered vociferously when he arose to speak. His remarks were felicitous and he specially complimented Omaha men for what they had done in promoting the Exposition. Many letters and telegrams of regret were read. They came from governors and senators of neighboring States, con-   gressmen and other men of prominence of Iowa, South Dakota, Wyoming and Nebraska. Among them was a letter from Senator John M. Thurston. After a brief address by former Governor Robert W. Eurnas, of Brownville, the orator of the occasion, John N. Baldwin, of Council Bluffs, was introduced. He delivered an eloquent address, which was received with great enthusiasm. Gen. Charles F. Manderson spoke next, addressing complimentary remarks to those who had been instrumental in passing the bill, referring not only to members of Congress, but to officers of the Exposition and also to the men of Omaha who had assisted. J. H. Van Dusen was introduced. He gave assurance of South Omaha's great interest in the Exposition. Hon. John Doniphan, Vice-President for Missouri, was the last speaker. The great audience adjourned with "three ringing cheers and a tiger" for the Exposition and its promoters in Omaha and in Congress.

The act of Congress gave the project great impetus all along the line. In view of the enthusiasm engendered, the management determined that the scope of the work should be broadened and, in furtherance of this object, to appeal to the business men of Omaha for earnest co-operation. Accordingly, a meeting of merchants and citizens was called for June 18, 1896, at the Commercial Club rooms. The rooms were packed with enthusiastic citizens. Cheering speeches were made, and a resolution was adopted pledging hearty support of the business men and capitalists of Omaha to the active promoters of the Exposition. The expressions of sentiment heard at this meeting were representative of popular opinion throughout the city. Omaha was stirred from center to circumference by the success of the undertaking up to that time and the people were determined to lend aid in every possible way. There had never been a more positive expression of the Omaha spirit than that which found voice in the citizens' meeting of June 18-nearly two years prior to the date contemplated for the opening day. The encouragement it gave to the officers and managers of the Exposition amounted to an in spiration. There was evident a desire among all classes of citizens to further the project to the utmost. So earnest was this popular sentiment that success seemed then to be assured. From that day to the end the people of Omaha were as one in promoting all measures looking to the success of the Exposition. Without this persistent and loyal co-operation upon the part of Omaha the great difficulties which confronted the managers and officers from time to time could not have been overcome. A consideration of all the forces contributing to the ultimate success of the project must lead to the conclusion that Omaha's part in the great work was paramount, which means that the greater share of the credit for the glorious achievement must be accorded to the able, efficient and public-spirited men of the Nebraska metropolis.

 

Ladies' Bureau Headquarters

A LADIES' BUREAU OF ENTERTAINMENT

In another chapter reference is made to the important part taken by the women of Omaha in helping to entertain the distinguished guests of the city and especially the wives of such visitors during the Exposition season. In order to systematize this branch of the work it was decided to organize a Bureau of Entertainment, consisting entirely of ladies. In this plan the President of the Exposition was influenced somewhat by the success attained by the management of the Columbian Exposition of 1893, where it was found to be absolutely necessary to enlist the co-operation of leading society women in extending to honored guests the hospitable attention their rank and station suggested or required. Such an organization of local women had made itself indispensable at the Nashville Exposition. It was found that by means of subcommittees, chosen as occasion required, arrangements could be made at any moment for the entertainment of small parties of visitors; while the whole committee was summoned whenever larger groups of distinguished guests  

Mrs. Clement Chase
Mrs. G. W. Wattles
Mrs. F. P, Kirkendall
were expected, and the committee did the honors to the satisfaction of all. The Bureau of Entertainment was composed of fifty ladies, headed by an executive of ten, as follows:

Mrs. Clement Chase, president; Mrs. Henry T. Clarke, vice-president; Mrs. F. P. Kirkendall, treasurer; Mrs. William A. Redick, secretary; Mrs. Gurdon W. Wattles, Mrs. Gilbert M. Hitchcock, Mrs. George A. Joslyn, Mrs. J. E. Summers, Jr., Mrs. John L. Webster and Mrs. C. W. Lyman. The other members of the bureau were Mrs. W. F. Allen, Mrs. John N. Baldwin, Mrs. G. F. Bidwell, Mrs. John S. Brady, Mrs. Addison S. Carter, Mrs. Frank Colpetzer, Mrs. John C. Cowin, Mrs. George B. Dandy, Mrs. Edward Dickinson, Mrs. Thomas R. Kimball, Mrs. George W. Lininger, Mrs. T. J. Mackay, Mrs. W. B. Meikle, Mrs. J. M. Metcalf, Mrs. Chas. Offutt, Mrs.

Mrs. A. L. Reed
Mrs. E. E. Bruce
Mrs. G. M. Hitchcock
 
Mrs. E. Rosewater
Mrs. C. W. Lyman
Mrs. Z. T. Lindsey
J. N. H. Patrick, Mrs. W. S. Poppleton, Mrs. Arthur Remington, Mrs. Alvin Saunders, Mrs. Arthur C. Smith, Mrs. Daniel H. Wheeler, Jr., Mrs. Henry W. Yates, Mrs. W. N. Babcock, Mrs. E. Baum, Mrs. E. L. Bierbower, Mrs. Arthur D. Brandeis, Mrs. Paul Charlton, Mrs. W. J. Connell, Mrs. Edward Cudahy, Mrs. C. N. Dietz, Mrs. Thomas Kilpatrick, Mrs. Chas. T. Kountze, Mrs. W. H. McCord, Mrs. Chas. E Manderson, Mrs. George W. Mercer, Mrs. E. W. Nash, Mrs. Thos. M. Orr. Mrs. Edward P. Peck, Mrs. Abraham L. Reed, Mrs. Andrew Rosewater, Mrs. Charles Shiverick, Mrs. Charles E. Squires and Mrs. C. M. Wilhelm.

Rooms were arranged for the use of the Bureau of Entertainment in the gallery of the Mines and Mining building. Draperies of cool green, mattings and wicker furniture gave a delightful air of comfort to these apartments,

Mrs. J. L. Webster
Mrs. John C. Cowin
Mrs. Charles F. Manderson
 
Mrs. W. A. Redick
Mrs. Alvin Saunders
Mrs. J. C. Wharton
which were much sought by those who wished to pass a restful hour. The rooms were found to be convenient for all but the largest receptions. As a rule the luncheons were given at the official café. though on several occasions light refreshments were served here. The series of entertainments, so energetically forwarded by this committee, culminated upon the visit of President McKinley, accompanied by several of his cabinet ministers, distinguished members of the diplomatic corps and their ladies. Mrs. McKinley was expected and a luncheon had been arranged in her honor at the Omaha Club. Illness detained her, much to the regret of all. The luncheon was therefore given to the ladies of the diplomatic corps and the wives of the cabinet officers. Mme. Wu Ting Fang, wife of the Chinese Minister, and Mme. Wing Pom Ye, wife of the Korean Minister, occupied the seats of honor on either side of the
Mrs. George A. Josslyn
Mrs. Sarah A. Woodman
Mrs. W. N. Babcock
  Mrs. E. L. Bierbower Mrs. Solon R. Towne Mrs. T. M. Orr president, Mrs. Clement Chase. It was the most elaborate and one of the most brilliant entertainments of the summer. The activities of this bureau made a highly favorable impression upon the guests of the Exposition, particularly upon those from the East, who were very appreciative of the steps taken to make their visits pleasant. The governors of nearly all the Western States and their staffs, together with their ladies, were shown attentions upon their visits; and in many ways the Bureau of Entertainment was found to fit in admirably with the functions of other branches of the Exposition.

The ladies of the Bureau of Entertainment organized and carried out the flower parade, which was noted as one of the most beautiful features of the Exposition summer; and they also arranged the masked carnival that was held on the pavement of the Court of Honor flanking the lagoon.

Mrs. Charles Offutt

Mrs. Charles Offutt

Mrs. A. Rosewater

 

THE UPLIFT

It is the consensus of opinion among the business men of Omaha that the Exposition gave to the city a very great uplift, whose far-reaching benefits are felt up to this time. Well-known leaders in various lines of business were requested to express themselves on the subject, and they responded as follows:

Casper E. Yost, President of the Nebraska Telephone Company, said:

It has been my pleasure to witness the growth of Omaha for a generation—to note the advent of forces which gave it momentum and the successive strides made by the city in its race for commercial supremacy. The historian has chronicled some of the great events in the early history of our city which were vital factors in the work of laying permanent;

Feature of Floral Display
foundations, but in my opinion none gave to it a higher impulse than the brilliant success of the Exposition of 1898. We had a good city at that time, to be sure, but its vitality was sorely drained by a season of drouth which was common to all Western States. the effect of which fell upon us coincident with the financial panic of 1893, for whose origin Nebraska was in nowise responsible. Omaha, like other Western towns, was hard hit. Financial disturbances in the East stopped the natural trend of money into the West, while our corn fields were parched and burned by hot winds in successive seasons of protracted drouth. As a city we were caught between the upper and nether millstones. Our business was prostrated and our realty values were badly impaired. These conditions were brought upon us through no fault of our people.

The Exposition was suggested in the fall of 1895 and a few months thereafter was launched by our public-spirited men who pledged themselves to make it a success. Many of our people expressed the opinion that Omaha could not carry out such a gigantic enterprise under such discouraging conditions. But it was done, and the task looks bigger and more praiseworthy as we contemplate it today than it did then. Its great success proved to us all and to the people of the whole country that Omaha possessed a large store  

Mrs. N. P. Feil
Mrs. W. T. Allen
Mrs. Henry W. Yates
of vitality and material strength despite the effects of panic and drouth; and that we had among us men of extraordinary ability and power. This was a revelation to the people of the East, and raised the reputation of the city as nothing had ever done before. Ever since the Exposition, Omaha has been drawing dividends on her investment in it, and, in my opinion, it was one of the best investments our people ever made.

Charles H. Pickens, General Manager of Paxton & Gallagher Co., said:

At the time of the Exposition, Omaha had been for several years in a very unsatisfactory condition, both commercially and financially. The Exposition, which was promoted and practically financed by a handful of Omaha's prominent citizens, erected and conducted an exhibition which attracted attention not only throughout the Central West, but practically throughout the United States, and was largely attended by people of the East who at that time had no idea or conception of the possibilities of the country. Many located here and others interested capital, causing it to be invested here.

The Exposition was held at the time of the Spanish-American War, which distracted the popular mind for a few months. Notwithstanding this interruption, the Exposition proved

Mrs. J. M. Metcalf
Mrs. Caroline M. Lininger
Mrs. D. H. Mercer
 
Mrs. Arthur D. Brandeis
Mrs. John W. Baldwin
Mrs. G. F. Bidwell
to be a wonderful success, not only educationally, but financially, being the only one held in the United States which paid back to stockholders practically dollar for dollar. This speaks worlds for the management and support of Omaha citizens, to say nothing of the liberal support given the enterprise by people in the territory tributary to Omaha.

Ever since the Exposition, Omaha has been steadily forging to the front, until today it is recognized as one of the leading commercial centers of the country. To a very large extent the growth and development of this community were due to the Trans-Mississippi Exposition and the ability, integrity and loyalty of the citizens who promulgated and carried on the great enterprise.

F. P. Kirkendall, manufacturer, said:

In my opinion, the Exposition was of incalculable benefit to Omaha. It occurred at a time when our community needed awakening from an apparent dormant condition it was then in. It awakened new life in our citizens and gave them more faith in the future of our city and our resources. and started a healthy prosperity which has continued ever since.

Mrs. Arthur C. Smith

Mrs. C. M. Wilhelm

 

We built the Exposition at a time when the whole country was passing through a period of depression which tended to create some doubt in the minds of many of our prominent citizens of the ultimate success of the undertaking, while, on the other hand, we were benefited by the fact of the prevailing apathy throughout the country at the time, in that we were able to make our money go farther both in material and labor.

The Exposition brought thousands of strangers to our city who were astonished, amused and impressed with our undertaking and success. In this way we were building for the future, perhaps, more than we realized. The record made by the first Exposition held in Omaha will always be remembered as one of the most successful ever held in this country, and of great benefit to the entire West.

Luther Drake, President of the Merchants National Bank, said:

The Exposition of 1898 was the turning point in Omaha's commercial career. The whole West had suffered for five years from the effects of the panic of 1893 and the droughts of 1894 and '95, and the great cities had very naturally sustained severe losses, owing to the depressed business conditions and impaired real estate values. Omaha was no worse off in that respect than her compeers. The Exposition proved to the country that Omaha was built on such a safe foundation that, notwithstanding the depression of years, it was still strong enough to formulate and conduct a great project to a brilliant consummation. It brought the attention of people East and West to this city. They realized that the men of Omaha were made of the material that has enabled mankind to subdue the wilderness and make it produce great wealth. The success of the Exposition caused investors to single Omaha out as a good place in which to put their money, a result which its promoters sought from the beginning to attain.

Henry W. Yates, President of the Nebraska National Bank, said:

In reply to the request of the history committee of the Omaha Exposition of 1898 for some brief expression of my views concerning the ways in which the Exposition benefited Omaha, I would say on first impulse that the greatest benefit it conferred was in being a success.

When the enterprise was inaugurated it occasioned considerable fear and foreboding with many, and, to my certain knowledge, especially with some of those whose financial backing was absolutely required to give the project any substantial standing.

The action of these men under the circumstances was the most splendid exhibition of civic patriotism that has ever come under my observation.

The success was mainly due to the fact that our most prominent business men ignored, for the time being, the strenuous demands of their personal enterprises to take charge of the different departments of the Exposition.

The period was a critical one, closely following, as it did, the panic year of 1893 and the bad crop years of 1894 and 1895, but proved in the end to be auspicious.

The outcome of the political campaign of 1896 in laying to rest the financial heresies which flourished during the period of depression led to a great business revival all over the country.

Doubtless Omaha business would have shared in this recovery—Exposition or no Exposition—but its successful conclusion conduced in no small degree to the alacrity with which our business men took advantage of the situation.

One of the greatest benefits of the Exposition was the fact that our business men were brought closer together, became better acquainted with each other, and learned to work together, "one for all and all for one," a habit which has continued to the present time.

I do not know of any greater guaranty for the future prosperity of Omaha than the existence of this spirit among those who carry the fate of the city in their hands. and for the creation of this alone, the Exposition has well justified its existence.

 

L. H. Korty, former superintendent of telegraph, Union Pacific Railway, said:

Conceived at a time when Omaha, like many other towns, was in the dumps, the proposed exposition was looked upon by many well-meaning citizens as a very hazardous undertaking which, if it failed of success, would seriously reflect upon the city. The result, however, proved everything that could have been wished. The enterprise and ability of its promoters to establish and carry the Exposition to a successful termination was a surprise to visitors as well as to Omaha people themselves. It forcibly demonstrated to our citizens that concerted action in all matters looking toward the upbuilding of Omaha is of the greatest importance, and there can be no doubt but that the lesson from this undertaking has been of great benefit, and gave our people the inspiration and determination which have accomplished so much during the past few years in the upbuilding of the city and its numerous enterprises.

The Exposition proved very interesting and satisfactory to the visitors. While not as pretentious as some of its predecessors, it was very attractive in its general arrangement and character of exhibits. The setting of the main buildings was charming, and was still further enhanced by the master hand of one of Omaha's sons—Henry Rustin. The beautiful electric effects produced by him had never been equaled.

Altogether, I believe the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, as an advertisement, was one of the best investments ever made by our citizens.

W. E. Wright, of the Wright & Wilhelmy Company, said:

That the Exposition of 1898 was the beginning of an upward and forward movement—affecting every branch of business—that has never ceased, is an unquestioned fact. The important point to me is not the effect but the cause—the courage, the energy and the persistency of the projectors of this great movement who, in the face of conditions that prevailed for three years previous, conceived, organized, developed and brought to a successful issue one of the most notable Expositions ever held.

May the honor and credit to which they are entitled be given them by the present generation rather than by the succeeding ones.

Isaac W. Carpenter, President of the Carpenter Paper Company, said:

In my judgment the chief benefits Omaha derived from the Trans-Mississippi Exposition were:

First—The wide advertisement Omaha received therefrom.

Second—The uniting of our citizens of all classes in one great successful public enterprise, thereby greatly strengthening the faith of our citizens in their own city.

Third—The development of some great leaders among us, which was done by the large demands upon the resourcefulness of the President and Executive Committee.

Fourth—The impetus it gave our city in a material way by the completing of two much-needed railway passenger stations, by the entrance of one new railroad into Omaha, and by raising the public estimate of our city, its citizens and its business institutions all over the United States, but particularly from the Great Lakes west to the Pacific Coast.

E. V. Lewis, General Manager of the Crane Co., said:

The Exposition of 1898 was the starting-point of our commercial development. It unified the people of our city and State. It gave an impulse to local business. Far and wide it drew attention to Omaha, and the people of the State got a better idea of what we could do. It increased the respect of our people for the business men of our own   community, and at the same time confirmed the faith of these men in their ability to do things worth while and to meet any situation that might arise in the development of our city and State.

Ward M. Burgess, Vice-President of M. E. Smith & Co., wholesale dry goods, said:

There is no doubt that the Exposition gave Omaha an uplift. Our books show that we enjoyed an increase of trade during the year of the Exposition of 25 per cent over and above the year before. much of which was undoubtedly due to the Exposition, which gave Omaha a great impetus. We have all kept on growing, and a great deal of the city's growth is due to the Exposition of 1898. It started people to coming to Omaha, and they have been coming ever since. It made the people friendly—they came from all sections. Many who had never come before have come repeatedly. It caused them to appreciate the fact that Omaha was a big city and could do big things. It gave Omaha a better standing in the East among people with whom we do business. It opened their eyes to the fact that we were alive and aggressive; that we had confidence in ourselves and our community. More than anything else the Exposition had to do with bringing our business men together into a big, harmonious body, and since the Exposition they have worked together for our best interests. This has done us more good than anything else. A better spirit prevails among our people, which is necessary in strengthening the commercial interests of the city.

Major R. S. Wilcox, Manager for Browning, King & Co., said:

The Exposition was the making of Omaha. It was the first big thing we had had. There is no question it helped the retail trade of the city. In one month our house sold out one complete stock. We were swamped with business. Other retail houses shared in the unusual trade. The Exposition attracted trade from surrounding towns for successive years. Even to this day one may hear talk about the Exposition in those towns. It was the best investment Omaha ever made.

C. M. Wilhelm, of Orchard & Wilhelm Carpet Company, said:

The Trans-Mississippi Exposition was an inspiration to the people of Omaha and Nebraska. Following the great panic of 1893 and its disastrous results, the effect of the undertaking was to stimulate local business, to give the people of Omaha confidence in themselves and to attract the admiration of the country at large for the enterprise shown by this community. The impetus given. to business in the building and carrying forward of the Exposition had an influence in placing Omaha firmly in the column of advancing cities.

It was an opportunity, grasped by men capable of making it a great success, both as a commercial enterprise, advertising the city to the utmost parts of the world, and as a means of broadening the knowledge and developing the tastes of the people.

Rome Miller, Proprietor of the Hotel Rome, said:

Expressing my opinion of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, held in Omaha in 1898, i bearing on the subject of the benefits derived from it, would say the benefits accrued were not only for Omaha and the State of Nebraska, but the entire West.

It found us a thriving village, and left us a metropolis. It tolled the bell of new life and confidence, and its echoes have been vibrating with increased power from the date of its close to the present moment.

It was the beginning of a greater Omaha, stimulating, as it did, the civic pride, and taught its citizens love for music and art, such as they had never possessed.

It fostered a unity of action and good fellowship among its business men which have been of untold benefit to Omaha and the State.

 

From the publicity standpoint, nothing equaled it in the past, and nothing can equal it in the future. It gave us prestige, credit; it was all good, elevating and instructive, and nothing destructive. Too much praise can not be given to the men who guided its destinies and brought it to its fitting close of triumph and glory.

G. H. Payne, President of the Payne Investment Company, said:

In regard to the effect that the Omaha Exposition of '98 had on Omaha, would say that, in my judgment, it was just the thing that we needed to advertise the resources of the great State of Nebraska and Central West at the most opportune time that it could have possibly been held. It crystallized and made possible the Omaha of today and the still greater Omaha of the future.

Charles R. Sherman, of the Sherman & McConnell Drug Company, said:

"Omaha's best friends will not deny that its commercial tide had ebbed to low-water mark during the' few years previous to 1898. The unprecedented droughts, continuing through several years and extending to a greater or lesser degree throughout the entire Trans-Mississippi territory, had impaired agricultural production so seriously that the country merchant was, in many instances, in financial straits, through lack of ability to pay on the part of his farmer customer; while, in turn, Omaha's wholesalers and manufacturers had suffered financial loss through failures of country merchants.

The prospect of a great Exposition that would attract hundreds of thousands of people from all parts of the United States, but more especially from the Trans-Mississippi States, seemed at first too good to be true, but the strong, earnest men behind the project gave assurance, from the first, of its success.

The effect upon the entire commercial life of Omaha was immediately apparent. Long before the gates were opened in the Spring of 1898, the feeble and uncertain pulse of Omaha's commercial life took on a new tone and became strong and regular. The influx of Exposition builders during the year 1897. was an intimation of what might be expected when the Exposition was opened and the city thronged. with visitors. The Exposition itself. opening on time and under most favorable auspices, silenced all doubters. The immediate effect was the pouring of hundreds of thousands of dollars into all channels of trade in this city.

The visitors to the Exposition were, in the main, residents of the States naturally tributary to Omaha, and were not slow in availing themselves of the opportunity to make purchases of Omaha's merchants, the result being that the retail stores were crowded with shoppers, while the wholesale merchants and manufacturers noticed a remarkable increase in the number of country buyers in town.

While the immediate effect of all this was invaluable, and, in many instances, all that saved some retail and wholesale institutions from going to the wall altogether, the lasting effects have been of much more value.

In thousands of instances the visit to the Exposition was also the first trip to Omaha, and the courteous and pleasant treatment extended by the Exposition management as well as the hospitable attitude of the Omaha homes, made the Exposition visitor resolve that he would come to Omaha again.

That he has been coming is evidenced by the continuous growth and prosperity of Omaha during all the years since the Exposition, as well as the much closer friendship that has grown between the people of this city and its rural citizenry.

 

Mr. Kirkendall, Mr. Babcock, Mr. Hitchcock, Mr. Bruce, Mr. Wakefield, Mr. Rosewater, Mr. Reed, Mr. Wharton, Mr. Lindsey, Mr. Wattles

THE FINAL SESSION—PRESENTATION OF GOLD MEDALS

 

THE CURTAIN FALLS

CHAPTER XVI

THE last ceremonial act incident to the Exposition was the awarding of the honor medals to the President and to each member of the Executive Committee, which occurred September 10, 1902. This award was provided for a meeting of the Board of Directors at the Omaha Club, June 30, 1902, when one of the directors, John C. Wharton, moved that a committee of three be named by Secretary Wakefield (the latter to be chairman) to select and secure gold medals to be presented to the President and to each member of the Executive Committee in token of the high regard entertained by the Board of Directors, and in recognition of honorable and self-sacrificing services to the Exposition. The motion was carried unanimously. Mr. Wakefield named G. M. Hitchcock and John C. Wharton to act with as such committee. As soon as practicable, the committee proceeded to ask for designs and bids, which were submitted after some delay. After changes suggested by the committee had been made the contract was let and the medals were delivered in the early fall.

Pursuant to the action of the Board of Directors, Secretary Wakefield called a special meeting in behalf of the committee of Award, which was held in room 130, Millard Hotel, at noon, Wednesday, September 10, 1902. In this room hundreds of meetings of the Executive Committee had been held, and because of this fact it was chosen for the place of formal presentation of the medals. There were present as guests of the special committee, President Wattles, Chairman Lindsey ad Messrs. Rosewater, Kirkendall, Bruce, Reed and Babcock.

After luncheon had been served, G. M. Hitchcock rose and addressed the members of the party. Referring to his appointment as a member of the   committee on award of medals, he said he had not hesitated to assume the pleasant duties involved. He said that the committee represented not only the sentiments of the directory, but also those of over six thousand stockholders and people of the whole community. "These directors, these stockholders and this community generally tender you gentlemen, in this little souvenir, a slight recognition of your honorable, able and self-sacrificing services covering ·a period of several years. The President and each member of this committee who became the head of an important department of the Exposition laid down for a time the burdens and ambitions of private life and took up the burdens and responsibilities of public service. You came to the relief of this community when men of courage and ability were needed, and patiently, persistently, in the face of discouragements and in spite of the greatest obstacles, you, as the responsible officers of this great undertaking, worked it out, not to an ordinary success, but to a miraculous achievement. When the Exposition was closed. viewed in the light of all past expositions. it had been a wonderful success, financially and artistically. * * * Each of you was at the head of a great department of this large enterprise. Each of you at one time or another bore the brunt of the struggle. At one time it fell upon the department of exhibits; at another time upon the department of concessions and privileges; at another time upon the department of transportation; at another time upon the department of buildings and grounds; at another time upon the department of publicity and promotion, and we painfully remember how frequently it fell upon the department of ways and means. Each officer sustained his part and fulfilled his duties individually; and when the Executive Committee met and the heads of all departments were united the committee spoke as one man and exercised the great power of the Exposition with substantial harmony and effect. Had a single department failed, or had the head of a single department faltered, the great enterprise would have been seriously damaged. But the patience, persistence. ability and energy displayed by each and all combined to bring about the splendid result. I am sure, however, that no member of the Executive Committee would question for a moment the propriety of my remarks when I particularly specify the great services of the President of this Exposition. who met constantly with the Executive Committee and shared in the labors r of the head of each department, fulfilling the duty of each in his temporary absence; and who, in season and out of season, subordinated and sacrificed his personal interests and his private affairs that a great Exposition of which he was the head might succeed. Had failure come we cannot question that upon the shoulders of the President would have been placed much of the responsibility for disaster, simply from the fact that he occupied first place in   the organization. Therefore, in the day of its great and final success, and in the awarding to you, gentlemen, of these mementos of the long fight and great triumph, it is but proper to give first place to the President, who worked with you so effectively."

The speaker called upon John C. Wharton to make formal delivery of the medals prepared by authority of the Board of Directors.

Mr. Wharton said in part: "It is a pleasant duty enjoined by the Board of Directors of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition of presenting golden medals to you, Mr. President, and to you gentlemen constituting the Executive Committee of the Board, as an expression of its high appreciation, and that of the public as well, for the faithful, unselfish and efficient services rendered by you in carrying to a successful culmination a stupendous enterprise. * * * You moved nobly forward, nothing daunting your courage or impeding your efforts, bringing forth ·a splendid exhibit of the products of the Northwest placed in buildings of marvelous architectural beauty! * * You brought to perfection the mighty project committed to your hands. You labored long and well. You sacrificed your own business interests, leaving the management of your banking and financial institutions, wholesale houses and daily journals, demonstrating to the people your patriotism and loyalty for the public good. * * *

"By direction of the Board of Directors of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, I have the honor of presenting to you, President Wattles, and to you, Messrs. Lindsey, Rosewater, Kirkendall, Bruce, Reed and Babcock, these beautiful gold medals (handing to each, in turn, a medal), as a slight token of our high appreciation of the faithful, efficient and heroic services rendered by you in bringing to such a glorious culmination the industrial Exposition of 1898. Your success was not merely an artistic, but it was also a financial, success, returning as you did ninety cents on the dollar to stockholders; and that, too, at a time when industrial paralysis and financial depression were sweeping over the commercial world like the simoon of the desert, blighting trade and deadening enterprise. Yet in the midst of all this you triumphed—triumphed because of the personal sacrifices you made; because of your unswerving honesty in the management of the undertaking, and your unalterable determination to crown with glorious success a gigantic enterprise. * * * We present these medals, not for their intrinsic value, but in testimony of regard and appreciation. Let them be kepi by you. and your posterity as souvenirs, reminding you and them of the faithful   services rendered by you in connection with the Industrial Exposition of 1898."

The medals were products of the best goldsmiths' art, about four inches in length by 1 3-4. inches wide; 14-k gold. The face bore a figure of Victory, wings and arms outstretched, standing at the portal of the Hall of Fame. The right hand held a horseshoe wreath of laurel leaves; in the left hand there was a scroll bearing the sentence: "Gloria actiones Cinxit" (Glory surrounds

Loggia at Night
his conduct). Near the top or edge of the medal, in raised letters, was the word "Omaha." Below the figure of winged victory, in blue enamel, were the words: "Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, 1898." On the reverse side were engraved in script the words: "Unanimously voted by the Board of Directors in Appreciation of Honorable and Self-Sacrificing Services to the Exposition." The medal proper hung pendant below two bars, on the topmost of which appeared name of recipient, and on the lower bar was engraved the word "President," or "Executive Committee," as the case required.

 

After the recipients had examined the medals and passed appreciative comments thereon, Chairman Lindsey called upon President Wattles to make response to the presentation addresses. The latter said:

"Gentlemen of the Presentation Committee, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Executive Committee:

"A feeling of sadness comes over me as we meet for the last time in this familiar room to receive these beautiful medals and listen to the words of praise and commendation so lavishly expressed by the Presentation Committee. For myself and for the Executive Committee, I thank you most heartily, and through you I thank the Board of Directors for this appropriate expression of their esteem and appreciation. W e will each of us value these beautiful medals beyond price, and through our lives they will be preserved as reminders of the confidence and good will of our fellow workers in an enterprise fraught with many difficulties but crowned with unparalleled success.

"It was almost seven years ago that the first steps were taken in the preliminary work of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, and those first efforts were difficult in many respects. Many prominent business men in the community not only refused their support but ridiculed the enterprise and those connected with it. Those were dark days and it took great moral courage to pull against the tide of public opinion, which seemed to hesitate at so great an undertaking.

"It was nearly five years ago that this Executive Committee was organized and began its meetings in this room. Here has been the scene of many heated arguments, and here have been settled many of the vital questions which meant so much for the success or failure of the enterprise. How well these questions were settled the final success tells the story. As I look back on the many differences of opinion and on some of the unpleasant experiences, I sometimes wonder if they were not all for the best, and I believe but for these differences we might have made many mistakes we avoided. I have heard our plan of organization criticised, and at times during the Exposition I questioned whether or not it was the best. This plan of dividing the responsibility among several heads of departments was proposed by myself, as I was willing and anxious to distribute the burdens, and I am now willing to divide the honors equally between myself and the members of this committee. The only additional credit I claim is on account of longer service. I took up the work as a public duty and simply did my best at all times and under all circumstances. Each member of the Executive Committee did the same, and as I now look back on what was accomplished, I do not think the plan of organization could have been improved.

 

"As we meet for the last time as a committee to receive these honors so generously bestowed, I can say with a heart filled with gratitude to this Presentation Committee, that we thank you again for your kind words and for these beautiful medals, and to the members of the Executive Committee, I wish you one and all prosperity and happiness throughout your lives."

 

PART II

PROCEEDINGS OF SPECIAL DAYS

 

PEACE JUBILEE—PRESIDENT McKINLEY AND MEMBERS OF HIS CABINET

 

PROCEEDINGS OF SPECIAL DAYS

PART II

PART I of this History has been devoted to what may be termed the History proper, eliminating the details which would make the narrative less interesting as such. Part II will present to the reader a feast of reason and flow of soul, for which the Exposition was noted. It has been stated in Part I that the success of the Exposition was partly due to the thoughtful arrangements on the part of the management for special days, frequently interspersed with the routine, by which the people of the entire nation were made to feel that they had a personal interest in the Exposition. In the rotation of these special days, representative men and organizations from all parts of the land were brought into the presence of the visitors, and the addresses delivered upon subjects purely social and economic, politics being eliminated, would have graced any forum. It is to the recording of the proceedings of these special days, and the addresses delivered in connection with them, that Part II of this History is devoted.

First in the order of historic events of the Exposition, though occurring more than a year previous to the opening of the gates, was the

LAYING OF THE CORNERSTONE OF THE ARCH OF THE STATES.

ARBOR DAY—April 22, 1897

An outline of the exercises and the program of the day were given an appropriate place in Chapter III, Part I. The address of Hon. J. Sterling Morton, of Nebraska City, Nebr., ex-Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, on that memorable occasion was as follows:

"In the wisdom of His creative majesty the great Mysteriarch of the universe surrounded man with mysteries. Without such environment there would have I been no incentive to thought, no inducement to investigation. The life and growth of a blade of grass, the development of a rose, or the evolution of a great oak from an acorn alike suggests the unknown, the miraculous and the unsolved.

 

"In 1854 the pioneers of Nebraska made the first lodgement of modern civilization upon the vast, undulating ocean of fertile lands which stretched in solitude from the west bank of the Missouri River toward the Rocky Mountains.

"At the point of the plow they have compelled the prairies of Nebraska to deliver up, during the last forty-one years, thirty-six abundant crops, some of them almost miraculous in yield. During that period of time, in remote frontier portions of the commonwealth, there have been some failures, or partial failures, of

J. Sterling Morton
crops from drouth and grasshoppers. But in the eastern portion of Nebraska there may be found hundreds of farms which, since 1855, have never once failed to remunerate intelligent tillage with substantial rewards. The men who legitimately, steadfastly and discreetly have trusted to the plow and intelligent farming in the first settled sections of Nebraska since 1885 are, as a rule, successful men, not mortgaged nor in financial straits. There is no part of the United States which can exhibit from its first cultivation a crop record equal in annual yield to that which eastern Nebraska is proud to exhibit from the day when agriculture first put its autograph upon the prairie with the point of the plow, down to the autumn of 1896 when the sun shone and the winds played among the cornfields in this commonwealth, which produced more than two hundred millions of bushels. Nebraska is prepared with statistics, figures and facts to prove that during the last forty years no State in the Union has surpassed it in the regularity and abundance of its crops. Thus far, however, we have only demonstrated that the elements of plant life and growth, which were primarily absorbed by the wild grasses and flowers, are now appropriated and utilized by corn, oats, barley, rye, wheat and a variety of root and other food crops. The summer and autumn sunlight which formerly only bronzed prairie grass now gilds the grain fields, burnishes ripening fruit and matures ample rewards in varied products for intelligent toil.

"But after the demonstration of the plow as to the fertility of Nebraska another problem demanded solution. The home builders in this new country desired the embellishment of the plains by woodlands and forests, and the question as to how it should be accomplished and as to whether forests would thrive in these soils compelled earnest and analytical investigation. Consequently, after much experimentation, much of individual exhortation and effort, there was evolved out of the shadeless plains and from the utter desolation of treelessness, a plan for unanimous tree planting on a given Clay by all the people in all the counties of all the commonwealth. And the plan took root like a strong and valuable tree. Its growth today reaches out into all the States of the American republic. It has been grafted upon the school system of the entire country. It   has been transported to European countries which are carefully cherishing it. In Mexico, Australia, and in some of the far-away islands of the oceans and seas, it is permanently established as an anniversary, and everywhere it is recognized a and welcomed as a child of Nebraska.

"In all the timbered States of the East, and in Michigan, Indiana and Ohio; in fact, in each of the heavily wooded sections of the United States, vast areas of trees were unnecessarily cut down and the logs, even of valuable oaks, walnuts and other cabinet woods, thoughtlessly, uselessly transmitted to smoke and ashes. How few of the axmen, the tree-slayers, who kindled those disastrous conflagrations, realized that the flames which they evolved were merely stolen sunlight set free, enfranchised. The mystery of the life of a great and aged tree is a majesty compared to which that of human royalty is tame, puerile and insignificant. From our earliest childhood we are taught that fire and water will not mix, but in the tree they mingle as friends and co-laborers. With its foliage, which are its lungs, the tree breathes in the rain and the light. Every sunbeam which it inhales is imprisoned only to be freed by combustion. The water and the fire are married and dwell interdependently in all the vegetable kingdom.

"Like vast, disciplined armies, the forests of the American continent stood guard over the fertility of the lands and the health and lives of all the animal creation which they protected. With their foliage of emerald and the whispering winds, those great stretches of wooded land lured the light of the sun, the moisture of the clouds to their hearts and made them hostages, pledges against flood, drouth and the disease which those calamities create. But man's wanton wastefulness of the superb woods of the United States has dried up thousands of springs of delicious drinking water, parched out beautiful brooks and useful mill streams, destroyed the pliant and absorbing leaf mould of the forest, which was the arrester and custodian of torrential rainfalls and the mother of rills and streams.

"Is it possible that each stratum of rocks and minerals is a grave, a great tomb, wherein myriads of centuries ago were buried the remnants of animal and vegetable kind? When woodlands, forest trees, shall have all been destroyed, together with subsidiary vegetation, every living thing will have perished from the face of the earth. Has this globe at some time in the unknowable, prehistoric past, subsisted a race which destroyed its forests, and then, as a penalty, perished? Is the present tenantry of this earth destined to destroy all its forests and trees and thus commit universal suicide? The intermission of the foliage, flower and fruit of a single summer would bring upon every human being, upon all animal organisms, an overwhelming avalanche of death.

"This is a stupendous truth. It admonishes mankind that their physical and sanitary protection is in the trees and forests, which conserve the rainfall, mitigate the heat of the sun and make possible the continuation of animal life and the perpetuation of that civilization which exalts and ennobles the human race.

"A truth and a tree outlive generations of men. That this admirably planned Trans-Mississippi Exposition may plant truths as to the economic and material if resources of its vast and opulent empire in the minds of the tens of thousands   of intelligent visitors and sojourners who may attend it, with as cheerful a certainty and as serene a satisfaction as we experience in planting these trees in the never-deceiving, never-disappointing soil of this fertile Nebraska, is my earnest hope and my sincere and intense desire."

The following letters were received and read at a banquet tendered to Honorable Sterling Morton at the Omaha Club, April 22, 1897, Arbor Day, the date of the laying of the cornerstone of the Arch of the States.

The following letter of regret from ex-President Grover Cleveland was read:

PRINCETON, N. J., April 16, 1897.

Hon. W. D. McHugh, Omaha.

MY DEAR SIR: I very much regret that my other engagements will not permit me to attend the complimentary dinner to be given to the Hon. J. Sterling Morton by his fellow- citizens April 22.

The people of Nebraska do themselves honor in thus honoring this distinguished citizen of their State. He deserves honor from his countrymen everywhere for his unfaltering devotion to their interests and his brave resistance to every attack upon the honor and integrity of his country.

With the best possible means of estimating the value of his public services, I recall with greatest satisfaction and gratitude his earnest discharge of duty and his solicitude for the public good during a time when time-servers faltered and fell by the wayside.

Yours truly,

GROVER CLEVELAND.

The following letter from Hon. Richard Olney was read:

BOSTON, April 16, 1897.

Hon. W. D. McHugh.

DEAR SIR: I have the invitation of the committee, given through you, to be present on April 22 at a complimentary dinner tendered by his friends to the ex-Secretary of Agriculture, Hon. J. Sterling Morton.

It would give me great pleasure to attend if it were within my power. Having been drawn into close relations with Mr. Morton during the past four years, am not prepared to yield, even to his friends and fellow-citizens of Nebraska, either in admiration of him as an official or in regard for him as a man. Nebraska has a right to be proud of him as a cabinet minister of rare ability and thorough disinterestedness whose valuable services, by no means limited to his own special department, have laid the whole country under lasting obligations.

Regretting that I must forego so agreeable an occasion. I remain,

Sincerely yours,

RICHARD OLNEY.

Letters from Hon. Henry Watterson, editor of the Louisville Courier-Journal, Hon. John P. Irish, the California orator; Hon. John G. Carlisle, ex-Secretary of the Treasury, and Mr. Carl Morton, son of the honored guest, were read at the banquet.

 

The remarks of Gen. Charles F. Manderson in response, were received with marked appreciation by the banqueters. The General said, in part:

In response to the toast "Our Guest," at this banquet;

"One of the earliest recollections of my childhood is of a giant tree, in the place of my nativity, on the bank of a majestic river, which took its placid course to the near sea. It stood alone in its vigorous strength and attractive beauty, the joy of all who looked upon it, the pride of those who claimed in it a possessory right. It had braved the blasts of many winters and had withstood the attack of the thunderbolt and the electric Hash. Occasionally it would be smitten by the one and blasted by the other, but it seemed to come out of every conflict with better powers and greater vigor of life and rapidity of growth. Its massive roots had taken deep hold of the earth of its home, its footing made the more secure by tendrils that took grasp of the hidden rock and buried stone. Its mighty trunk, gnarled and seamed, had borne the incision of many a knifeblade of generations of men, who felt the inscription of initial, or of name, might add to their fame through the force of the mere association. Its spreading boughs had formed the bowered home of many a sweet singing bird, which reared its young and sent them forth into the world with untried wing. Its leafy canopy had sheltered man and beast from the wilting sun and the destroying storm. Towering above all surroundings it was a landmark to guide the wanderer. With verdure clad, it gladdened the sight. It stood as a beneficence. Its life was a benefaction. Its memory a benediction.

"The recollection of it came to me most vividly today as I listened at the Exposition grounds to the appropriate words of our guest on the subject of forestry. It was fitting recollection for Arbor Day and most fitting for the birthday of the strong, vigorous, aggressive, many-sided, sterling man who honors us with his presence. It symbolizes his life, and surely no better symbol could be found or one more appropriate to the founder of Arbor Day, than one of that great Arboreal family that through generations yet to come will bend their tall and graceful heads to make grateful acknowledgment and willing obeisance to the virtues and memory of the man whose fertile and prolific brain conceived the best possible plan for their fostering and preservation. All hail to the founder of the most promising of all our holidays! All others commemorate something accomplished, that which is finished; Arbor Day—J. Sterling Morton's birthday—gives promise of a great good yet to come. From the twig is to come the tree. From the promise and hope is to come fruition and full performance."

 

Next in order of the historic events of the Exposition and the first of the "Special Days" was

OPENING DAY—June 1, 1898

An outline of the exercises and the program of the day has been given an appropriate place in Chapter III, Part I, of this history.

The invocation of Rev. Samuel J. Niccolls, of St. Louis, Mo., was as follows:

O God. uncreated and eternal in Thy being, Creator and Lord of all, who dost uphold and govern all in infinite power, wisdom, righteousness and goodness. we lift up our hearts to Thee in adoration and praise. There is none perfect as Thou art. We rejoice in Thy sovereignty; Thy greatness is unsearchable. The Heavens declare Thy glory, and the earth is full of the tokens of Thy goodness. Thou art the bounteous giver of all good, the fountain of all wisdom, and spirit of all knowledge, the source of all life and happiness. We are Thy creatures, utterly dependent upon Thee; without Thee we have no wisdom or strength or life of our own.

We are also Thy children, made in Thy image, and capable of sharing Thy life. This honor Thou hast given us and hast crowned us with sovereignty over the earth. It is our privilege to call Thee our Father in Heaven; unworthy and sinful as we have made ourselves. Thou hast not forsaken us, but hast, by Thy Holy Spirit, given us wisdom and understanding and power. Thou dost inspire men with high purposes and lead them to execute good and great designs, so, today, in this hour of finished labor, we would not glory in ourselves, or in the work of our hands, but only in Thee, from whom came the wisdom to devise and the power to execute. This glory of human achievement which surrounds us in this place, and which speaks of man's skill and industry, of progress in knowledge and increase in power over the land which Thou hast given us for our inheritance is only a witness and a memorial of Thy great favor towards us. When we remember the way by which Thou hast led us, and from what to what we have come, we are moved to cry in adoring gratitude, "Thou hast not dealt so with any nation." Thou art the God of our fathers, who didst lead them to this western world. Thou didst keep a continent hidden until the fullness of time came, when Thou didst throw open its gates that the people prepared for it, and of Thy own choice, might enter in and possess the land. In it Thou hast lifted up the people and established a nation of freemen. Thine hand hast led us marvelously in the past, and through Thy favor we are crowned with riches and honor and might. Our eyes have seen the wonders which thou hast wrought in our midst, so that this day the aged among us stand amazed when they recall the past. For all this Exposition represents, for the transfiguration of a wilderness into fruitful fields, and an uninhabited land into populous States, for progress in arts and manufactures, for the fruits of the field, the riches of the mines and the abundance of the forests, for growth in education, refinement, wealth and the comforts of life, for the supremacy of law, the continuance of our free institutions and the bright hopes for the future, we give Thee, O God, our most hearty and grateful thanks.

Oh, Gracious Father, whose bounty is infinite, grant now Thy blessing, we entreat Thee, upon all who have labored for the establishment and completion of this enterprise. May what they have done be owned by Thee in advancing and stimulating all the arts of peace, and in promoting the progress and well-being of society. Bless the city within whose gates we have come. May peace abide within its walls, and prosperity within its palaces. Bless the commonwealth of Nebraska, and let Thy favor descend upon its homes, even as the rain and dews upon its fields. Bless the Governor of this State and all associated with him in authority and counsel. We pray Thee, also, in behalf of our   common country. Remember Thy servant, the President of the United States, his Cabinet, Thy servants in Congress assembled, and all who bear rule in the several States of this nation, grant unto them the spirit of wisdom and counsel, strengthen them for any good work and make them faithful in all things to Thy holy law, so that they may lead the people in righteousness. While we pray for the land we love, we would remember before Thee all nations and rulers, especially those who are represented in this Exposition. Grant thy blessing to Queen Victoria and all her subjects, to the President of the Republic of Mexico and all whom he represents. May they be led by Thy good Spirit in all things, and may peace and good-will abide and grow deeper and stronger between them and us.

Oh, God of our fathers, ruler of nations, while we celebrate the triumph of peace, we remember that the shadow of war is upon our land, and that the sound of conflict smites our ears. We earnestly pray that it may please Thee speedily to restore peace, and to hasten the day when, under the reign of righteousness and love, all wars shall cease. But if, as we believe, Thou hast called us to take the sword to avenge the wrongs of the helpless and oppressed, and to set free our brothers from their bondage, then make us strong to serve Thee and defend us in the day of battle. Bless the army and the navy; shield them from all perils by land or by sea, and grant them victory, which is in Thy hand. Oh, Gracious God, most bountiful benefactor, our hearts are this day lifted up in hope, and Thou dost make us bold to ask the continuance of Thy favors and larger blessings for the future. Thou hast redeemed the region in which we dwell from savage rule, and hast given its abundance into our hands. The wilderness, where once Thy image was defiled by ignorance and superstition, has been filled with happy homes purified by Thy word; Thy temples stand on every side, and Thy people sing Thy praise. But surely Thou hast not brought us so far on our way only to leave us. Abide with us; grant us more of Thy light and truth, and make us faithful in all things to Thy holy law, so that through our obedience to Thee, we may be known as that people where God is the Lord. Multiply peace and prosperity among us. Lift up the poor and cast down the proud. Rebuke vice and oppression, cast down the wicked and defeat their plans. Make righteousness to flourish, truth to be established, and brotherly love to prevail in all our burdens. All this we humbly ask in the name of Him, who has taught us to pray, saying "Our Father which art in Heaven; hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done, on earth as it is in Heaven; give us this day our daily bread, and forgive our debts as we forgive if our debtors; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil; for Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever. Amen."

ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT WATTLES

"The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition is a reality today only by virtue of the pluck and energy and enterprise of the people of the country it represents. Amid the financial depression of the greatest panic of recent years, amid the gloom of doubt and distress which followed this panic, the first steps were taken in this great enterprise.

"Against the advice of many of our most conservative citizens, and the prophecy of failure by some, the work was begun. During its early stages there were many discouragements, but when the Congress of the United States recognized the Exposition as worthy of its encouragement and support, all doubts were dispelled and the people of this community, and of the entire West, rose above the calamities of the hour and united in the work with an energy which assured success.

 

"But these beautiful grounds and buildings have not been prepared and filled with the choicest specimens of the products of the world by chance. This work represents many weary months of toil, many discouragements and vicissitudes, but a final triumph worthy of the men who have given it their best thought and energy. This, the opening day, crowns their work with an adequate reward. We see the results of their efforts in this magnificent spectacle of architectural beauty and grandeur, commanding the admiration and attention of the world.

"This Exposition celebrates no single event in the history of the Trans- Mississippi country. This history for the period of a single generation past reveals a succession of achievements, any one of which might properly be the subject of a great demonstration of this character.

"Fifty years ago the larger part of the country west of the Mississippi River was unorganized territory, and was indicated on the map as the Great American Desert. Its arid plains and unexplored mountains were occupied by savage tribes, and there herds of antelope and buffalo roamed, unmolested by the white man, in solitude unbroken by the implements of civilization.

"No railroad had been constructed west of the Missouri River. But one city of more than 50,000 population had been built west of the Mississippi. The total population of this vast domain, comprising more than two-thirds of the area of the United States, was less than 2,000,000, and more than three-fourths of this population was in three States on its southeastern border.

"The city of Omaha had not been founded. The resources on which this city depends for its great commerce today were undeveloped. Gold had just been discovered in California, and the march of civilization toward the West had hardly begun.

"Fifty years is within the memory of many here present, but what a change has been wrought in this region! Within its borders are now twenty States and four territories, with a population of more than twenty millions; wealth double that of Spain and Portugal. combined, and an internal commerce greater than the foreign commerce of Germany, France and Great Britain.

"The Great American Desert is no more. Its eastern part is covered with fertile farms, which produced last year more than a thousand million bushels of corn and five hundred million bushels of wheat which, with the other agricultural products of this section, were sold for more than eleven hundred million dollars. The western part of this desert now forms the pasture of the nation. On its nutritious grasses feed the herds which supply the meat to the markets of the world.

"In 1850 the buffalo which roamed over this region outnumbered the cattle in the United States. In 1895 there were thirty million cattle and fifty million hogs and sheep west of the Mississippi River, and the value of the yearly product of these herds is four hundred million dollars, or nearly equal in value to the annual output of the gold and silver mines throughout the world.

"Nor does the grain and stock of this country comprise its only products. The fruit and wine of California and Oregon, the forests of Washington. Minne-   sota and Arkansas, the sugar of Louisiana, Utah and Nebraska, and the cotton of the Southeastern States, furnish no small part of its yearly commerce. But its mines must not be overlooked. From them has been taken in paying quantities every known mineral. The copper, iron and coal already discovered would supply the markets of the world for a century to come. The surface of the mountains and hills has hardly been prospected, but the richest and most extensive gold and silver mines in the world have been discovered. From them has been produced in the past fifty years more than sufficient to pay the Government debt at the close of the Rebellion, and their annual output now amounts to more than a hundred million dollars.

"The caravan of prairie schooners, requiring six months of hardship and danger to travel from the Mississippi to the Pacific coast, has been displaced by the overland express, with palace cars provided with all the conveniences of home, which travel the distance in thirty-three hours. No less than 80,000 miles of railroad have been constructed in the Trans-Mississippi country during the last fifty years, at the fabulous cost of more than two thousand million dollars. Towns and villages have sprung into existence along these roads as by magic. Great cities have been built, commercial relations established with all parts of the world, and manufacturing has assumed enormous proportions.

Gurdon W. Wattles

"Surely, with all these achievements during the short space of half a century, we might well celebrate the growth and development unparalleled in history. But, looking to the future rather than to the past, the commercial congress which authorized this Exposition wisely conceived its objects to be the advancement of the commercial interests of the West rather than the celebration of any of its past achievements.

"We have gathered here in these beautiful buildings and on these grounds some of the resources of this vast country, and have invited our Eastern neighbors and foreign friends to bring their products and come with their citizens to be our guests and here study with us the lessons of the future which these evidences of our past of progress teach. If the exhibition here made of the resources of this new country should demonstrate that greater prosperity and happiness could be found within its borders for many who now live in less-favored climes, the purpose of this Exposition would be accomplished.

"With a history that has hardly been written, but which records greater it growth and more important changes than has been made in any other country on earth in five hundred years of its life; with natural resources unequaled in value, variety and extent; with a climate which inspires the greatest mental and physical activity; with a people composed of the best elements of all nations who   have broken the ties which bound them to the homes of their fathers, and have wrested this country from savage life; with all these advantages and achievements, a what can we prophesy for the future generation, and who will attempt to limit the possibilities of a people who have accomplished such wonders in the past?

"This magnificent Exposition, illustrating the products of our soil and mines and factories, made possible by the inventions of the last century, will pale into insignificance at the close of the twentieth century. When the agricultural resources of this rich country are fully developed by the use of its rivers and streams for irrigation; when the sugar, as well as the bread and meat for the markets of the world shall be produced here and carried to the markets by the electric forces of nature; when the minerals, in our mountains and the gold and silver in our mines shall be extracted and utilized by this same force: when our natural products shall be manufactured here, then this Trans-Mississippi country will support a population in peace and plenty greater than the present population of any other nation in the world.

"When we consider that the British Empire, exclusive of its colonies, embraces only one hundred and twenty-one thousand square miles, that the civilization of Egypt was supported on less than ten thousand square miles, and that with the same density of population as the State of Ohio this country would provide homes for three hundred million people, we can appreciate the possibilities which the future has in store in this, the richest part of the world's domain.

"Standing at the close of a century teeming with great discoveries and inventions, which have elevated the civilization of the world to a higher plane than ever before, surrounded with such evidences of the past progress and future possibilities of this country, who can prophesy its future greatness, and who can estimate the influence of this Exposition in accelerating its development?

"Like a great beacon light it sends its rays throughout the land and challenges the attention of the world. To the homeless millions of less-favored lands it is a messenger of promise. To the weary mariner whose fortunes have been A wrecked on the seas of adversity it is a harbinger of hope. It opens new fields to the investor, inspires the ambition of the genius, incites the emulation of States, and stands the crowning glory in the history of the West."

ADDRESS OF HON. JOHN L. WEBSTER

"We meet today amid surroundings that excite the most lively imagination and rouse the dullest sensibilities. Entrancing and bewitching scenes are all about us. The best that architecture could plan and that skill could construct and that art could decorate and adorn, make up the exterior of this, the most unique Exposition ever witnessed on the American continent.

"These mighty structures stand where fifty years ago were clustered tepees of the Omaha Indians. Then the silence of this place was disturbed only by the Indian war-sound, by the revelry of the Indian dance, and the prairies rang with no sound but the war-whoop of the aborigine. Today it is surrounded by twenty   thousand buildings, the homes of 150,000 people, who are the members of the rich commercial city of Omaha.

"But this is not an Exposition for our city, or for our State. We are part and parcel of the great Trans-Mississippi country, a country extending from the River on the east, which DeSoto discovered, westward to the Pacific ocean, and from the Mexican republic on the south to the British possessions on the north— a country with more than fifteen million of the Anglo-Saxon people. It is a country now divided into States and territories, each large enough for an empire, with resources unparalleled, with soil unexcelled, and with capabilities immeasurable. It is the granary and market-house of the world. To borrow a thought from Edmund Burke: 'The scarcity which the empires and kingdoms have many times felt would have been a desolating famine if this child of their old age, with a true filial piety, with a Roman charity, had not put the breast of its youthful exuberance to the mouth of its exhausted parents.'

"On this spot the vast resources and mighty wealth of this extensive Trans- Mississippi territory are today put on exhibition, not so much for our own instruction and entertainment as that the rest of mankind may come and see for themselves, look on with a startled amazement and depart with astonishment and wonder.

John L. Webster

"But we are not a selfish nor a sectional people. We are a part of a rich, commercial nation. We know but one constitution, but one country, but one flag. We have opened the doors of the Exposition to all our fellow-citizens and received the products and exhibits of all the States, which gives it a truly national character. "We are cosmopolitan people and extended the scope of the enterprise until it becomes international in character. Canada upon the north, and the republics of South America, are here mingling with us. Exhibitors from various countries in Europe are here, vying with each other in their efforts to sell. Here may be seen the Italian, who walks the streets where Czesar's legions once trod; the Greek from the classic land where Athens was, and where the Spartans won an unfading historic fame. Here are a dusky people with their camels, from the deserts of Arabia. Here are Turks from that land whose people bow in prayer. at the voice of the priest from the minaret.

"Then, too, we welcome the Asiatics from the western shores of the Pacific. Here is the Mongolian race from the Chinese Empire, which traces its dynasty back through the fabulous ages. Here are exhibitors from Japan-that country which in our day has taken a mighty leap in advance, and is now recognized as one of the commercial and naval powers of the world. It is this Exposition, so grand in conception, so broad in purpose and so comprehensive in character, that   is this day thrown open to the throng here present, and which extends a hearty welcome to the millions who shall visit it.

"To build these immense palaces of beauty we have drawn from the past as well as the present. We have studied the artistic among all people and in all countries. In architecture we have drawn from whatever was the most beautiful in Gothic, whatever was most refined in classic, whatever was most desirable in Grecian and whatever was most noble in Roman, and supplemented and improved them with the most artistic conceptions of the present age, and the result we see before us is a realistic picture of a fairy scene.

"This decorative statuary is not the fruit of a day, the birth of an hour. It is the present imprint of an art which had its supreme revival in the Moses of Michael Angelo, and Titian's Tomb by Canova. The figures which these sculptors chiseled from the marble were the letters of the alphabet of art and have left an impression on the centuries which have come after them. Out of the fulfillment of that art American skill has dec-orated these buildings with forms of grace and of beauty, which express the taste and refinement of this age.

"Within the walls of these beautiful buildings, one may wander in a bewildered maze of exhibits. There will be found the best and richest productions of American soil—cotton from the vast plantations of Louisiana and Mississippi. ripened grain from the wheat fields of Minnesota, Washington and Oregon, and the golden king of corn from Kansas and Nebraska. There may be seen the woods and finished lumber culled from the pine forests of Michigan, and the high towering trees of the Columbia River. There may be seen minerals—copper from the Anaconda, and silver and gold which the energy of our mountain pioneers have delved from beneath the Rockies and Sierras. There will be seen the skilled handiwork of the mechanic and artisan, and in Machinery Hall the perfected result of what was once an inventor's dream. Without this circle is gathered evidences of the toil, of the prosperity, and of the refinement of seventy millions of industrial people who have brought America to its present high standard of national supremacy.

"The Government building at the west end of the lagoon, with its long colonnades and high shining dome, supporting the Goddess of Liberty, stands as the emblem of power and strength and majesty of this republic. It speaks for the greatness of our nation, the realization of what John Bright once said: 'I see one vast confederation stretching from the frozen north in unbroken line to the glowing south, and from the wild billows of the Atlantic westward to the calmer waters of the Pacific main, and I see one people and one law and one language and one faith, and over all that wide continent the home of freedom, and a refuge for the oppressed of every race and of every clime.'

"We have reached the condition pictured by John Bright, and we have passed beyond it. Our commerce envelops the seas, and our navy is in the flush of victory. Our grasp is on the Sandwich Islands and our gallant Dewey holds the Philippines.

 

"The nation's future which John Bright saw falls short of the future we see today. We are amazed at our own growth since the days of Washington and Jefferson to our present invincible power. We are now on the high vantage ground where we can look forward to the fulfillment of American destiny. The present is already a realized dream and the brightness of the future is stronger than a vision.

"To know the present let me draw a contrast from the past. Marcus Aurelius ruled over Rome at the closing of its golden period. His victories in war and achievements in peace classed him, in the minds of Romans, with Caesar and Augustus. In a plaza at Rome there was erected a high, towering monument to his memory. Circling around the column from the base to the capital the historic scenes and incidents of his career were carved and chiseled in the solid marble.

"That column still stands, browned by the centuries that have rolled by since its construction. It stands not alone as a relic of antiquity, but as an historic monument of an age when civilization, linked with all that makes a nation great and powerful, was in eastern Europe, and when one man ruled the farthest known portions of the world to the confines of the western sea. At the side of the square close by is a high and gray colored building, and along in front in blazoned letters is the name of an American insurance company.

"There is a singular linking together by way of contrast of the changed conditions of seventeen hundred years. If Marcus Aurelius could come forth from his long slumber his eye would rest on that monument on which is recorded the deeds of Rome's greatness and grandeur and he would see that Imperial City mouldy with age and its magnificent structures crumbling into ruins. When he looked on the assembled multitudes he could not see the legions of old that marched under his command. He would see a new people and hear a new language. If he inquired what had wrought this great change, he would find that civilization, in its onward course and westward march, had discovered a new continent beyond the sea. That a new race of people with a new language had built up a mighty republic of seventy millions of people, where industry had an open field, where science had made new discoveries, where literature and art and refinement were the common property of all her citizens. That this new people, with characteristic energy and enterprise, were insuring the lives of the lazzaroni.

"The scene thus presented to Marcus Aurelius would be more astonishing to him than were the lines upon the wall which were interpreted to Nebuchadnezzar. Yet this Trans-Mississippi country has developed more and accomplished more in the last fifty years than was worked out in the seventeen centuries that marked the space of time between the ages of Marcus Aurelius and the planting of this western civilization which this Exposition is builded to commemorate.

"To judge of the future, let us draw another lesson from the past: The earliest civilization had its habitation in western Asia, in Palestine and Assyria. It joined hands with trade and commerce as time rolled by and left Babylon and   Nineveh in ruins, and took up its abode in Egypt and northern Africa. Later on it left the land of the sphynx and pyramids and took up its abode in Greece, the land that became famous by the sculpture of Praxiteles, by the matchless oratory of Demosthenes, by the wisdom and philosophy of Socrates and Plato, and by the statesmanship of Pericles and Phocion; the land whose patriotism made the names Thermopylae and Marathon synonymous with all that is daring and brave and glorious in war.

"Time rolled on and civilization, with its companions, trade and commerce, left this land of charming scenes and bewitching history and passed westward across the Adriatic to imperial Rome. From the age of Caesar and Augustus to the time of Constantine, Rome ruled the old world, but civilization traveled westward until it reached the confines of Europe, where the ocean seemed a barrier, and stayed its progress for fourteen long centuries. Rome crumbled into ruins, Brussels and Antwerp and Paris and London became the commercial centers. Italy broke into dukedoms and provinces, and England, France and Germany became the ruling nations of Europe. Civilization, urged on by its companions, trade and commerce,'like a man of nervous energy and restless ambition, found a way to cross the ocean, and the new continent of America was discovered. They crossed the stormy waters of the sea and made their new home in this western hemisphere. Here our nation has grown up and the scepter of supremacy has passed from the old world to the new. In the fulfillment of our destiny, and to hold trade and commerce within our grasp, we have to work out the problem of universal civilization. We may have to join hands with the great powers of Europe to compass the trade of western Asia, and bring it across the Pacific into the harbor of Puget Sound, and through the Golden Gate.

"We are an international nation; Europe is on the east of us, and Asia is on the west of us. It is no longer a question of the far East, it is a question of the West. In the southern waters of the Pacific is Australia, practically a newly discovered country. The Anglo-Saxon people are already there. It is like a newly risen sun in the southwestern waters, whose foreign commercial trade of more than six hundred millions of dollars per year demands our most considerate attention.

"There, too, at our western door is Japan, already a great commercial nation, and with a navy that takes first rank with the modern sphynxes of war which float in Pacific waters. There, too, is China. Russia has crossed that territory with a line of railroad whose depot stands fronting the surf-line of the western ocean, and her flag floats over Port Arthur. England, Germany and France have their navies floating in their waters and their flags flying in her fortified harbors. China is about to awake from her hibernating sleep of four thousand years. Her four hundred millions of people are to become the consumers of American products and the patrons of American commerce. Who can say that within the next fifty years the commercial trade of the Pacific shall not take supremacy over the commercial trade of the Atlantic? May not this Exposition mark the beginning of a new era of prosperity, when the commerce of Europe   and of Asia shall find their race course across this mid-continent and pour out their wealth to overflowing in this Trans-Mississippi country.

"A month ago it was a serious question whether the war with Spain would not injure this Exposition, but within a month it has become an accentuation of the expansive power of the American nation. A month ago the American people were disposed to cling to the traditional policy of isolation; today they receive with patriotic enthusiasm the doctrine of annexation and of conquest. A month ago the Philippines were in the far East; today they are in the nearer West.

"Emilio Castelar said to the Spanish Cortez, twenty-seven years ago, words which in these days of rapid change breathe the spirit of prophecy: 'America, and especially Saxon America, with its immense virgin territories, with its republic, with its equilibrium between stability and progress, with its harmonies between liberty and democracy, is the continent of the future, the immense continent stretched by God between the Atlantic and the Pacific, where mankind may essay and resolve all social problems. Europe is to decide whether she will confound herself with Asia, placing upon her lands old altars and upon the altars old idols, and upon the idols plutocracies and upon the plutocracies empires, or whether she will collaborate with America in the grand work of human civilization.'

"Spain heeded not his voice. She has not taken part with America in the grand work of civilization. She has clung to her old idols and her despotic i empire. In this, the close of the nineteenth century, she carried to the beautiful Island of Cuba the cruel and relentless warfare of the fourteenth century.

"Our Saxon civilization, of which Castelar spoke, entered its protest against the barbarism of the Middle Ages being transplanted to this island of the western hemisphere, and determined to eradicate it by the severe arbitrament of war. It is our high standard of civilization, our love of liberty, our sympathy with suffering humanity, our regard for national honor, that has brought us to the initial point where we must solve questions of national policy and ·which we are to settle for future ages before the present century shall close.

"A month ago the Sandwich Islands seemed too remote an object for the grasp of national ambition. They have now become a resting place for the American army in its race across the Pacific to give aid and assistance to our navy in the Philippines and to make complete the conquest of Admiral Dewey, whose victory at Manila is the wonder of the age and the marvel of the seas.

"Yonder Administration building is supported by four open arches, looking toward the four points of the compass. They are emblematic of the thought that this Exposition stands in the center of the American republic, and that the people of the Trans-Mississippi country, through those gateways, are ready to welcome the commerce and trade from the four corners of the earth, which shall make us the greatest, the happiest and the most prosperous people in the world."

 

ADDRESS OF HON. JOHN N. BALDWIN

"Man delights in retrospection and indulges in anticipation. The faithful historian never lacks appreciative audiences, for the dullest eye must lighten and the most sluggish pulse quicken at the recital of the trials and triumphs of the past. Neither is a prophet without honor, even in his own country, when to listeners, whose hopes and aims are one with his, he predicts a glorious future.

"But the critic of existing institutions treads no primrose path. Unless carefully guarded in expression he will damn with faint praise, disgust with fulsome flattery, or awaken jealousy by unfavorable comparison. In all ages there are those who insist that the present time is sick and out of joint; that there is nothing in the present like unto the past; and that whatever is, is not comparable with what is to be.

"Fortunately for the progress of the world, those who revel in rehearsals and venture so much in prophecy have not been in the majority; only sufficient

John N. Baldwin
in number to disturb and impede. It is sad to say, but it must be said, that, in our own time, there are so many individuals who insist that there is no progress today except in mechanics.

"They croak and cry, 'It is simply the time of steam, steel and starvation. Like puny whispers they pull their pencils to write, 'The State in danger.' They declare and resolve that governments are so drawn and trussed that for the few there is plethoric plenty while the many starve. They philosophize that this is an age of machinery, not an heroical, devotional, philosophical or moral age.

"These contentions and opinions impose upon the thoughtful, intelligent and progressive men of the time, who believe that the present is better than the past and promises more for the future, the task of denial of assertion and of proof, to deny and assert is easy. To prove requires organization and labor. In their efforts to arouse men to more glorious triumphs, they met with many difficulties. "Happy men are full of the present, for its bounty suffices them; and wise men also, for its duties engage them.' The busy man would say, 'With me it is what I eat, where shall I drink, my body, and what shall it put on?' The iconoclastic man, 'Do not talk about our achievements. It is better to listen forever than to brag.' Among these and many others the opinion prevails that there are two classes of lies—common lies and statistics. 'Give us proofs,' they say, 'outward signs and tokens.'

"In vain did they plead, as did the wise men of old, 'Say not thou, what is the cause that the former days were better than these? For thou dost not inquire wisely concerning this.'

 

"From out these discussions, controversies and opinions evolved the idea of an Exposition. Tested, it has been found to be practical and promotive. The Exposition is an item of evidence. It goes to prove not only what has been done, but what may be accomplished. It is an eye-witness and an expert. It lays in your hand the record of the past. It makes, while you look, the exhibits of the present. It paints before your eyes the splendor of still greater achievements on the cloud curtain of the future. It shows itself wherever there is a spirit of a commercialism, a sense of pride, and an impulse for improvement.

"The Exposition has become the instrument of civilization. Being a concomitant to empire, westward it takes its way—The Crystal Palace, the Centennial, the World's Fair, the Trans-Mississippi Exposition.

"We celebrate at this hour the opening of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, and this day marks an important era in our development.

"The purpose of this Exposition is to display the products, manufactures and industries of the States and territories west of the Mississippi River. The territory embraced is two-thirds of the area of the Union and contains nineteen States and five territories. Part of this territory was acquired by purchase from France in 1803. and part by treaties, negotiations and cessions.

"I refer to these facts because from 1802 to 1850 this purchase, these treaties and these cessions were the subject of public discussions and much that was said and written fittingly illustrates the thought I have heretofore endeavored to express.

"During these times some there were who dealt much in prophecy, and what they then foretold is of surpassing interest in view of what has since happened.

"Referring to the standard histories and the leading reviews of this period, I find that the opponents of the acquisition of this territory said that the east would be depopulated. The mere extent of territory would rend the public apart. No common ties of interest would ever bind together under one government men who fought Indians, trapped bears and hunted buffaloes, and men who built ships and caught fish in the harbors of the Atlantic ocean. It would enormously increase the public debt. Two millions for an island and possibly as much ground on the main land as is now covered by the State of New York was enough in all conscience, but to pay fifteen million dollars for lands containing over one million square miles was revolutionary and unconstitutional. The limits of the federation could not be safely extended beyond the stony (Rocky) mountains. As late as 1825 one United States Senator boldly proclaimed in the Senate: member of Congress traveling from his home to Washington and return would cover a distance of 9,200 miles. At the rate of thirty miles per day, and allowing him forty-four clays for Sundays, three hundred and fifty days would be consumed, and the member would have fourteen days in Washington before he started home. It would be quicker to go around Cape Horn or by Behring's Strait, Baffin Bay and Davis Strait to the Atlantic, and so to Washington.'

 

"They also said, ‘All settlers who go beyond the Mississippi River will be forever lost to the United States} Pike, whose name is attached to the giant peak of the Rockies, condemned these plains to everlasting sterility. He officially reported to the War Department as follows: ‘F rom these immense prairies will be derived one great advantage to the United States, namely, the restriction of our population to some certain limits, and thereby a continuation of the Union. They will be constrained to limit themselves to the borders of the Missouri and the Mississippi, while they leave the prairies, incapable of cultivation, to the wandering and uncivilized aborigines of the country.'

"In 1858 the North American Review declared: 'The people of the United States have reached their inland western frontier and the banks of the Missouri are the shores at the termination of a vast ocean desert of one thousand miles in breadth which it is proposed to travel, if at all, with caravans of camels and which interpose a final barrier to the establishment of large communities, agricultural, commercial or even pastoral.'

"In all authorized publications, and on all school maps, the strip of land lying west of the Missouri River and east of the Rocky mountains, south to the Mexican frontier and north to British America, was called 'an unknown land' and designated as 'the Great American Desert.'

"I have the honor today of being the official spokesman of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition. In the discharge of the duty imposed upon me I now and here assert, realizing full well the breadth and depth and meaning of every word I utter, that in fertility and productiveness of soil, in mountains and meadows, rivers and lakes, metals and minerals, forests and farms, sea-coast and harbors, cereals, fruits and flowers, cattle, horses and hogs, healthful climate, grandeur of scenery and intelligence and industry of inhabitants, there is not on this globe a body or tract of land of the same area equal to that region of country covered by the States and territories of the Union west of the Mississippi River.

"In proof whereof we welcome you to these grounds. Come through these gates and enter these buildings, and we will give you ocular proof, or

'At the least shall so prove it,
That the probation bears no hinge nor loop
To hang a doubt on.'

"With samples and exhibits, records and reports, with representatives credentialed and accredited, we will prove to the thoughtful, intelligent and unprejudiced people of the world, that 'the Great American Desert' must have deserted, for it can not be found. Where fifty years ago they said it was, we will show a farm of 67,000,000 acres under cultivation, producing annually products of the value of $1,000,000,000.

"The prairies which were considered 'incapable of cultivation,' produce annually 1,200,000,000 bushels of corn, 350,000,000 bushels of wheat and 30,000,000 tons of hay, of the aggregate value of $600,000,000, making no accounting of the other cereals, the fruits and the vegetables.

 

"Instead of 'trapping bear and hunting buffaloes,' 9,000,000 horses and mules work in the valleys; 32,000,000 cattle feed on the hills; 51,000,000 of sheep and hogs, fleece and fatten, and this livestock alone is of the aggregate value of $1,200,000,000.

"They thought $15,000,000 was an extortionate price to pay for this wilderness. Today the annual output of gold and silver is $100,000,000; of copper and other minerals, $100,000,000, and of coal, $30,000,000. With the precious metals alone from our mines we could pay the purchase price in sixty days.

"The 'barrier to the establishment of commercial enterprise,' stormed by the sturdy frontiersmen, gave way and on the other side hum and whirl the wheels of factories, turning out annually $1,400,000,000 worth of the best and cheapest manufactured goods in the world.

"The 'caravans of camels' not coming from their Egyptian midnight, the people of this country constructed 80,000 miles of railway as a means of travel and transportation.

"In the land where only fifty years ago 'wandering and uncivilized aborigines' sought shelter in wigwams and leaf tents, now live 22,000,000 of intelligent people, with 121 universities and colleges, 62,000 schoolhouses, 5,700,000 children, 6,000 newspapers and 45,000 religious organizations, having a membership of 3,500,000 and worshiping in 44,000 church edifices.

"The aggregate wealth of this region of country is $22,000,000,000, or more than one-half the entire capital of Great Britain.

"These are not figures of speech, but the arithmetic of facts. I have given the numbers round but always under.

"For one of these territories the Government paid $7,000,000, yet in a few years it received from the seal islands embraced therein, alone, the purchase price, and there is now in sight in its gold mines enough to pay the national debt.

"Another has the greatest onyx mines in the world, yet its shipments of fruit amount to 10,000,000 pounds a year.

"One of these Trans-Mississippi States has the greatest deposits of marble of any State in the Union, and yet this same State took the prize at the Columbian Exposition for the best apples in the world.

"Another leads the Union not only in gold or silver production, but in the production of wool as well, and it has more sea-coast than the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina combined.

"Still another produces annually an amount equal to four hundred dollars for each of its inhabitants, man, woman or child, and no other country in the world can show an equal product per capita.

"Another State has already taken from its mines silver to an amount equal to the present circulation of silver coin in the United States. One thousand miles from the place where stand the greatest flour mills in the world, and all in this same territory, is a land where cotton, corn and olives grow in adjoining fields.

 

"In one State there is a greater variety of minerals than in any other section of country of like size in the world. Another has a region of country in the hills a hundred miles square, which is the richest in the world, containing the largest and most easily worked mass of low grade ore yet discovered. Another has an area equal to the German Empire, with 62,000 miles to spare, and could sustain upon its surface with ease and prosperity the entire population of the United States.

"Here we find 'literature and the elegant arts growing up side by side with I the grosser plants of daily interest} In almost every city are academies of painting, sculpture, music and literature. The development in the fine arts has not been as conspicuous as in the industrial pursuits. I do not think that I would be superfluously explanatory if I assigned the reason.

"These people have imagination and taste, and long hold communion with the visible forms of all that is beautiful and refined, but for the last fifty years they have been using their brain and brawn in a war with rude nature. They have been employing their genius to find reason and glory in matter. With them it has been an age of utility and utensil. Egyptian and Indian architecture, Phidian sculpture, Gothic ministers, Italian paintings, Grecian epics and Scottish ballads are not produced by a people whose time is consumed in constructing railways, building cities, disemboweling mountains, draining lakes into irrigating canals, 'bottling up the forces of gravity and selling it by retail,' yoking electricity and steam, and directing them both as unwearied and obedient servants.

"The results which this Exposition will show to have been attained are largely due to the character of the people who took possession of this land. They were of the best blood of the Union; men of depth and range; of aplomb and reserve; of judgment and common sense. Men who would spare nothing and wanted everything. Men who believed in action and knew the value of every moment of time. Men who realized 'that the poorest day that passes over us is the conflux of two eternities. It is made up of currents that issue from the remotest past and flow onward into the remotest future} Men who soon found that agriculture was just beginning when they felled the forest, and that driving from the streams the Indian and his canoe was not the end of commerce. Men who were willing to give their lifework to the making of the alphabet of the language of development, leaving the word-forming and phrase-making to those who would succeed them. Men who, actuated by the impulse to better themselves and also their descendants, co-operating with the organic effort of nature 'to mount and ameliorate,' overcame the 'wilderness' and converted the 'desert' into a garden of benefits.

"I do not believe I shall have adequately discharged the duty of this office unless I speak of one other factor in the glorious development of this great country. We today should bow our heads in reverence and speak the name of Abraham Lincoln. The greatest single factor or agency in the development of this country and in the bringing of this people together in a spirit of union and brotherhood was the construction of the Pacific railways, and Abraham Lincoln was the   leading public man who had sufficient prescience of the necessity of the construction of these railways.

"And Abraham Lincoln was of this people. He was born about 100 miles from the east line of the Louisiana purchase. For fifty-two of the fifty-six years of his life on earth he labored in this territory with the pioneers for the development of this country, the organization of its society and the establishment and preservation of this government. He was a frontiersman, and yet of all the greatest, the best and the mightiest men of the past nineteen centuries, he was the only man of whom we can say, 'Some there are who doubt the divinity of Christ, but no one the godliness of Lincoln.'

"When the cornerstone of this great enterprise was laid, many were the things which we promised you would see and hear on Opening Day. And now into these magnificent buildings and on these beautiful grounds we ask the people of the earth to come and judge of their fulfillment.

"While our eyes are enrapt urd with the glories of these scenes, our ears will be enchanted with the promised song.

"Uplift a thousand voices full and sweet
In this wide hall, with earth's inventions stored,
And praise the invisible, universal Lord,
Who lets once more in peace the nations meet
Where science, art and labor have outpoured,
Their myriad horns of plenty at our feet."

ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR SILAS A. HOLCOMB, NEBRASKA

"This occasion, the day and the hour, will ever remain memorable in the A history of the Trans-Mississippi country. It marks a most interesting event in the history of this commonwealth and measures a step forward in the progress of our great republic. To the people of Nebraska, the ceremonies attending the opening of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition are freighted with special and personal interests of the most impressive character.

"This day has been anxiously awaited by every patriotic citizen of the State. The inception and successful inauguration of an enterprise, so grand in its scope, and fraught, as we believe it is, with so much good to the present and future generations, is gratifying alike to all. An Exposition denoting the ever-advancing civilization of the present age, and by a people inhabiting over one-half of the area of the United States and comprising over one-third of its population, held A within the boundaries of our great commonwealth, is an honor and a distinction gratifying to our State pride, and for which all Nebraskans are duly appreciative. For five months it will be the great pleasure, as well as a high privilege, for our people to extend, with welcome hands and warm hearts, a hospitable greeting to the people of all portions of our common country, and to those from other lands who may participate in or visit this magnificent display. We cordially invite all to visit us and view the evidence of the marvelous progress made by   the people of the great West in the material advancement in the industries, arts and sciences; to learn of the wonderful and inexhaustible resources of a country g which in extent forms an empire and whose unparalleled resources, when utilized, can be made to bless and make happy millions of mankind who may in this vast domain find innumerable opportunities for the establishment of prosperous homes.

"Here, gathered by the energy, industry and ingenuity of man, will be found g the products of land and sea, of farm and field, of factory and mine, all giving evidence of the wonderful richness of a country yet only partially developed, and displaying the marvelous progress made its citizens in keeping step with the grand march of civilization throughout the world. The spirit of progress and philanthropy in the upbuilding of an industrial empire in our midst, displayed upon every hand, must challenge the admiration and solicit unstinted praise from all who shall visit us and behold what has been accomplished by these people in scarce one-half century of labor. These are the evidences of the intelligent and

Silas A. Holcomb, Governor of Nebraska
well-directed efforts of a people who, with a courage that is undaunted and a faith that is undismayed, have wrested from nature's primeval conditions this beautiful land, and established a civilization that will forever bless mankind.

"This great Exposition celebrates and Commemorates no important epoch a the history of the country. It is an epoch in itself. It has grown and assumed shape and form as an expression of the desires of a people to celebrate the development of the resources of a country, the result of their own struggles, labors and final triumphs. It is grander and more far-reaching in its scope than the celebration of some anniversary in our country's history. It emphasizes and makes comprehensive the accomplishments of an intelligent, progressive people toward a higher civilization. It is a composite picture of the growth of a people made during the early years of settlement in a new and untried country. It is befitting, as the nineteenth century is drawing to a close, with its fruitage of the manifold blessings which have been showered upon the people of the earth during its reign, that we of the western and newer half of the American republic should take an inventory of the stock of great riches of which we are possessed, in order that we may thereby be the better enabled to assume the duties and responsibilities and to solve the problems of the advancement of the human race that come crowding upon us with the dawning of the twentieth century.

"With the force of a proverb it has been said of man 'Know thyself;' and with greater emphasis may it be declared, 'Know thy country.' Study its structure as formed by divine hands. Know its rivers and mountains, its forests and prairies, its valleys and plains, its climate and soil. Learn of its hidden treasures   of gold and silver, of coal and iron; its productive fields of grain and grasses, of vegetables and fruits, its plains of rich grazing for horses, cattle and sheep. Inform yourself of the cities and towns, of telegraphs and telephones, of railroads and steamboats, of the ever-pulsing arteries of commerce, the facilities for exchange of the products of man's ingenuity and industry, and a faint conception will be gained of the present greatness and future possibilities of this magnificent Trans-Mississippi country.

"As this beautiful Exposition city, with its thousands of exhibits representing every branch of industry, pleasing to the eye and inspiring to the mind, has sprung into existence in so short a period as if by magic, so has the Trans- Mississippi country developed during the last half century with marvelous rapidity. This has been accomplished by the courage and untiring energy of those who have peopled its broad domains. The evidences here witnessed of the advancement of the people and the development of the country's resources inspire within us a spirit of thankfulness that God has given us so goodly a land, to be made beautiful and to fructify for the enjoyment and benefit of mankind.

"Though young in years, we of the West ask no allowance on the score of age, but challenge investigation and comparison with improvements made by countries of maturer years, confident that no unfavorable impression of us will result therefrom. In this hour of festivity and rejoicing we are not unmindful that it is also a time of trial for the nation. Loyal citizens from every section of the country have sprung to arms in defense of national honor, in the cause of humanity. Sectional lines have been obliterated in the face of threatened danger from foreign foes. A reunited people are fighting side by side under the stars and stripes, the banner of liberty and progress.

"Amidst these marvelous collections of our triumphs in the peaceful pursuits of life we hope it may again be demonstrated that 'peace hath her victories no less renowned than war,' and that our countrymen of the East may meet us here in this midway city of the continent, learn of our progress in the past, our aspirations and high aims, our hopes for the future, and the integrity of our purpose and determination to contribute to a better civilization in developing this great country and to attain the high destiny designed for us by the Maker of the Universe."

NEBRASKA DAY—June 14, 1898

An outline of the exercises and the program which was carried out on Nebraska Day has been given in an appropriate place in Chapter III, Part I, of this History. The original poem and addresses on that occasion were as follows:

"NEBRASKA," BY MRS. IDAEL MacKEEVER, OF STROMSBURG

You may talk of Eastern cities, of their populace and size,
Of their buildings reaching upward to the blue dome of the skies,
Of their many church spires glinting in the gold of setting sun,
And the countless crowds that pass them when the busy day is done.
 
You may talk of noble harbors and of stately ships that sail
Proudly on the cold, gray ocean, breasting many a salt-sea gale.
You may talk about your rivers flowing grandly to the sea,
Of your commerce and your factories and lands so rich and free;
Of your mines and mountains yielding their silver and their gold,
Of your hills and valleys laden with the scent of wood and wold;
Or, of Oriental splendors lying far beyond the sea,
I will smile and tell you plainly, they don't count at all with me.
For I know a land so lovely, it defies you at your best,
'Tis our own beloved Nebraska, still the garden of the West.
Within her smiling borders, lie the fields of growing grain,
Waving in the golden sunlight o'er her.broad and level plain.
O'er her prairies lonely Freedom seeks a tryst with vanished youth,
And the breath of God sweeps gently, whispering eternal Truth.
While the onward march of Progress with her banners bright, unfurled,
And a voice from out the distance rings unto a sleepy world,
Crying, "Forward is the watchword of creation's mighty call,
Rise and follow, I will lead you, to the source of All in All."
Here in days gone by the red man roamed at will so wild and free,
Simple, untamed child of Nature, chanting his rude minstrelsy,
Till the avaricious white man's never-ending cry of "More,"
Pushed him onward still and onward, to the Western ocean's shore.
And here ambitious Coronado, seeking Castile's greatest good,
And the far-famed seven cities of Cibola as they stood
In his wild imagination touched our long and lonely plain,
Finding nothing, leaving nothing but the prairie in his train.
Now are well-tilled farms and gardens, and the plains that then were bare,
Blossom as the rose of Sharon in our breezy, western air.
Here our smiling groves are planted. and their green. and shady bowers
Tell of Arbor Day's vast blessing on a barren plain like ours.
Honor to J. Sterling Morton and his institution grand,
Now observed throughout the borders of our happy, prosperous land.
Here our bursting bin and storehouse, and our reapers' merry song,
Tell of Industry's creation, and the brave, courageous throng
Whom we call our Western heroes, who have spent their lives in toil;
Safe from gleam of hate or battle, or the surge of life's turmoil,
Some have passed life's earthly borders, and lie 'neath the grassy seas,
Where the night wind lisps in passing and a flower perfumes the breeze.
As they lie asleep forever, resting quietly with God,
We will not forget their service nor the paths that they have trod.
But will drop a tear in passing, giving a tender, thoughtful sigh,
For the ones who've made Nebraska fairest spot beneath the sky.
If I have my way in heaven when this earthly life is done,
Where they say a harp is given and a golden crown is won,
I will ask a wreath of sunflowers, and the yellow golden rod,
Gathered from our Western prairies as a royal gift from God.
When vesper bells are ringing softly over land and sea,
When the songbirds cease their singing, silence breathes upon the lea;
 
When the murmur of the night wind sweeps the fields of golden grain,
Then my soul shall come and listen to its tender, glad refrain,
As it rustles through the corn leaves, singing ever as it strays,
Seeming like the friendly greeting of a voice from bygone days,
With sweet memories entranced, my harp attuned shall be,
Its chords and tones divinely singing Nature's symphony.

ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT GURDON W. WATTLES

"In behalf of the management of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, I accept this beautiful building dedicated here today for the comfort and convenience of the citizens of Nebraska. I commend the wisdom of its conception, the care and economy in its erection and the beauty and convenience of its design. The management of the Exposition appreciates the broad and liberal hospitality of the State Board of Directors in providing a home on these grounds, not only for our own citizens, societies and institutions, but for the representatives

Nebraska Building
of other States and territories. The comforts of this building will accept its hospitality. It will do much to accomplish one of the great objects of this Exposition, which is to cement the ties of friendship and good feeling, and bind together with pleasant memories and common interests the citizens from all parts of this great country. The East has misunderstood the West and has not appreciated its resources, its citizens and its magnificent opportunities. To the State of Nebraska, the future historian will give the credit of erecting, in times of adversity, a great Exposition, destined to break down prejudices, build up commerce and promote peace and good-ill throughout the land.

"When our excellent Governor recommended, in his last biennial message to the legislature of this State, a liberal appropriation in aid of this Exposition, a discussion of the merits of this enterprise as precipitated throughout the State, which for several months grew in intensity until a bill as finally passed and became a law providing for a State building and a State exhibit. Many of the speeches in opposition to this measure would be amusing if reproduced here today. But when we consider the conditions which prevailed three years ago in this State, can not wonder that many questioned the advisability of the enterprise. A great   panic had paralyzed our business interests; to crop failures had discouraged our farming communities; many of our citizens in the western parts of the State had but recently received public charity, and many had abandoned their lands to seek homes in Southernclimes or to go back to Eastern friends and relatives. Conditions never had seemed more discouraging, and to many who live only in the present, an Exposition of our resources in 1898 meant failure and disgrace.

"But adverse conditions make heroes. The richest inheritance of this generation is the courage and energy of the pioneers of the West. These pioneers subdued the savage tribes which occupied this territory, drove back the buffalo and antelope and made productive farms of the desert they occupied. They built railroads, schoolhouses, churches and colleges; they bravely met and surmounted every emergency; they ere the best blood and brain of the East and of all parts of the world. From them and their descendants came words of encouragement and support to the managers of this enterprise. These men, who had seen the State of Nebraska in times of temporary adversity before, knew that the natural conditions of this State justified the expectation of a speedy return of good crops and prosperity in business, and so from all parts of the State, by petition and through the press, came a demand in favor of the Exposition which our legislators could not resist.

"That the appropriation of State and national funds for this Exposition as wise can not be doubted by any who believe in public schools and other public institutions of learning. From an educational standpoint, what could impart more information and better education than an Exposition of this character? Who can stand at either end of the Grand Court and look at the magnificent spectacle of architectural grandeur there displayed without receiving impressions and inspirations which will last through life? To the farmer hose days are spent in honest toil in the quiet and peaceful pursuits of country life, what must be the sensations of wonder and delight in seeing for the first time the electrical effects of these grounds and buildings at night? To the great majority of our citizens who have never seen the capital of the nation and the departments of our Government, what could be more interesting and educating than the illustration of the workings of these departments made in the beautiful Government building here? To one and all the display of art from the masters of the Old World and the best painters of modern times, the statuary, the machinery, the products of farm and factory, and the highest and best results of genius and invention can not fail to be a school of learning that could not be equaled in any other way.

"But the financial benefits of this Exposition to the State of Nebraska and to the entire agricultural ill amply repay the expense and effort in its promotion. Already has the attention of the world been attracted by the magnificent display of our resources here made, and during the next four months thousands of homeseekers and investors will visit the Exposition and investigate the opportunities of the West. That this State ill secure its full share of this tide of immigration we can not doubt when we consider that the growing crops this year in many counties promise to exceed the value of the farms on which they   are produced, that the livestock interests of the State have doubled in the last four years, and that thousands of acres of the richest and best lands in the world for the production of corn and sugar beets are today unoccupied. New life and energy will be infused in all branches of industry throughout the State by the men and money that will be attracted here by the Exposition and the improved conditions which no prevail. The investment of this State will be returned many fold by the increase in value of its taxable property and by the higher and better civilization of its citizens.

"In view of the many benefits of this Exposition to the State of Nebraska, I most heartily congratulate His Excellency, the Governor, the lawmakers of this State and the State Board of Directors of the Exposition on the wisdom and statesmanship displayed in making an appropriation for a State building and an exhibit here. I congratulate them on this magnificent building, which does honor to the State it represents and credit to the Exposition of which it forms a part. In the name of the Exposition, I accept this building for the purposes for which it is this day dedicated."

ADDRESS OF HON. WILLIAM J. BRYAN

"Nebraska is ready to do her part in time of war as well as in time of peace. Her citizens ere among the first to give expression to their sympathy with the Cuban patriots, and her representatives in the Senate and House took a prominent part in the advocacy of armed intervention by the United States.

"When the President issued a call for volunteers, Nebraska's quota was promptly furnished, and she is prepared to respond to the second and subsequent calls.

"Nebraska's attitude upon this subject does not, whoever, indicate that the State is inhabited by a contentious or warlike people; it simply proves that our people understand both the rights conferred and the obligations imposed by a proximity to Cuba. Understanding these rights and obligations, they do not shrink from any consequences which may follow the performance of a national duty.

Hon. William J. Bryan

"War is harsh; it is attended by hardship and suffering; it means a vast expenditure of men and money. We may well pray for the coming of the time, promised in Holy Writ, when the spears shall be beaten into pruning-hooks and the swords into ploughshares; but the universal peace can not come until justice is enthroned throughout the world. Jehovah deals with nations as He deals with men, and for both decrees that 'the ages of sin is death.' Until the right has triumphed in every land and love reigns in every heart, governments must, as a   last resource, appeal to force. As long as the oppressor is deaf to the advice of reason, so long must the citizen accustom his shoulder to the musket and his hand to the saber.

"Our nation exhausted diplomacy in its efforts to secure a peaceable solution of the Cuban question, and only took up arms when it as compelled to choose between agricultural and servile acquiescence in cruelties which would have been a disgrace to barbarism.

"History will vindicate the position taken by the United States in the war with Spain. In saying this, I assume that the principles which ere invoked in the inauguration of the agricultural will be observed in its prosecution and conclusion. If a contest undertaken for the sake of humanity degenerates into a agricultural of conquest, we shall find it difficult to meet the charge of having added hypocrisy to greed.

"Is our national character so weak that e can not withstand the temptation to appropriate the first piece of land that comes within our reach? To inflict upon the enemy all possible harm is legitimate warfare, but shall e contemplate a scheme for the colonization of the Orient merely because our fleet on a remarkable victory in the harbor of Manila?

"Our guns destroyed a Spanish fleet, but can they destroy the self-evident truth that governments derive their just powers, not from superior force, but from the consent of the governed?

"Shall we abandon a just resistance to European encroachment upon the western hemisphere in order to mingle in the controversies of Europe and Asia?

ADDRESS OF HON. WILLIAM E. GURLEY

"Fellow-citizens: The dedication of the Nebraska building is in reality the inauguration of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. The orators of this occasion, speaking with authority, voice the welcomes of a most gracious host, the commonwealth of Nebraska. The ceremonials of this hour convey formal notice to the civilized world that the hospitality of our State is boundless, and that every guest within our gates shall find a royal welcome.

"The American exposition of the broadest scope has heretofore been not only commemorative, but has been the chronicle of some great national anniversary, or the celebration of an epoch in history. The Trans-Mississippi Exposition has no place in this majestic series of formal festivals. No memory which duty enjoins to embalm in marble sits enthroned among the palaces of this triumphal city. It rears today its domes of gold and minarets of alabaster as an inspiration born of the passionate impulse of a proud people; not a memory, but a radiant dream—a dream which is also a prophecy!

"For more than a hundred years the traditions of the Republic have found lodgement among the granite hills of New England and in the pine groves and cotton fields of the balmy South. To New England and the South we turn with pride to read the annals of American ancestry; but in the magnificent prairie and mountain States, those colossal principalities which comprise the 'seat of empire'   of the new West, enthroned between the mountains and the Mississippi, we behold the fulfillment of the hope of American posterity.

"The Centennial and the World's Fair were superb monuments to the glittering pageantry of completed history. The Exposition to which we bid you welcome is unique in character, and in its promise of future grandeur more wonderful than the crystallization of centuries of matured development which characterized the national pageants at Philadelphia and Chicago. The perfected products of a matured civilization may ell incite the admiration of observant men. But it has remained for the progressive population of this royal region, rich in resources beyond the flight of the most exuberant fancy, to present for the delectation of mankind the inexhaustible treasures of an incomparable territory, comprising the most princely provinces of our national domain.

"This Exposition is representative, not of what we have been, but rather of what we may be, and, under the providence of God, what we are to be. Nebraska rejoices that the time has come when, as the official representative of the great agricultural, she may extend a welcome to the denizens of the East; hopeful and confident that by contact and association those errors and misconceptions which have arisen as to the character and purpose of her citizenship may be forever sept away.

"Conservative and radical are much-abused terms. In recent years they have been employed to emphasize a demarkation line between the so-called eastern and western halves of the Republic. The accumulated wealth of the East, by virtue of the logic of human nature, has impressed its timidity and conservative quality upon the citizenship of that portion of the Republic. In the East

William F. Gurley
dwell the sentinels of wealth; in the West, pioneers of fortune. He who has is ever conservative, while he who hopes is ever radical. I do not hesitate to affirm that the radicalism of the West, born of honest tumult and patriotic commotion, is the sure sign of that superb progression which blazes the pathway of civilization, and builds the roadways for the onward march of humanity toward the final and triumphal destiny of the race.

"To be radical is to agitate, and in agitation lies the safety of the Republic. Some one had defined agitation to be 'marshaling the conscience of a nation to mould its laws,' and since John Brown trod the soil of Kansas we of the West have been agitators. Popular government can only exist through a continual process of fermentation. Free speech is at the basis of free institutions, and out of the clamor and heat of partisan discussion arises the best thought, the highest purpose of a patriotic people.

"Fellow-citizens, I can conceive of no more appropriate occasion than the present, on this day, and at this hour, to protest against the misconception of our   status as a commonwealth or our purposes as a people. with seventeen years of personal knowledge and an intimate acquaintance with the history of Nebraska since its admission to the sisterhood of States, as a loyal son of this glorious commonwealth, I challenge the assertion, whenever and wherever made, that any branch of our State government, in any period of its history, has ever made an assault upon the rights of citizenship, real or personal, or endeavored to wield an arbitrary authority in defiance of law or constitution.

"Agitation is one thing—lawlessness another. The West is turbulent, but not lawless; and out of that turbulency and commotion, there arises the spirit of the genius of liberty.

"Today, Nebraska throws open wide her golden gates and summons to her portals the myriads of mankind. To this enchanted city of the plains she lures with wizard wand the unnumbered host of other lands and climes. Superb sponsor of a regal hospitality, broad as the prairies, rich and varied as the mountain ranges which rear their snow-crowned crests in salutation to the sky; robed in the glittering garments which nature weaves alone in token of man's toil; imperial in her pride, her sovereign brow tinged with the glow of the approaching dawn, she bids the nations hail."

ADDRESS OF HON. CONSTANTINE J. SMYTH

"Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: This is Nebraska's day; It is on this day that we may sound the praises of our great commonwealth. She bids her sons do this, not in the spirit of vanity, but that she·may be known as she is. Not one jot or tittle would she take from the glory of her sister States who have come here to display in these buildings and on these grounds the evidences of their growth, their wealth and their enterprise, with delight will she listen when they tell of their resources and their triumphs. To them she extends that welcome which becomes a generous, broad-minded and truly American commonwealth; and to none will she yield in admiration of their greatness.

"If we would understand Nebraska as she is, the work of her sons in bringing her to her present condition and the probabilities of her future, we must look back and contemplate, if only for a moment, the 'small beginnings' from which she sprang.

"In 1834, the Congress of the United States denominated the territory of which she as then a part as 'The Indian Country.' It was, in fact, at that time the country of the savage. The white man had no dominion therein, and the sweet word 'home' was without a meaning on all its broad prairies. Less than fifty years ago the Omaha Indians held title to the land on which we stand, and the entire white population at that time in this vast territory did not exceed five thousand souls.

"Not many years after the Omahas ceded their title to this territory to the United States, Nebraska's pioneers came and commenced the work of home building and State building. The days of the freighters followed; the Union Pacific   was projected and finished; the ox-team gave way to the freight train; the prairie schooner to the upholstered car, and thus the evolution went on until within the short span of forty-five years it has culminated in the palaces of art that lift their classic outlines within the walls of this Exposition. Marvelous has been the progress.

"The surplus products of her farms last year-that is, the products she was able to send to market—were worth over fifty-five million dollars. She has over three thousand factories, with a capital invested of forty million dollars. These we factories pay yearly more than thirteen million dollars in ages, and the value of their output is ninety-five million dollars annually. Here on the border of her chief city are located packing houses which bring Nebraska near to the second packing center of the world. Fourteen lines of railway have a mileage of four thousand seven hundred and thirty miles carrying Nebraska's commerce.

Constantine J. Smyth

"This is but a glimpse of Nebraska as she is materially; how is she in those departments of activity which develop the higher nature of man; which refine his thoughts and make him a force in the dominion of taste and intellect? Six universities, tenty-nine colleges, seventeen academies, six thousand six hundred and ninety common schools and seventy-five private schools educate three hundred and sixty thousand of her sons and daughters. This is Nebraska's day, and this Exposition is her palace. As she steps to the main entrance thereof to welcome her guests of the Trans-Mississippi region, notice the inscription on her shield. It illustrates the fact that she has the lowest rate of illiteracy of all the States of all this Union. The National Government has placed her percentage at 3.11.

"How appropriate, then, that the representatives of this Trans-Mississippi region should select this State as the place herein to exhibit to the world their best specimens of the triumph of mind over matter, and what specimens they are!

"If you would see a picture as beautiful as ever man created, contemplate the grand court when illuminated at night. Go into the buildings, look at the evidence there of what man has done, and then say, if you will, that his achievements in the Trans-Mississippi country have not been surpassingly great. But do not be surprised, for in this region we possess the best blood and brains of our country, From the East, and from every nation under the sun, have come to us energy, independence of character and irresistible progressiveness that knows no halt until it reaches its goal or the grave. From what race has sprung those men? The Anglo-Saxon? Those who weep because we have not lords and castles and crests and other evidences of barbarism, answer 'Yes.' Men who deal in facts and not in fancies answer, 'No.' Read the names of those who perished with the   Maine, who supported the immortal Dewey, or who went into the jaws of death with the heroic Hobson. ere they all Anglo-Saxon? Who will say so? Truth declares that many races ere represented there. The Dane and the Swedish; the Germans and the Irish. Shoulder to shoulder they stood behind the guns of their adopted country, offered their lives on her altar, and thanked God that they were Americans, the best race that ever blessed the earth, the combination of all that is good in all the races of the world.

"Today Nebraska sends greetings to the oppressed of every race and of every clime. To all, no matter of what race they come, who have energy, intelligence and industry, coupled with a love of freedom, she opens wide her gates and bids them welcome. Here, under the blessings of our free institutions, and breathing the air of the most healthful climate in the world, they will have their energy stimulated, their industry rewarded, and their liberty protected."

WISCONSIN DAY—June 18, 1898

The program of exercises and comment on Wisconsin Day have been given an appropriate place in Chapter III, Part I, of this History.

President John C. Koch, of the Wisconsin Commission, in his address, referred to the fact that the dedication of Wisconsin building at the Exposition marked also the celebration of the semi-centennial of Wisconsin's admission to the Union of States. He spoke of the friendly relations which exist between Nebraska and Wisconsin on account of the large numbers of natives of Wisconsin who have taken up their residence in Nebraska. The history of the origin of the Wisconsin building was reviewed briefly, and he, in a few words, turned the building over to President Wattles for the Exposition.

Wisconsin State Building

President Wattles accepted the building on behalf of the Exposition management and dedicated it in honor of the semi-centennial of Wisconsin's history as a state. Wisconsin history as reviewed, briefly, referring to the fact that in the original settlement of the State the Germans predominated, as do their descendants today, and he declared that their thrift, industry and reputation as good citizens have made the State famous. The exceptional educational advantages possessed by the State were referred to, and an array of figures regarding the agricultural and farm products as quoted showing the great resources of the State. Reference as made to the fact that the State had furnished enterprising citizens to many of the western States, and the erection and dedication of the building on the Exposition grounds declared a tie which would still further bind the to sections together.

 

WISCONSIN AT OMAHA

Lines for the opening of the Wisconsin State building at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, June 18, 1898.

BY JOHN GOADBY GREGORY.

Our wise third President, to whom the pen
Was sword and scepter, and whose steady gaze
Scanned far futurity—we Western men
Rightly accord him gratitude and praise.
He, at a stroke, without the stain of blood,
Surpassed the ground the Revolution won,
And made the realm of freedom reach the flood
That laps Manila and the setting sun.
Here, here he flung our banner to the air,
The desert lingered; forty years ago,
The savage faced the panther and the bear,
And chased the bounding bison and the roe.
Where yon broad river then slow, winding flowed
In silent solitudes, now dash the cars;
And miners wrest the treasure from the lode,
Where mountains thrust their tops between the stars.
See the glad conquest of the treeless plains
Whose fertile furrows feed the world with corn!
Contented farmers count the heaping gains
That pour from Plenty's convoluted horn;
Herds gather fatness from the juicy grass,
While useful swine and fleecy flocks increase;
The wains and reapers in procession pass,
And all the landscape sings of thrift and peace.
Throned at the entrance of this Greater West,
On bluffs that bathe in the Missouri's tide,
with regal welcome for each dazzled guest,
A queenly city throws her portals wide
And bids the universe to festival.
The guns that doom the tyranny of Spain
Drown not the music of that cheerful call,
Nor check the multitude that crowds amain.
Wisconsin, wearing on her brow sedate
The chaplet of her statehood's jubilee,
Comes, a blithe neighbor, to the sparkling féte,
With sage intention to be seen and see,
Proud of her rich expanse, here ocean lakes
To cities, farms and forests shout, "Huzza!"
With all the land hose glory she partakes,
She sells the paean raised at Omaha.
 

ADDRESS OF HON. WILLIAM C. QUARLES

"Wisconsin men are found wherever true Americans dwell. Beyond the Alleghenies and beyond the Rockies their influence is felt. No sooner have their cabins been located in the wilderness than, as if by magic, all the institutions of civilization spring up about them.

"This Exposition is a great monument to the ability, energy, taste and culture of the people of this broad Western land. It may well excite wonder and admiration. As we behold these magnificent buildings and all the evidences of wealth and culture, we can hardly realize that within the narrow span of a human life this great prairie as a wilderness, ripening for future use, here every autumn the dusky savage, in pursuit of game, roamed over vast stretches of country, whose surface, clad in a mantle of sombre brown, undulated like the billow of the sea. While we contemplate in Europe the fate of kingdoms that have been tottering for ages on the brink of decay, slowly dying for a thousand years, we behold our on States growing to maturity within the experience of a generation.

"It is eminently fitting that Omaha, which so well represents the spirit of Western advancement, should, at the consummation of the nineteenth century, set up in its midst this magnificent object lesson. As we look: about us today, we realize that we live in the heart of a republic whose shores touch either ocean, which stretches from the frozen zone to the tropic lands, whose men and women are the demigods of industrial and intellectual conquest, of and concerning whom it is not necessary that any man make explanation or apology, but who stand upon the hilltops of civilization, with a national emblem representing everything that is grand in human life and noble in human endeavor.

"In casting the eye over the map of Nebraska, we are thrilled with patriotic joy to see among the names of your counties those of our Jefferson, Grant, Logan, Blaine, Garfield, Sherman, Lincoln and Washington. We feel that our hearts are thus linked together by the tie of common devotion to the precious memory of our soldiers and patriots, whose fame is a common heritage, and we confidently rest in the assurance that our children will unite with yours in the tribute of gratitude due to those, who, whether at the north or south, east or West, have stood or fallen in this country's cause.

"Few of us have realized the tremendous resources of our united country. The world failed to appreciate it. The events of the last few months have amazed foreign nations, as they have quickened the pulse of America with pride and exultation.

"Wisconsin presents to Nebraska today, not merely a beautiful building, as a token of her admiration and esteem, but as an older to a younger sister, she extends to you affectionate and well-merited congratulations and the most earnest wishes for the success of this, your great undertaking."

 

ILLINOIS DAY—June 20, 1898

For outline of exercises and program for the day see Chapter III, Part I, of this History.

The addresses were as follows:

ADDRESS OF COLONEL CLARKE E. CARR,

President of the Illinois Commission.

"When La Salle was, with his heroic followers, exploring western wilds, soon after leaving Lake Michigan he came to the head waters of a river upon which he launched his canoes and floated down with the current. The river broadened and deepened as he advanced, and he soon became convinced that it belonged to the great system which drained all the vast region of the Northwest.

Illinois State Building
He made excursions upon either side and found himself in the midst of vast meadows of waving grass which seemed illimitable. One day the party came upon an Indian village and found it to be the home of a people who called themselves 'Illini.' He called the region the land of the 'Illini,' and he called the river upon which he was floating the river of the 'Illini.' When he asked the significance of this name, he found it to be men, full-grown, complete, or, as we would say, stalwart men. From this dusky race not only that river, but our great State takes its name.

"There is scarcely an attribute of mankind so universal as that of affection for the region in which our lot is cast; the land which has given us birth, or which in maturer years has received us to her bosom. The heart of the Esquimaux, alike with the inhabitants of more favored regions, sells with the liveliest emotions in contemplating what seems to him the beauties and excellencies of his   on country. If this emotion be a universal attribute to mankind, it can not fail to be more profound and intense in proportion as those beauties and excellencies are real. There is no true son of Illinois 'whose heart has ne'er within him burned' in contemplating the sublime glories of his on State.

"No other commonwealth can boast of more enterprising and prosperous cities and tons and villages or of more delightful rural homes. Our great metropolis, with her magnificent buildings towering into the skies, with her vast libraries already provided for, with her university and institutes and schools, with her charities and eleemosynary institutions, with her parks and great avenues, is destined, with the growth of architecture and the development of art, to be the most resplendent city on the face of the earth. Millions of revolving heels are forever rolling to her great storehouse treasures, 'which far outshine the wealth of Ormus and of Ind,' and she must very soon become the most opulent and populous city of the Western hemisphere, and finally of the world.

"But it is of our complete, stalwart men, that we are proud. They have shown themselves worthy of the name they bear. Men 'whose wrestling these can throw the world.' Scarcely had the people of Illinois begun to enjoy the privileges and appreciate the glories of full citizenship of the Republic when almost immediately after the State was admitted into the Union the demon of human slavery tried to fasten itself upon them, Though most of them ere from slave States, they met and overcame the monster, and hurled it from them, banishing it forever.

Clarke E. Carr

"A few years later, when borne down and overwhelmed with debt and taxation, and the last hope of being able to extricate themselves seemed gone, the siren of repudiation, as she has successfully done elsewhere, beckoned them to follow her for relief. They indignantly repelled her and deliberately, in their fundamental law, put upon themselves a burden of taxation, and, after years of self-denial, paid the debt in full, dollar for dollar. When the Mexican agricultural came Illinois carried the banner of the Republic on many a victorious battlefield, and finally assisted in dictating terms to the enemy in his on capital. when human slavery sought to fasten we itself upon California and Kansas, Illinois men helped to drive it out. In the war of the rebellion Illinois men 'heed their way don the Mississippi Valley with their good swords,' as their greater volunteer leader, whose achievements have been commemorated in bronze, said they would do, and the great river flowed 'unvexed to the sea.'

"The names of the stalwart sons of Illinois who have on imperishable renown would fill volumes. One of them conquered the sword of rebellion, and,   with magnanimity and generosity unequaled in history, declined to receive it, and another is recognized throughout the world as the sublimest character of the age.

"While there is a tendency to exalt military genius above all other, there have been intellectual conflicts in which the laurels have been as resplendent as those which deck the soldier's brow. In the great debates before the people of Athens, Demosthenes gained renown which has brought his name don through all the ages.

"Just preceding the war of the rebellion, on the prairies of Illinois we witnessed a campaign of public discussion, continuing for several months. As it progressed from day to day it attracted more and more attention, until finally all the people of the nation became interested. The great prairies were the audience room, the American people the audience, the Constitution of the United States the platform, the greatest American statesman the champion, and the fate of a continent the issue.

"The original fabric of government as composed of States bordering upon the Atlantic, of which the great State of Pennsylvania as appropriately designated as the keystone. Soon the adventurous and hardy pioneer subdued the Western Wilds, new States were formed and the Republic expanded. By the Louisiana purchase, the conquest of Mexico and the settlement of the Oregon boundary, the domains of the Republic have extended until our boundaries are the oceans. Her adamantine foundations, laid broad and deep, support the most majestic edifice that has ever been projected.

"In the midst of this mighty structure so amplified and extended from its original boundaries, Illinois appeared. Through the achievements and great names of Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant, and the deeds of our other statesmen and heroes, Illinois has so risen in her central position that from every quarter of the Union men and omen instinctively lift their eyes to her, and so carry out the no clearly discerned will of the Divine Architect. She unites and cements, and canopies with grace and symmetry and beauty the majestic edifice. As Pennsylvania as appropriately called the keystone, so Illinois may be appropriately designated as the dome of the Republic of the United States.

"In the midst of this most splendid Exposition of the World's progress that has ever been attempted and carried out in the Trans-Mississippi region, equal, in so far as designed, to the World's Columbian Exposition and superior in many of its details, Illinois has erected a building. In the work of laying out and erecting this building the Illinois commissioners, representing every part of the State, have taken a lively interest. It has been their desire, without unnecessary outlay, to have a building that would be worthy of the State which has honored them by placing the important trust in their hands. It has been a labor of love, and they will feel amply compensated if their work is approved. For them and in their behalf, I no turn the building over to His Excellency, the Governor of Illinois, whom I have the honor to present to you.

"In introducing Governor Tanner, it is unnecessary for me to add more than a word. Some of us have known him from the time when, a mere lad, he wore   the blue uniform of his country. we do not always agree with him, but we recognize his sterling qualities. He learned from Abraham Lincoln to be just and kind and considerate, and he learned from General Grant to keep steadily on in the line of duty, unmoved by denunciation on the one hand or by flattery on the other, and he learned from John A. Logan, whose faithful and trusted companion he as, never to desert a friend. He is one of the 'Illini.'"

ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR JOHN R. TANNER OF ILLINOIS

"Mr. President of the Illinois Commission and Officers of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition: It affords me sincere pleasure, on behalf of the State of Illinois as its Governor and executive head, to receive from the distinguished and genial President of the Illinois Commission this commodious and elegant building. which is not surpassed, I believe, in point of beauty or convenience, by any similar structure upon these capacious grounds. It is a building of which the great State I have the honor here to represent may be justly proud, and I trust that many Illinoisans may see it, rest beneath its hospitable roof, and share the sentiment of admiration and approval with which I view it for the first time.

"The people of Illinois have the most cordial and Sympathetic feeling for the State of Nebraska and its citizens. They are largely the same people, since Illinois has contributed so largely to populate these virgin and fertile plains. I see in this audience of brave men and fair women many a spectator and listener who was born in Illinois, but for one reason or another has cast his or her lot with a younger community. To no other State

Gov. John R. Tanner
in the Union, I think, have we given so many of our sons and daughters. we cherish the belief that even Nebraska can show none better. They are gone from us, but they are still of us. Their memories are cherished by those whom they have left behind, many of whom will take this opportunity to renew old ties of affection and friend- ship. It is this common blood flowing through all our veins, much of it from the founders of England and Virginia and the Carolinas, but all of it, whether its original source as in England, Ireland, Germany or elsewhere, no thoroughly and forever American, which is the promise, the pledge of perpetual union, of p every portion of our common country.

"The mention of our country at this moment of national peril and anxiety thrills every patriotic heart. It is hard for us, far removed as we are from the island shores in to hemispheres here our destiny is even no being shaped to some unseen end by the thunderbolts of agricultural, to command our thoughts and hold them to the peaceful scenes which at home greet our view. In imagination   and sympathy we are only partly here. Our hearts are with our bravest and dearest in camp or at sea, here the children of Illinois and the children of Nebraska have joined hands to purchase, for an alien race, at the cost of their own lives, if so great a sacrifice is required of them, the liberty and prosperity which we ourselves enjoy, and of which this magnificent Exposition is the latest and highest symbol. What a contrast! May we not derive from it the lesson that greater are the triumphs of peace than of agricultural? agricultural is destructive, but peace is a creative force.

"As I look around me, I pray for the restoration of peace, a just and honorable peace, a lasting peace, which shall usher in for all mankind a brighter era of humanity and universal brotherhood. we can never be again what we have been—an isolated nation, selfishly enjoying our immunity from international responsibilities. we have a duty to discharge to the world as ell as to ourselves, and the destruction of the Maine with its gallant crew as the rude voice which awakened us from our dream of perpetual exemption from entanglement with the affairs of other nations, and aroused us to a higher conception of our duty as to the pioneers of the new Christian civilization which is to characterize the coming century.

"But I have led away from the matter in hand. As Governor of the State of Illinois, I congratulate the commission which has so well performed the task assigned to it, of preparing and presenting a fit testimonial of our friendly regard for a sister State, and our cordial sympathy with its noble ambitions.

"I thank you for what you have done, and no, in the name of this commission, and on behalf of the people of Illinois, I tender to the officials in charge of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, this edifice for the use of all who may enjoy its hospitality, whether they be Nebraskans, Illinoisans, or from whatever State or land they may come. Let Illinois and Nebraska vie with each other which of the two shall give them the warmer welcome."

ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT GURDON WATTLES

"When the Trans-Mississippi Commercial Congress designated the city of Omaha as the place at which the country beyond the Mississippi should display to the world its resources in the year 1898, and when the officers of this Exposition had been elected, we naturally turned to our neighbors of Illinois for assistance and advice. we recognized, as all must acknowledge, that Chicago had furnished the ideal of all future expositions; that none could excel and few could ever equal that grand achievement of human skill and genius, the 'World's Columbian Fair.' In architecture, arrangement and installation, as well as in the excellence, variety and magnitude of the exhibits, we realized we could only produce a shadow of that which had reached so near perfection at Chicago.

"It gives me great pleasure in the presence of His Excellency, the Governor of Illinois, and in the presence of these distinguished guests, to acknowledge the   hearty cooperation we have received from the officers of the World's Fair Commission and the valuable assistance of the State of Illinois in this enterprise. Our invitation to your State to participate in this Exposition as promptly accepted, an appropriation as made by your legislature and a beautiful and appropriate if building has been erected on these grounds. I can not refrain from commending the efficient work done by your commissioners. Their building is one of which the State may well be proud; they have furnished it with comforts and conveniences, and have embellished with an artist's dream of the 'White City' in a manner which can not fail to meet the approval of every loyal citizen. This building is an honor to the State, Illinois, and a credit to the Exposition, and for the management I accept it and dedicate it to the comfort and happiness of the citizens and all former residents of your great State.

"We of the vast Trans-Mississippi region renew this day our allegiance and good-will to the State of Illinois, and acknowledge our appreciation of the presence of her Governor and distinguished citizens here on this occasion. We are proud of her history, her wealth, and of her great men; we are proud of her great metropolis, the growth and development of which have been an index to the progress of the entire West. The prosperity of Illinois and of her metropolis is intimately associated with the prosperity of the Trans-Mississippi country. Chicago is the great clearing-house for the larger part of the surplus grain and stock produced in the West. The value of her yearly commerce in the necessities of life can hardly be comprehended. It exceeds the foreign exports of the United States. It exceeds the entire animal gold and silver product of the world. It exceeds the enormous sum of one billion dollars. For the product of the West which yearly Ends a market in the State of Illinois, her lines of railroad, which radiate to all parts of this country, return annually agricultural implements to the value of tenty-Eve million dollars, clothing to the value of fifty million dollars, boots and shoes to the value of ten million dollars, and the products of her other factories in proportion. So active have become the demands of this rapidly developing, pushing, thriving new territory, that the delay incident to the purchase from factories in New England can not longer be tolerated, and the time is not far distant when the older States of the West will supply themselves and their sister States with all their needs. The State of Illinois is rapidly becoming a manufacturing center for the West. The census of 1890 showed an increase of 119 per cent in her manufacturing interests in ten years. Three hundred and twelve thousand one hundred and ninety-eight hands were then employed, and the value of the annual product of her factories as nine hundred and eight million six hundred and forty thousand dollars. I have no doubt that the next census will show a corresponding increase.

"But, bound together as we are by the ties of commercial interest, there are other cords that will forever hold us as brothers.

"The richest heritage of the past century is the men which Illinois has given to history. They belong to this and all other Western States. They were   the product of Western environment. Only the boundless prairies, the free air and the blue skies of the West could have developed them. We have perpetuated their names in our counties, cities and tons, and for the greatest and best of them all we have named our capital city. They have made the State of Illinois renowned in eloquence, learning, statesmanship and jurisprudence. Douglas, the great tribune; Baker, the sweet-toned orator; Cartright, the rugged divine; Trumbull, the constitutional layer; Shields, the hero of to wars; Drummond, the eminent judge; Logan, the 'Black Eagle,' who carried victory in his fiery train; Oglesby, the unconquerable soldier and wise statesman; Grant, the invincible leader of armies, the peerless hero and the greatest general of the century; Lincoln, who stood at the helm of the nation during the darkest hour of its peril and sealed its triumph with his blood. We claim an interest in them all, and their memory must forever bind the State of Illinois with bonds of steel to the younger States of the West.

We appreciate beyond expression this visit of your Governor and these distinguished Illinois citizens at this particular time. when agricultural as first declared with Spain the managers of this Exposition had some fears that it might detract from the success of our enterprise, but we have come to realize that blessings are often given in disguise. We now know that while war destroys, it also gives new life and that every citizen is energized by the new and patriotic influences that are revived by conflict and strife. No better illustration of the greatness and power of our country can be found than in the fact that thousands of citizens from Eastern States daily visit this Exposition, and that while our antagonist—one of the oldest kingdoms in the world—is straining every resource if to meet in unequal combat our magnificent forces at Manila and Santiago, that while the bonds of Spain are begging a market at thirty cents on the dollar, our nation's war loan will be three times over-subscribed by our on citizens, and that we will not only defeat at arms this dying relic of barbarism, but at the same time will hold here in the center of our territory a great Exposition illustrating the arts of peace and promoting good will throughout the land.

"Illinois is bound to the West by ties of consanguinity and common interest. Thousands of her former citizens are no residents of this and other Western States; they are among our most progressive and prominent men in all departments of business and professional life. Her beautiful home here will renew old friendships and form new ones. I commend the wisdom of its erection, the beauty of its design and the friendly interest which prompted its conception. For the management of the Exposition I receive and dedicate it to the purpose for which it as designed."

 

A KANSAS DAY—June 22, 1898

ADDRESS OF HON. J. E. FROST,

Vice-President of the Kansas Commission.

"May 30, A. D. 1854, as an eventful day. It marked the beginning of an epoch in the history of our nation which, in its achievement, makes it possible for us to meet here today to dedicate this building as a part of this great Exposition of the resources, development and boundless promise of the mighty West.

"On that notable day Congress passed the act creating the tin territories of Nebraska and Kansas, and while the statesmen of that day undoubtedly foresaw a great future for this then unpeopled region, who could have foreseen this marvelous growth which the to States have attained in the half century that has since elapsed? 'What prophetic vision could have revealed the scenes that surround us here today, within the boundaries of the territory carved out of a vast wilderness? The twin territories become States, have grown side by side in close friendship and generous rivalry, surpassing in their attainment the fondest hopes of their creators, and today they clasp hands, while Kansas renders ready tribute to the prowess of her sister State, so exemplified in the splendid creations with which we are surrounded.

"I esteem it a great pleasure, a high privilege, on behalf of the Kansas Commission and of our fellow-citizens of the Sunflower State, to welcome to the dedication of the Kansas State building our friends who honor us with their presence this morning. we congratulate the managers of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition upon their daring spirit and matchless pluck in conceiving and undertaking this great enterprise, and upon their tireless energy and skillful management in putting it in successful operation. We most cordially welcome the representatives of Nebraska and of Missouri and of Iowa and of the great Northwest, and of the great Southwest, of the Rocky Mountain region and of the Pacific slope, component parts of this magnificent Trans-Mississippi domain; we welcome our friends

Hon. J. E. Frost
from Illinois, which great mother has sent to both Kansas and Nebraska a greater proportion of her population than any other State in the Union; we welcome those from the Buckeye, the Badger and the Hoosier States and from the grand old Empire State, from stanch Ne England, the Sunny South and from all the others. From whatever State or territory, 'One for all and all for one,' you are all Kansans by adoption today."

 

In his response, President Wattles reviewed briefly the marvelous progress which had been made in the prairie States of the West during the last half century, eclipsing the progress of any other section in a similar time. In commenting on this condition he spoke of the peculiar propriety of holding a great exposition to display to the world the magnificent resources of this great region. He complimented the people of Kansas on the fine showing which had been made of the resources of their State, and especially on account of the handsome and commodious State building which had been erected for the accommodation of the people from the Sunflower State. The grand results of the efforts of the Commission and the State officers of Kansas in raising funds for the exhibit of the resources of the State ere commended in high terms, and the promise of the future, as indicated by the energy and ability shown by the State in this instance, ere cited by the speaker as most encouraging. The resources and products of the State ere discussed somewhat in detail, and in conclusion he expressed the hope that the investment made in the Exposition would be returned to the State a thousand fold.

ADDRESS OF HON. SILAS PORTER, OF WYANDOTTE

"Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: This is Kansas Day, a Kansas audience and a Kansas building. Kansas and Nebraska are renewing today an acquaintance formed forty years ago, when as infants they ere rocked in the same cradle, and the name of one as never mentioned without the other. In the history of the great conflict against the extension of slavery in the new territories of the Northwest, their names became forever associated, and the acquaintance formed so early has ripened into a arm friendship. They have kept step together in the grand march of progress, and today their interests are common.

"Kansas congratulates her young sister upon this magnificent Exposition and her tireless energy and genius in creating here a fitting memorial of the history and development of the great Trans-Mississippi territory.

We have come to throw open the doors of this beautiful building, which represents in a measure the dignity and hospitality of our State, and to write over these doors a message of royal welcome to all Kansas friends who may have occasion to meet here.

"Kansas is the central State. Her area exceeds that of New England, and her population is about equal to that of the city of Chicago, so that every Kansan has plenty of elbow room. The State is to hundred miles wide, four hundred miles long, and all sunshine. Today that sunshine falls upon a wheat field of four million acres, the southern edge of which is ripening for the harvest. General Fremont, in his report to the Government, in 1850, said that the fertile district of Kansas ended abruptly about one hundred miles west of the Missouri River. 'Beyond,' he said, 'it is wholly unfit for agricultural purposes and must ever remain so.' A single county lying more than one   hundred miles West of Fremont's limit produced last year eight million bushels of corn and yields each year, upon the average, more corn than any other county in the United States. The 'Great American Desert' is covered with magnificent farms and orchards, the homes of a contented and prosperous people.

"The Kansan is loyal to his State; he acquires the habit of thinking of his State as something real, of identifying himself with her past history, her present fortunes and her future destiny. And once a Kansan, always a Kansan. To him the sun always shines a little brighter there. If some occasion has arisen necessitating his removal to another place, he looks forward anxiously to the time when he shall again reside within her borders.

"Kansas is both the best and worst advertised State. Her name is always in the newspapers. Any paragraph about Kansas is as sure of being republished as though it ere followed by the words 'All papers please copy.' with it all, the State has suffered from an undeserved and undesired notoriety. The marvelous speculation in real estate, which reached its climax

Silas W. Porter
about ten years ago, proved a more costly experience than all the accumulated disasters in Kansas a history. when reason returned and liquidation if began, conditions ere most unfavorable. Distrust prevailed in financial circles everywhere; a period of depression in all lines of business almost unparalleled set in; low prices and, worst of all, a partial failure of crops, resulted in many Kansas obligations going to protest. The Eastern man with money to lend as largely at fault. He believed that values would continue to rise, and he frequently loaned up to the limit of speculative values. Kansas loans, made with any pretense of judgment, have proven safe investments.

"Kansas laws for the protection of the rights of the debtor class have been persistently misunderstood. Editors of newspapers in eastern States, here the las for a hundred years have given the mortgagor from one to two years equity of redemption, have railed at the dishonesty of the Kansas law giving the mortgagor eighteen months to redeem. But Kansas is not the only State here men lost their heads in real estate speculation. The bankruptcy measure is not being pushed through Congress to aid Kansas bankrupts alone.

"The State has much to be proud of. within her borders general prosperity reigns. The wise man who prayed that he might be given neither poverty nor riches would find in Kansas an ideal home. We have no millionaires and no poverty. The State is long on schools and academies and short on jails and poorhouses. Her school fund is richer than a 'king's ransom,' and she makes the proud boast that the percentage of illiteracy among her people is less than   that of any other State or province or country in the world. And so it happened, very naturally, that of her three thousand soldiers enlisted last month, every one can read and rite. Her patriotism is as strong today as in the sixties, when she furnished more volunteers in proportion to her population than any other State.

"This building is only a temporary structure, but it stands, for the time, for Kansas. Let us dedicate it to the memory of the brave men who founded and preserved the State, the loyal, generous-hearted men who gave the best efforts of their lives to make Kansas a free State, an outpost of freedom planted upon the frontier of civilization, and those others who came after and helped to preserve her free institutions as a priceless heritage for us and our posterity. But in a we broader sense, let us dedicate it to the Kansas that we know—the new Kansas, the prosperous Kansas, without ache or pain or cause of complaint; the Kansas with nothing whatever 'the matter with her,' where the Indian and the buffalo are traditions of the past, here the grasshopper long ago ceased to be a burden; to debt-paying Kansas, with money of her on to lend; Kansas from which the prairie dog has gone to join the calamity howler; Kansas with to millions of prosperous people and ample room for ten millions more.

"War is not an unmixed evil. In seasons of long peace men forget their country in pursuit of wealth and agricultural. 'The many fail, the few succeed Those who succeed become more selfish and grasping; those who fail, discontented. Discontent breeds social disorder. The demagogue sees his opportunity and anarchy and socialism are advocated; distrust prevails, and men lose faith in a government. At such times a foreign war in a just cause is a blessing. And we if the revival of patriotism which we see all about us shall drive out all traces of sectionalism forever, if it shall lead men to consider the welfare of their country and to lose sight of selfish ends, if it shall result in seeping away the social disorders which seemed to threaten the stability of our institutions, it will prove to be worth all it costs in blood and treasure. And Kansans know that our State will gain as much by this revival of patriotism as any portion of the Union. "Kansas believes in the destiny of the Anglo-Saxon to accomplish grand results in the cause of human liberty, in the interests of civilization against despotism. The time may come when outrages in America shall cease at the command of the Anglo-Saxon. We need have no fear of a standing army made up of our sons and brothers. And the navy! No longer it belongs to the seacoast States. Since the first of May the hole country, north and south, east and West, has claimed it. Hereafter, the Western Congressman who votes against an appropriation designed to strengthen that arm of the service will have to explain his vote to his constituents."

 

IOWA DEDICATION DAY—June 23, 1898

Iowa Day has been given appropriate consideration in Chapter III, Part I, of this History, as one of the historical days of the Exposition. The addresses of the day were as follows:

ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT S. H. MALLORY,

of the Iowa Commission.

After dwelling at some length upon former expositions, both in the United States and abroad, he said:

"Iowa, the beautiful land, the garden of agriculture, with her fifty-live thousand square miles of rich, fertile, tillable land, traversed with clear, running streams, a veritable paradise, as less than one hundred years ago untrodden by the foot of the white man, her ownership resting in Spain, her beauties unknown, her boundaries not established until 1820. Born into a family of States less than fifty-to years ago, or about thirteen years after the first cabin as built by a white man in her borders, Iowa no has her whole area dotted with colleges, academies, we schools and churches; a population of over two million, and is bound together by eight thousand five hundred miles of steel, her railroads touching the capital of every county in her domain but one, and serving with her wide rivers on the eastern and Western borders to carry her vast productions to the markets of the world.

"Iowa, with a soil producing all standard grains, grasses, vegetables and fruits in abundance, is an agricultural State, standing first in the Union of States with her crop of corn, and fourth in the production of all agricultural products. Yet, with her inexhaustible deposits of coal, her metallic

S. H. Mallory
ores of lead, zinc and iron, she offers large opportunities and possibilities for prominence as a manufacturing State. Thus Iowa comes in company with her sister States, not with a spirit of envy, but of friendly emulation, with her quota of exhibits. Her people, by and through legislative enactment, appropriated the sum of thirty-five thousand dollars to aid in furnishing an exhibit of her varied industries and resources worthy of the State at this Trans-Mississippi Exposition, and this building, erected under the supervision of the commission appointed by the Governor of the State in furtherance of the object sought by the people of the State, I, as Chairman of the Commission, no tender to you, Governor Shaw, that you may dedicate it to the use and purpose for which it as designed.

 

"The contract for the construction of this beautiful home of the people of Iowa, and their neighbors and friends of sister States, as awarded to P. H. Wind, of Council Bluffs, for the sum of seven thousand seven hundred and ninety-five dollars, sixty-three days ago. A few years since, six months would have been considered a short time to erect such a structure. Mr. Wind is entitled to great credit for the energy displayed in rushing the work to completion in spite of the elements. The plans for the building ere prepared by Josselyn and Taylor Company, of Cedar Rapids.

"The Commission desires to express its obligations to President Wattles for the many courtesies shown, and for the assistance rendered in the prosecution the work. President Wattles and his able corps of assistants are entitled to great praise for the conception, planning and construction of this beautiful city, and we predict it will be the most successful Exposition yet held."

Governor Shaw accepted the building in the name of the State, and turned it over to the Exposition in the following brief address:

"The State of Iowa, through its representatives, accepts at the hands of the Iowa Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition Commission, this building, designed by its direction and erected under its supervision. It may not be inappropriate to tarry in this presence to make public acknowledgment of the faithful and expeditious service thus rendered by the members of this Commission; services sure to be appreciated by those at whose behest they ere performed. And no, as the representative of the people of the State of Iowa, I hereby dedicate this edifice to the purposes for which it as designed, and commit the same to the care, custody and use of the President and management of the Trans- Mississippi and International Exposition, in the hope that it may add somewhat to the interest and comfort of those who may visit these spacious grounds, and enjoy the trophies of State and national prosperity and greatness."

ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT GURDON W. WATTLES

"During the last ten days, it has been my official duty and pleasure to speak of the resources, progress and splendid achievements of a number of Western States at the dedicatory exercises of the buildings they have erected on these grounds. I may be pardoned for the sentiments of pride and gratification feel today, and for the expression of these sentiments in the few words I shall say regarding the State in which tenty-five years of my life as spent, and in the acknowledgment I desire to make of the assistance of this State to the great enterprise I have the honor to represent.

"During the early history of this Exposition, when doubt still lingered in the minds of many as to its advantages and possibilities, and while the dark clouds of financial embarrassment and the devastating effects of drouth still hung over the West, casting their gloom over all the new enterprises, and for the   time obscuring the sunlight of hope and prosperity, at this time, when many of our on citizens, discouraged and disheartened, ere ready to abandon this enterprise, when our nation as borrowing gold from Europe to protect its credit, and when the evil influences of inflation and speculation had destroyed, for the time, the financial reputation of the West, then it as that the legislature of the great State of Iowa, the first of all the Trans-Mississippi States to act, by joint resolution, asked the Congress of the United States to recognize this Exposition and make an appropriation for a Government building and an exhibit here. To this act of the General Assembly of Iowa, supplemented by the efficient work of your representatives in Congress, must be given the credit of having extended this Exposition a helping hand in the time of need.

"The Commission appointed to represent the State of Iowa here has done its work with credit to itself and the State. This magnificent building, with its broad verandas, artistic design and complete appointments, speaks louder than words, in praise of their worth. It will furnish a home for the weary, a meeting place for friends, and will return to the State a thousand fold the cost, in promoting the interests of the State and advertising the enterprise and hospitality of its people throughout the land. I commend its design, the completeness of its appointments, the wisdom of its conception, and for the management of this Exposition I accept and dedicate it to the purposes for which it as erected.

W. B. Allison, United States Senator

"We naturally expect from such a State eloquence like that of Cousins and Dolliver, statesmanship like that of Allison and Gear, philanthropy like that of Drake, leadership like that of the Clarksons and executive ability like that of Kirkwood, Boies and Shaw; and while in the history of the State of Iowa there are no Lincolns, Grants or Shermans, its history is replete with the names of many whose wisdom and statesmanship in times of peace and courage and leadership in times of war have rendered to the nation services invaluable. During the late rebellion, her soldiers ere distinguished for their bravery and endurance. These men were gathered from the farms of this then pioneer State, and they were endowed with the splendid physique and the intelligence and morality which pioneer life on the broad prairies of the West inspires. Their bravery in battle, their endurance and the ability of their leaders, as second to that of no other Northern State. And so we are not surprised when we read that among the gallant crew that went down with the battleship 'The Maine' the names of several men from Iowa are found; nor are we surprised that when from four thousand brave soldiers a crew as selected to man a ship that as to sail into the harbor of Santiago to face the fire of the Spanish guns and meet almost certain death, one of Iowa's sons as chosen.

 

"It might be said that a State with such magnificent resources, with such a history and with such a people, would have no need to advertise to the world at an Exposition of this character, but when we consider that with the same density of population as the State of Massachusetts, Iowa can provide homes for fifteen millions of inhabitants, and when we consider that but a small percentage of the manufactures consumed in the State are manufactured there, that with the increase of wealth and population a higher civilization than has ever been known in the world will come from the environments of citizenship under the advantages which already exist within this State, we can realize the importance and necessity of promoting and developing these resources to the fullest extent."

ADDRESS OF HON. JOHN N. BALDWIN

"As I wandered through the Exposition buildings and strolled over these grounds, I heard orators proclaiming from the exedra, the plaza and rostrums in State buildings the glories and triumphs of their respective States. One evening after a storm I stood on the bridge of the lagoon, but a few feet distant from the spot here, only a year ago, we laid the cornerstone of this great enterprise, and beholding this mighty monument to the skill, courage and enterprise of the men of Nebraska, I thought, what has Iowa, or what has Iowa done, to compare with this?

"I came Nebraska Day, and heard that distinguished citizen of the Republic, whose heart is love and tongue tipped with silver, eloquently present the record of the resources and progress of Nebraska. I came Illinois Day, and heard the representatives of that great commonwealth give their report of the work and worth of Illinois, concluding with the claim to the undisputed title to the possession of the third greatest commercial center of the world. I imagined that on New York Day, Bourke Cochran would so portray the history and glories of the great State of New York that we should all seem to hear the sybils chanting the springtime of the greatest empire on earth. Again I thought, What has Iowa, or what has Iowa done, to compare with all these?

"Reflecting on all that I had seen and heard and imagined, I venerated my office and would have despaired of my performance, had not the power of my subject made me bold in such a presence to plead my thoughts. It would be the drivel of idiocy, unbecoming a gentleman and unworthy of the State, should I on this occasion make any statement not based upon careful investigation, and not founded upon incontrovertible facts. I no and here assert, my heart beating with pride at the utterance, that, measured by the standard of religion, education, prosperity, patriotism, liberty or any great principle or idea that makes men better, nobler and happier, Iowa, in the Union of States, is the peer of all, superior to many and excelled by none.

"We dedicate today this beautiful building to the uses and purposes of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition. It is merely a type of the   habitations of our people at the present time. A few feet from here, and within your vision, stands a Wigwam, which has just been opened. It, too, is a type—a type. of the habitations of our people fifty-two years ago. You can not but recognize the significance of the change. The advancement, improvement and progress of the people of the State of Iowa in education, religion and material interests have been as striking as that in their habitations.

"This great State, with its wondrous destinies, is no in the hands of the younger and present generation. It belongs to us to protect, preserve and improve. we must take up the work here the pioneers were compelled to let it go. They placed high the standard. Let us never lower it. Let us look up and listen; look forward and move. Let our every action be prompted and performed in accordance with that design created by one of the greatest philosophers and poets:

"Build thee more stately mansions, Oh my soul,
As the sift seasons roll.
Leave thy low-vaulted past.
Let each new temple, nobler than the last,
Shut thee from heaven with a dome more vast,
Till thou at length art free,
Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's unresting sea.

"I propose this sentiment: The State of Iowa, with a people possessing affections deeper, even, than her soil; actuated by purposes broader, even, than is her prayer, and inspired by aims loftier than her hills, she stands today first in the Union of States in general contentment, in more evenly distributed wealth, and in universal prosperity."

DEDICATION OF THE WIGWAM

ADDRESS OF HON. VICTOR JENNINGS,

Mayor of Council Bluffs.

"Ladies and Gentlemen: We have met here today to dedicate to the uses of this great and grand Exposition this contribution from Pottawatamie County and the City of Council Bluffs. As the head of the municipal organization of that city, it becomes my duty, as it is my pleasure, to speak for her on this occasion.

"To those familiar with the beauties of Council Bluffs, who know of its enterprise and thrift, who are proud to claim a place in its citizenship, it is unnecessary for me to enter into details. To those, however, who simply know that there is a city called Council Bluffs, but who have not tested its hospitalities nor witnessed the unfolding of its many and varied industries, it affords me gratification to say that within gunshot of this spot, yet hidden almost completely by its 'eternal hills,' lies a city of thirty thousand intelligent, industrious, contented and happy people. It is the capital City of the largest county in the State—a county containing five hundred and eighty-two thousand one hundred   and fifty-six acres of the richest land on the face of the globe. It is second, if, indeed, it is not the first, city in the world in the magnitude of its agricultural implement trade. 'Implement Row' comprises blocks upon blocks of mammoth warehouses, into which the railroads from the East pour trainloads of implements daily, and out of which these same goods go daily by the dozen lines of railroads to almost every quarter-section of this great Trans-Mississippi territory. It is a city of schools and churches, and its educational and moral tone is second to no city of its size in the United States. It is a city of fair omen and brave men, as attested by the avidity with which its daughters are taken from the homes of their parents to homes of which they are the inspiration and the head, and the number of soldier boys it has contributed to Uncle Sam's armies.

"The city of Council Bluffs, anxious to contribute in a material way to the success of this Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, and because of its nearness feeling almost a proprietary interest in it, unanimously determined, almost at the inception of this great undertaking, the fruition of which we are witnessing today, to be fittingly represented here. This determination led to the purchase of stock of the Exposition, to the calling of public meetings, and the organization of an association whose duty it should be to see to it that Council Bluffs should be seen and known by all who came within these enchanted grounds during the period of the Exposition. It as a difficult task assigned to these men, but nobly have they discharged it.

"The Wigwam tells better than can words of mine the wonderful, the miraculous development of the Trans-Mississippi country. The footfall of the red man following his well-known trails has given place to the whir of the electric motor as it moves along the glistening lines of steel. The smoke of the 'wigwam' has faded away before the smoke of factory and forge. The silence of national peace has gone forever, succeeded by the never-ending hum of industry. The plains and valleys are no longer the waste places of the earth, if but have been made the garden spots and granaries of the world.

"To the purpose of the Exposition, this Wigwam is today dedicated. To the city which gives it in part, I cordially invite you. The trails are plainer than they were a half century ago, and the hearts of our people, like the doors of their 'wigwams,' are ever open to you. We want you to come and break bread with us, smoke with us the pipe of peace, rest body and mind in the prettiest parks between the to ranges of mountains, and going back over the years, find a new meaning in Longfellow's lines:

Very spacious as the wigwam,
Made of deerskin dressed and whitened,
With the gods of the Dakotas
Drawn and painted in its curtains."
 

SWEDISH-AMERICAN DAY—June 24, 1898

Swedish-American Day as one on which the visitors from the East were given an object lesson well worth their while in having taken the time from their busy avocations, and incurred the expense of the long journey to witness and study the evidences of development in the Trans-Mississippi territory. The emigrants from the "Land of the Midnight Sun" to this land of freedom and prosperity had not tarried in the East, but, following the instincts of their bright mental inheritance from their sturdy forefathers, had drifted into the West. The early days of their emigration were coincident with the commencement of the marvelous development of railway construction after the close of the civil war, in the Trans-Mississippi territory, and there they found lucrative employment at ages which, compared with ages in their on country, made them wealthy and independent, in their own estimation, at the outset. Acquiring, under such circumstances, the means they required, they forged on to the boundless agricultural regions which were then to be purchased for the pittance of the expense of filing and recording the necessary applications and evidences of title from the United States Government in the latitude and in the climate of their native land. Quietly and unostentatiously they had taken possession of certain districts, until they had become a agricultural recognized as entitled to full representation in their rights as American citizens, and withal adopted as among the most useful and aggressive factors in the development of this great land. It as fitting that a day should be set apart for this people in order that the world might see and know the possibilities in this land of the free.

The day as spent in enjoyment of the varied sight-seeing and amusement features of the Grand Court, the exhibits and the Midway. To the exercises of the day the evening as dedicated.

The festival of song, which as held in the Auditorium, as the principal feature of the exercises, and attracted one of the largest audiences which had occupied that structure since the opening of the Exposition. There as not a vacant seat on the lower floor, and very few remaining in the gallery, when the exercises commenced.

The front of the stage as prettily decorated with palms and other foliage plants, and these, with the bunting hung from the ceiling and about the front of the gallery, gave the interior of the great building a festival appearance in keeping with the character of the occasion. Flags in profusion were used in the decoration, "Old Glory" predominating, and the national colors of Sweden being on every side. At the front of the stage sat the speakers of the evening and the jubilee Committee which had arranged the great celebration, including the following Swedish-American citizens of Omaha: C. O. Lobeck, President; T. H. Johnson, Vice-President; T. G. Northall, Treasurer; John S. Helgren, Secretary; C. W. Johnson, C. W. Anderson and Albin Liljegren. Back of these, extending tier upon tier to the great organ rearing its lofty front at the back   of the stage, sat the Swedish Jubilee Chorus of to hundred and nine voices, made up of members of choirs from all the surrounding country. The body presented a pleasing appearance, with the omen in dresses of light colors in various shades, while the men all appeared in black.

The exercises were opened by President C. O. Lobeck, who presented President Wattles of the Exposition, who briefly said that he realized that the company had come to hear music, not speeches. He contented himself with bidding the people welcome to the white City and inviting them to come again and carefully inspect the many things which had been collected to educate the people of the world regarding the vast resources of the West.

President Lobeck then introduced the chairman of the evening, Rev. A. Lofgren, of Lincoln, Presiding Elder of the Swedish Methodist Church, who made a short address in Swedish, saying it as highly fitting that a day which had been so auspicious should be closed with a feast of song. He said that every good Swede rejoices in every success of American arms, and they also rejoice in every triumphal advance made by science and education. He characterized the Exposition as a great exemplification of the triumph of the good and pure in life, and complimented the management which had brought about such good results. The speaker also referred to the fortuitous circumstances which had resulted in bringing together the representatives of the various denominations in a grand celebration of a national feast day, and expressed the hope that this was only the beginning of a grand era of harmony, when all the natives of the old fatherland shall be united by a bond of unity and common interest.

The first choral number as the psalm CL, and the volume of sound which was called forth at the bid of the baton wielded by Professor Edgren fulfilled the anticipations of the audience. The chorus as well balanced, and the manner in which the selection as rendered spoke volumes for the capabilities of the singers and the vigorous training required to produce such unison of execution in the short time the many sections comprising the choir had been together.

The next number as a soprano solo by Miss Emma Moeller, of Omaha. She sang the recitative and aria, "with Verdure Clad," from Haydn's "Creation." She as enthusiastically applauded and presented with a large bunch of American Beauty roses, responding with an encore which as also vigorously applauded.

A male chorus, "Hear Us, Svea," as the next number, and then Rev. J. A. Hultman, formerly of Omaha, but no a resident of Chicago, as announced to sing a baritone solo. He as greeted with a perfect ovation, the applause being hearty and prolonged, continuing for several minutes, during which the singer acknowledged the arm welcome from his old friends by frequent bows. Quiet as finally restored, and he began his song. Time had only served to strengthen and improve the rich quality of a beautiful voice, and the breathless attention which prevailed during the singing as succeeded by a burst of applause which shook the house. For several minutes the applause continued, and only when it as seen that the singer as about to respond with another song did. the enthusiasm subside. "Jerusalem" as selected for the encore, and served to   bring out the beautiful qualities of the voice of the singing preacher in the most pleasing manner. Again he as applauded, but the audience as obliged to be satisfied with a bow.

Dr. A. Enander, editor of "Hemlandet," of Chicago, formerly editor of the "Swedish Journal," of Omaha, read a poem of his on composition, written especially for the occasion. It as quite lengthy, and dealt with patriotism and love for the adopted country as well as for the Fatherland. The beauties of both countries were extolled, and many

Rev. Carl Swensson, D. D.
beautiful ideas of a patriotic nature were expressed.

The Jubilee Chorus then sang "The Singers' March," by J. A. Dahlstrom, in a very catchy, marital Style, and as liberally applauded,

Rev. Carl Swensson, of Bethany College, at Linsborg, Kansas, one of the most prominent of Swedish-Americans, as the orator of the evening. He spoke for nearly two hours in Swedish, complimenting the people of this vicinity in the enterprise which had brought so many of them together on this occasion, and spoke glowingly of the land which had given them all birth. He referred somewhat in detail to the various portions of Sweden, and extolled the bravery of the men and the beauty and the home qualities of the omen. The discovery of America by Lief Erickson as referred to with pride by the speaker, and he recalled the fact that, in the war of the Rebellion, it as another native of Sweden, John Erickson, who invented the famous vessel which changed the tide of battle in favor of the Union. He declared that it as the duty of every loyal Swede to lend his assistance in the relief of the suffering in Cuba, and administered many words of advice and patriotism. He as frequently applauded, and at the conclusion of his address the applause as very emphatic and continued.

The program concluded with a Jubilee Cantata by Adolph Edgren, introducing solos, duets and mixed choruses. It as well rendered and loudly applauded.

MONTANA DAY—June 29, 1898

The location of the Montana building gave it prominence, being on the main avenue leading south from the esplanade, and near the entrance to the Bluff tract from Sherman avenue. The building was well arranged, and under the able supervision of Mr. W. H. Sutherlin, Exposition Vice-President for Montana. The Montana

R. B. Smith
  building and exhibit, both of which reflected great credit on the State, were made possible by the liberal donation of Mr. Marcus Daly, who pledged the delegation that visited Montana to promote the Exposition in the inter of 1897 a donation of fifteen thousand dollars; the legislature afterwards appropriated a like amount, and the exhibits from that State and the building erected by the Commission were placed in charge of Vice-President Sutherlin.

The exercises dedicating the building to the uses for which it had been erected were held at four o'clock p. m., and while simple, were impressive. The program consisted of a short address by Vice-President Sutherlin, several musical selections, and an address by President Gurdon W. Wattles, and as concluded by a luncheon served by the Montana Commission.

TURNERS' DAY AND MUSICAL CONGRESS DAY—June 30, 1898

For many weeks the Turners of Omaha and many other cities throughout the West had looked forward to this celebration and the drills for prizes that were to take place on the Exposition grounds with much interest. They gathered early and in large numbers. The principal drill as at six o'clock in the evening on the plaza. In this drill, about four hundred Turners participated. Other exercises were had, and withal the day proved a great success.

THE MUSICAL CONGRESS

The principal sessions of the Musical Congress were held in the First Congregational Church of Omaha, but the principal musical feature of the Congress as the oratorio of "Isaiah," written and rendered by American singers in the Auditorium building in the evening. Mr. Willard Patten, the composer, and his Minneapolis choral organization of 250 voices, came by special train for this rendition. The orchestral features were rendered by the entire Theodore Thomas Orchestra, and the following soloists participated: Mrs. Genevieve Clark Wilson, Chicago, soprano; Miss Katherine Fiske, New York, contralto; Mr. Frederich Carberry, Chicago, tenor; Mr. Charles Clarke, Chicago, baritone. The audience taxed the capacity of the large auditorium, and the enthusiasm as strong and spontaneous.

The interest in all the meetings of the Musical Congress as great, and the results were most satisfactory to all musicians. Mrs. Winona S. Sayer, of the Bureau of Education, speaking of the aims and purposes of the Bureau in arranging a musical congress in connection with the Exposition, said, among other things:

"With the first month of the Exposition as a prelude to a grand symphony, the beauty of the architecture and the arrangement of the buildings suggestive of the allegro movement, the labor of the patience and anxiety requisite to secure these results typical of the andante, the entertainment, amusement and pleasure intimating the scherzo movement, we prize this Congress coming at this time.   It stands out like a fugue subject, with strong, marked features of lofty inspiration and high ideals which, once introduced, will be again and again taken up and repeated successively in various keys and various harmonies throughout the Exposition."

TEXAS MELON DAY—July 1, 1898

The Texas Exposition Commission, supplementing their general exhibit at the Exposition, set apart this day to show to the world the beauty and demonstrate the good quality of their product of watermelons. Twelve hundred melons were provided for the feast, which occurred at 5 o'clock p. m. The distribution was made the occasion for brief ceremonies at the Horticultural building.

S. J. T. Johnson, Exposition Vice-President for Texas, and Superintendent Atwater, in charge of the Texas exhibits, made short addresses, which were responded to on behalf of the Exposition by General Manager T. S. Clarkson. This concluded the formalities of the occasion.

Long tables had been provided upon which to carve and serve the luscious fruit, and a force under the direction of Arthur Nelson, Superintendent of the Missouri horticultural exhibit, as kept busy until the last melon had vanished from sight. Some of the melons weighed nearly forty pounds, and it as estimated that ten thousand persons were served during the feast.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES

July 2, 1898

A large number of delegates en route to the meeting of the National Council of Congregational Churches, to be held at Portland, Oregon, stopped at Omaha to visit the Exposition, and the local society made their visit the occasion of a special gathering and demonstration at the Boys' and Girls' building on the Exposition grounds.

There were about one hundred and fifty prominent clergymen from eastern cities, besides many of their friends and laymen, and the auditorium of the Boys' and Girls' building as well filled when they gathered at four o'clock for the brief exercises and exchange of formalities.

Reverend S. Wright Butler presided, and by his many witticisms kept the audience in good humor. He introduced President Wattles, who extended a hearty welcome to the distinguished guests.

Ex-Governor Coffin, of Connecticut, responded briefly. A vote of thanks was then moved by Dr. Hazen to the people of Omaha, and to the Exposition management for the generous entertainment which had been accorded. Dr. Lamson, of Hartford, closed the speaking. The music of the day as rendered by Mrs. G. W. Johnson, Miss Kellogg and Mrs. A. G. Edwards, all of Omaha.

 

INDEPENDENCE DAY—July 4, 1898

An outline of the exercises of Independence Day as given an appropriate place in Chapter III, Part I, of this History. The oration of the day was as follows:

ORATION OF HON. JAMES M. BECK, OF PHILADELPHIA

"AS AN EAGLE STIRRETH UP HER NEST"

"My Fellow-Countrymen: From the city of the Declaration of Independence, where Henry spoke, Jefferson wrote, Franklin counseled, Adams debated, Morris administered and Washington unsheathed his sword, within whose walls is Germantown, and near to whose gates are Brandywine and Valley Forge, I bring you a fraternal greeting. Philadelphia felicitates Omaha. Pennsylvania salutes Nebraska and her sisters of the Great West. They congratulate you on this imposing pageant of art and industry, representing the resources of a section over which, when the great Declaration as given to the world, the banner of Spain floated in triumph. Its marvelous growth under free institutions is a vindication, beyond the agricultural of mere words, of those sublime truths to which our fathers gave undying expression one hundred and tenty-two years ago today.

"In the contrasts of history can be often seen the divine purpose, which runs through the ages. When La Salle, in 1682, traversed the Mississippi, and, standing at its mouth, claimed the vast territory which it drained for his royal master and named it in his honor, 'Louisiana,' the grand monarque as even then

James M. Beck
constructing in the insolence of his unbridled power, and on a scale of imperial magnificence, the palace of Versailles. Its splashing fountains, endless chambers of crystal, flowery parterres and gorgeous frescoes proclaimed the power of the so-called 'Sun King,' whose 'l'Etat c'est Moi' was the extreme of regal despotism. Later, this Trans-Mississippi region, after languishing beneath the yoke of the Spanish Bourbons, became part of Napoleon's dream of universal empire. It is an inspiring reflection that the hand which drafted the Declaration of Independence rescued this vast empire from the iron grasp of the modern Caesar and dedicated it to free institutions forevermore. Vanished is the power of the 'Sun King,' Spanish Bourbons and the granite-souled Emperor. The tyranny which created that wonderful apotheosis of personal absolutism, the palace of Versailles, has been sept away by the dynamic force of democratic ideas, and today in this region, once believed to be a desert, but no the home of tenty-two millions of freemen, the people have erected these splendid palaces. of triumphal democracy.

 

"We can reverently thank the Ruler of Nations, by whose ordinance the Republic came into being and to serve whose wise purposes it continues to exist, that upon no preceding anniversary has our country exercised so wide an influence among the nations of the earth, nor used it for any loftier or nobler purpose. The Republic is in arms today not because it loves peace less, but because it loves justice more. Never did nation make war with a less selfish. purpose. The American people, until patience had ceased to be a virtue, sympathized with their noble President in the wish that this cup of bitterness might be spared our lips. No lust of military glory or territorial aggrandizement inspired our nation. We had been slow to believe the oft-repeated stories of medieval barbarities in Cuba, and our traditional policy as opposed to intervention in the domestic affairs of another power. A certain spirit of noblesse oblige restrained us from striking a weaker foe, even in a just cause. It as not until a daughter of Nebraska had died in Cuban waters, and her husband, its honored Senator, had, in a speech of great eloquence and yet greater pathos, given us 'the true and sensible avouch of his on eyes,' that our pacific purposes gave place to the passionate indignation of freemen, that the spirit of the crusader sept through our veins, and the cry, 'God wills it,' as heard on every hand. We then took a high resolve in the spirit of our fathers, that our blood should be as dust and our treasure as water to stop this barbarity forever. We have thus disproved the libel against the American character, that our aims are purely material, and that our unequaled growth in wealth has choked the finer sensibilities of the soul. Let those who heard unheeded the moan of the Cretan and the death rattle of the Armenian, and yet taunted us with the blind worship of wealth, forever hold their peace! we have vindicated the rights of humanity and shown that there is one nation whose conscience is not dead, and of whom it can not be truly said that the 'age of chiva1ry' is gone and one of the calculators and economists has succeeded. We are moved by his spirit who, a generation ago, believed that the elemental demands of justice rose higher than mere form, precedent or convention. Though dead, John Brown yet speaketh, and 'his soul is marching on.' The old bell which more than a century ago rang out our freedom, though mute to the ear of flesh, is still grandly proclaiming, even to the islands of the sea, 'liberty throughout all the land and unto all the inhabitants thereof.

"As we meet this morning, we can give especial thanks for the sift and triumphant vindication of our cause. With the proud fleet of Cervera annihilated and Santiago doomed, the vulture of Spanish oppression lies prostrate under the talons of the eagle. Again the great Declaration, whose basic principle is the political equality of the individual, has been justified in the splendid manhood and invincible bravery of our soldiers and sailors. With fear and trembling many awaited the dawn of this day, lest our brave sons at Santiago, facing a hidden and powerful foe under conditions of unparalleled difficulty, should be betrayed into disaster by their very confidence. But fear is past, and only the songs of triumph are no heard throughout the land, The citizen soldiery   of the Republic, at whose martial prowess supercilious foreign critics sneered, have again given immortal proof to the world that 'our flag is still there.'

"Our rejoicing, however, may well be tempered today by the appreciation of the tremendous responsibilities which, by no wish or purpose of ours, are suddenly devolved upon us. Dewey's genius and valor, not unworthy of a land which gave Paul Jones, Greble, Bainbridge, Decatur, Porter and Farragut to history, have blazed the path to victory, and have confronted the American people with a responsibility more momentous and pregnant with future consequences than has ever weighed upon our nation on any natal anniversary since the Civil War. That involved our existence: this may define our position and relations to the rest of the world. To give back the conquered territory to Spain may be to subject a weak and helpless people to its vindictive revenge; to give A these various possessions in to hemispheres to their on people may be to make them the prey for the powers of Europe, whose selfish greed for territory is no finding expression in China; for us to surrender these conquered islands to any other nation is to incur the enmity of the rest, and perhaps involve civilization in a war which might rap the world in its devouring flame; and yet, to annex them permanently to the Republic is to cross a greater Rubicon than that at whose brink even Caesar halted, and with consequences scarcely less momentous. Jefferson's words to James Monroe, which inspired the Monroe Doctrine, may well be recalled as applicable to the present crisis in our national life. 'The question,' he said, 'is the most momentous which has ever been offered to my contemplation since that of independence; that made us a nation, this sets our compass and points the course which we are to steer through the ocean of time opening on us.'

"Is the Western hemisphere large enough for the influence and progress of the American people, or must we surrender, commercially and politically, our policy of isolation and claim an influence which shall be as limitless as the world is round? The Atlantic coast as our cradle; lusty youth found us on the banks we of the Mississippi; vigorous maturity has brought us to the Pacific. What of that momentous morrow, the twentieth century? Are we, like Alexander, to stop at the margin of the sea and mourn that it forever bars our further progress, or are we, like the inspired pilot of Genoa, to launch the bark of our national destiny into an unknown sea in search of new and untried routes to national prosperity?

"Well may we, my fellow-countrymen, in this great crisis of our national life, remember the beginning of the Republic and the teachings of our fathers. Such remembrance is not merely a grateful tribute to the dead, but will help us discharge our duty to the unborn. Let us, then, in the spirit of the great lawgiver and leader of an oppressed people:

"'Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations.'

"'As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, beareth them on her wings.

"'So the Lord alone did lead him, and there as no strange god with him.'

 

"This very striking metaphor of Moses suggests a great truth in connection with our development as a nation, that it has never been permitted to remain long within the nest of any traditional policy. There is a natural conservatism in the Anglo-Saxon race, and a distrust and dread of innovation. It has ever been slow to leave the beaten paths of the fathers. Nor need this be deprecated, for it insures a reasonable continuity of policy. Every great step forward has been due, not to the leadership of our great men, nor to any conscious and deliberate purpose of the people, but holly to a divine guidance which, working through the force of unforeseen circumstances and a certain unconscious intuitive impulse of the masses, has destroyed the nest of tradition and thrust us as young eagles into the void. The great actors of the revolutionary epoch had their traditions, and an ancestry in which they gloried, and yet, were forced by the logic of events to disregard them both. Their traditional policy as loyalty to the king, hatred of France, with whom they had contested for the possession of North America, pride in the English Empire, and disinclination towards any union between themselves. When the Revolution broke out, nothing was further from their purpose than separation from England, Said John Adams: 'There was not a moment during the Revolution when I would not

Machinery and Electricity Building
have given everything I possessed for a restoration to the state of things before the contest" began, provided we could have had a sufficient security for its continuance.' Dr. Franklin, the most trusted, sagacious and farseeing statesman of his generation, said before the battle of Lexington that he had not heard the 'least expression of a wish for separation, or a hint that such a thing would be advantageous to America.' Mr. Jay said: 'During the course of my life, and until the second petition of Congress in 1775, I never had heard an American of any. class or of any description express a wish for the independence of the Colonies} The author of the Declaration of Independence said: 'It has always been, and still is, my opinion and belief that our country as prompted and impelled to independence by necessity, not by choice. I never heard a whisper, before the commencement of hostilities, of a disposition to separate from Great Britain} Washington, in 1774, denounced as 'malevolent falsehoods' the assertions that 'there is any intention in the American Colonies to set up for independent States} In 1776, he rote: 'when I took command of the army I abhorred the idea of independence; no I am convinced nothing else will save us.'

"'Building better than we knew as all master builders of a nation—our fathers were led, by impulses which they could not appreciate or understand, to   disregard every tradition which they held dear, to renounce allegiance to the King, separate from the great English Empire, make formal alliance with their hated enemy, France, and create a union of which each had been but too jealous.

"The Constitution of the United States as not the deliberate wish of the people, but as created by their necessities; it met no one's entire approval, as only adopted after bitter debates of four months' duration, and as the result of a compromise begotten by the stern and pressing necessities of the situation. Only a choice between chaos and a constitution induced the jarring, discordant and jealous States to surrender any portion of their sovereignty, and yet this Constitution in its present form, the child of no brain and the creation of no wish, is the admiration of the world, and has been pronounced by the noblest and most scholarly statesman of our time, whose death we even no mourn, to have been the most perfect ever struck off by the brain and purpose of man at a given time.

"Nor has this truth been less marked in our on time and generation. The Emancipation Proclamation clearly violated the traditional policy of our country, which recognized the existence of slavery. Jefferson's stern denunciation of the slave trade, which he had inserted in the first draft of the great Declaration, was stricken out by Congress, and the Constitution itself distinctly recognized the existence of this baleful domestic institution. Its destruction was not due to the conscious and deliberate purpose of any statesman. Lincoln, at the beginning of his administration, distinctly disclaimed any purpose to interfere with it, and it was not until the blood, which had been shed from Bull Run to Antietam, cried as from the ground, that again the nest of tradition as destroyed and the eagle essayed a new and nobler flight. No one recognized this more clearly than did the great war President, and in his second inaugural he plainly voiced his belief that not only the removal of slavery but the Civil war itself had come by no human wisdom, but by a divine judgment.

"The same momentous fact is true today., Once again the nation feels a mysterious and puissant impulse. It has ever been the traditional policy of the Republic not to interfere in the domestic affairs of a friendly power, and the Monroe Doctrine distinctly disclaimed any intention to interfere with existing colonial dependencies in America of European powers; but as Lexington inflamed a continent and created a new nation, as Fort Sumter rudely shattered our dream of peace and compelled us to remove by the sword the running sore of slavery, the explosion of the Maine and the cruelties to the Cuban people have compelled us to discard our traditional and valued policy of non-interference, and directly interfere with the domestic affairs of another nation.

We need not regret the transitory influence of the past. Blind adherence to tradition is not the highest patriotism, but is a form of intellectual slavery not worthy of a free and progressive people. An assumption that the teaching of our fathers expressed th we finality of political wisdom is contradicted by the uniform "experience of mankind. I yield to no one in my reverential respect for the founders of this Republic. No Government has had greater men, and history can be searched in vain for any loftier lives or wiser minds than Washington and   Franklin, Jefferson and Hamilton, Madison and Monroe. The eloquent judgment of the elder Chatham has received the considerate approval of mankind, when, speaking of the first Continental Congress, he said, 'I must declare and avow that in all my reading and study—and I have read Thucydides and have studied and admired the master States of the world—that for solidity of reason, force of sagacity, and wisdom of conclusion, under such a complication of circumstances. no nation or body of men can stand in preference to the General Congress at Philadelphia.' Nevertheless, the Almighty never intended that wisdom should die either with one man, one generation, one race, one century, or one epoch. Least of any people should America doubt the 'increasing purpose' of the ages and the widening of thought 'with the process of the suns.'

"Because our fathers thought that the stage coach as adequate to their needs, shall we abandon the locomotive? The old wooden battleships, such as the 'Bon Homme Richard' and the 'Constitution,' on imperishable laurels for the American navy, but shall we therefore place these obsolete sailing vessels in conflict with modern steel battleships? Because the Continentals defended Bunker Hill and achieved the crowning triumph of Yorktown with flint-lock muskets, shall we discard the repeating rifle? If Franklin impressed his personality upon the world with a hand-press, shall we less avail ourselves of those throbbing engines which make possible the modern newspaper? Our fathers recognized that wise nations, as wise individuals, change their minds when occasion justifies, but fools never. Let us not ascribe to them an infallibility which they do not claim for themselves. Democracy acknowledges no living sovereign, much less those who are said to 'rule us from their urns.' The decadence of Spain, which has cost her the empire of the world, and no brought her to the verge of final ruin, is due to her 'inordinate tenacity of old opinions, old beliefs, and old habits, which Buckle finds to be her predominant national characteristic. He adds: 'By encouraging the notion that all the truths most important to know are already known, they repress those aspirations and dull that generous confidence in the future without which nothing really great can be achieved. A people who regard the past with too wistful an eye will never bestir themselves to help the onward progress. To them antiquity is wisdom, and every improvement is a dangerous innovation} The nation which has most consistently and continuously followed the worship of ancestry is China, and as a result it is today the helpless prey of other powers, although in number and resources it is potentially the most powerful on the earth.

We must not as a people permit the past to fetter the present. That way retrogression lies, and our duty as a nation is to be determined by present, not by past, conditions. We can not even stand still. We must move onward. From civilization we derive inestimable rights, to her we owe immeasurable duties, and to shirk these is cowardice and moral death. No nation can live to itself, even if it would. The economic developments of the nineteenth century have produced a solidarity of humanity, which no racial prejudice or international hatred can destroy. Each nation is its brother's keeper, and the greater the power, the   greater the responsibility. If this be so, no nation owes a greater duty to civilization to be potential in the councils of the world than the United States. For it to skulk and shirk behind the selfish policy of isolation and to abdicate a destined world supremacy, would be the colossal crime of history. God has given us the power—woe be unto us if we do not use it! The stern but just law, which has governed the nations in all history, is that he alone shall have, who uses. Its ethical sanction is found in that parable of the talents, in which the Great Teacher laid down the moral law that no man or nation has an indefeasible title to property, that all is holden of God, and tenure depends upon rightful use. From Spain, as from an unprofitable and slothful servant, are about to be taken colonies which she has failed to develop in harmony with modern progress. Let our people, instead of questioning the law, remember that we too shall perish when we cease to develop the talents committed to our charge. Of every rotten tree the eternal inquiry of the Great Woodman is heard, 'Why cumbereth it the ground?'

"In discussing any question, therefore, which may result from the present war with Spain, let us not give undue or conclusive value to the opinions of the past. The conditions under which we must act are essentially different from those which existed in our father's time, and the Poet of Democracy said nothing more worthy of remembrance by us as a people than that—

"New occasions teach new duties; time makes ancient good uncouth;
They must upward still, and onward, who would keep abreast of truth.

"Steam and electricity have destroyed our 'distant and detached position,' of which Washington spoke in the immortal Farewell Address, and upon which he predicated in the infancy of the Republic a policy of isolation. Then we were the weakest power in the world; today we are the strongest. Then we were three millions in number, scattered over three hundred thousand square miles of territory; today we are seventy-five millions of people, inhabiting a continent from ocean to ocean, fronting the Orient and the Occident and possessed of resources which are inexhaustible. Then we were almost exclusively an agricultural country; today we are the greatest agricultural, mining, and manufacturing nation of the globe, and second only to England in commercial prestige. Then it required five weeks to visit or communicate with Europe, and the Atlantic Ocean seemed a natural barrier; today we can Hash a message around the world in a few hours, and can learn of its affairs almost as they occur. The citizens of New York can today reach London with more facility than the first President could leave Mount Vernon and proceed to Philadelphia. when, therefore, Washington, at a time when the great European powers had been thrown by the French Revolution into a state of chaos, advised the infant Republic, newest among nations and weakest in credit, numbers and resources, to avoid any interference in the affairs of the greater world beyond the seas, lest as a lamb it should be devoured by a pack of wolves, he counseled, as he always did, with wisdom unimpeachable; but those who would forever keep the Republic in her   swaddling clothes, and who for this purpose invoke the great name of Washington, should first convince us that if he were the President of the most powerful nation in the world he would advise it to yield precedence to lesser and weaker powers. Would he not feel that this Colossus among nations should not lisp in the language of its infancy, but should say with St. Paul, 'When as a child I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man I put away childish things.'

"Our nation is today feeling that instinct of expansion which is the predominant characteristic of the Anglo-Saxon race. It is bred in our bone and courses with our lifeblood, and the statesmen of our day must take it into account and endeavor to control it wisely. There is with us, as with our great mother empire, a national instinct for territorial growth, 'so powerful and accurate, that statesmen of every school, willing or unwilling, have found themselves carried along by a tendency which no individuality can resist or greatly modify.' We could as hopefully bid the Mississippi cease its flow towards the sea, or the Missouri remain chained within its rocky sources, as to prevent the onward movement of this great, proud, generous, and aggressive people. This as true of the day of our weakness, it is true in this the day of our strength.

"The first effort of the newly recognized Republic as to acquire territory. when at the close of the Revolution, our Peace Commissioners met in Paris, the problem arose as to the true boundaries of the new nation. We had solemnly covenanted with France that we should not sign any treaty of peace with England unless our ally concurred. France insisted that the vast area between the rivers which flowed into the Atlantic and the Mississippi as Spanish territory. Our Commissioners felt that our national destiny justified a claim to the east bank of the Mississippi, and they so far 'stooped to conquer' as to secretly execute, without the knowledge or concurrence of France, a treaty with England which gave us the territory to the Father of waters. Congress at first was disposed to condemn this act of the Commission and disclaim the territory beyond the Alleghenies, which were felt by many to be the boundaries which nature had set to the advance of the Republic. The most radical agreed that the Mississippi as our true boundary, and yet the commercial necessity of its free navigation caused our fathers, a few years later, to reverse this narrow conception of their national destiny, and constrained as sincere and lofty a statesman as I Jefferson to sacrifice his cherished theories as to the constitutional powers of the Federal Government by purchasing on his on responsibility, and without the authority of either the Constitution or of Congress, this great empire between the Mississippi and the Pacific. A great party vainly opposed the purchase of this region, and in so doing, destroyed only itself. Speaking in one of its thirty great opulent cities, at an Exposition which represents the resources of twenty-two million of freemen, let me quote the words of Senator white spoken on the floor of the Senate in 1803. He said: 'But as to Louisiana, this new, immense, unbounded world, if it should ever be incorporated into this Union, which I have no idea can be done but by altering the Constitution, I believe it will be the   greatest curse that could at present befall us. It may be productive of innumerable evils, and especially one that I even fear to look upon.' And then he added, 'Gentlemen on all sides, with very few exceptions, agree that the settlement of this country will be highly injurious and dangerous to the United States. * * * We have already territory enough, and when I contemplate the evils that may arise to these States from this incorporation of Louisiana into the Union, I would rather see it given to France, to Spain, or to any other nation of the earth, upon the mere condition that no citizen of the United States should ever settle within its limits, than to see the territory sold for one hundred million dollars, and we retain the sovereignty.'

"The opposition to the acquisition of Louisiana as repeated in the matter of disputed territory of Oregon, which an influential Senator said as 'not worth a pinch of snuff,' and but for Whitman's perilous journey across the continent, would have been forever lost to the Union; but the impulse of our people towards expansion triumphed in the matter of Louisiana and Oregon, as also in that of Texas, California and Alaska, and today our territorial possessions stretch so far into the Pacific, that the sun which casts its last rays upon the farthest Aleutian Island is already illuminating the rocky coast of Maine. San Francisco, once our Western limit,

Fine Arts Building
is now but midway between our eastern and Western possessions, and the shores of Puget Sound, originally our most northern frontier, are no more than a thousand miles south of that final shore, which stretches toward the Pole and into the Arctic Ocean.

"I would not be understood as arguing in favor of the annexation of any of the islands, of which we have taken possession for the purposes of the war, or indeed of any policy of indiscriminate territorial acquisition. These are questions about which men of equal intelligence and patriotism may reasonably differ, and both the limitations and the proprieties of the occasion forbid their discussion. have been protesting, however, against the tyranny of tradition, intellectual slavery, which compels obedience to past ideals, and the assumption that there should be any policy which forbids the further expansion of the Republic.

"Let us equally beware of the fatal error of empires and republics, that a nation is necessarily great in proportion to its area and population. To no principle of public policy has history given a more uniform and emphatic contradiction. As Mr. Lowell has beautifully said, 'The greatness of a nation is weighed in scales more delicate than the balance of trade. On the maps you can cover Athens with a pin point and Judea with a finger tip, and yet in those   magnificent places impulses have been given which have not ceased to direct civilization.' If mere numbers and area determine greatness, China would be the greatest nation in the world, and yet greater than all Cathay as that little capital of Attica, Athens, which has flamed as a torch of culture over the ages, and lives in memory as the 'city of the violet crown.' Expansion is not necessarily strength, but may involve weakness, and we should not add to our already onerous responsibilities, without undoubted compensatory advantages, or unless our duty to humanity clearly requires us to take weaker nations under our fostering influence.

"There is one tradition of our fathers, which we can not too strictly respect, and whose value time can not 'wither nor custom stale.' It is the spirit of justice, to which, by that instrument whose adoption we celebrate today, our country is solemnly dedicated forevermore. The richest country in the world, though it were paved with gold, were dear enough, if purchased at the price of this ideal. In achieving its high destiny, the Republic must therefore respect the noble and cosmopolitan spirit in which it as formed. To appreciate it we must comprehend the meaning and purpose of the declaration. It is commonly believed that it is noteworthy in our annals, because by that instrument, and on the day on which it as proclaimed, our country severed its relations with Great Britain. This is a mistake. The formal act of severance from Great Britain did not occur on the Fourth of July, nor by the Declaration. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, at the instance of Virginia, introduced his three famous resolutions, the first of which as, 'That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British agricultural, and that the political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally absolved.' They were debated with great earnestness on the eighth and tenth of June, by which time it became clear a majority of the colonies as prepared to adopt them, but for the sake of greater unanimity, the consideration of the question as postponed until July 1st, and the committee, composed of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. Livingston, as appointed to prepare a formal declaration to the world. On the first day of July, Congress, sitting as a committee of the hole, resumed consideration of the question and it as passed by the committee. On the following day, July 2, 1776, Rodney, having 'come post from the Delaware Counties,' and Pennsylvania having changed her vote, the House unanimously adopted the original resolution. If, therefore, the commencement of the Republic is to date from the formal resolution of severance, rather than from the real severance, which commenced with the first Continental Congress, then on July 2, 1776, the United States began their separate and independent existence. This as clearly the belief of those who participated in the proceedings, and as expressed by John Adams in his memorable letter of July 3, 1776, to his wife, when he said, 'But the day is past. The second day of July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary   festival. It ought to be commemorated, as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. * * * You may think me transported with enthusiasm, but I am not; I am well aware of the toil and blood and treasure that it will cost us to maintain this declaration and support and defend these States. yet through all the gloom I can see the rays of light and glory.'

"What, then, as the purpose of the great Declaration, and what has given it not only undying significance for all future time, but especial value for us today? It as this: Our fathers appreciated that their act as essentially revolutionary, that it had no sanction in any code of municipal or international law, and that its only justification must be found in that higher law of the human conscience by which in the last analysis all political acts must be judged. They therefore felt that their action required formal justification, and it as for the purpose of satisfying the conscience of mankind as to the justice of an act essentially revolutionary that the Declaration of Independence as adopted on July 4, 1776. It as not, therefore, intended for the colonists. For them a recital of their grievances as superfluous, for the wrongs done them were ineffaceably seared into their memories. Nor as the Declaration an appeal to public sentiment in England, for their 'humble petition' of 1776 had been contemptuously spurned both by the King and his subservient Parliament.

"Our fathers felt that further discussion with England as useless. Its purpose as, therefore, solemnly to challenge the justice of the world to the necessity of the separation. This is clearly shown by its noble preamble: 'When, in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another * * * a decent respect to the opinion of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.' This paper, therefore, assumes—vainly as it then seemed, in an age in which might as supposed to make. right—that there as a law of right and wrong, which, rising higher than las, precedence, or conventions, regulated the intercourse of nations as individuals. It believed in moral responsibility, for nations as for men, and it evolved a belief in a great human conscience, which, towering above the selfish interest of nations and races, would approve the right and condemn the wrong. It assumed that this approval as more to be desired than nation advantage. It established civilization as a judge between contending nations, with posterity as a court of last resort. It proclaimed the solidarity of humanity, and placed it higher than the tie of nationality. It argued—not with the ethics of a rifle or the morality of the cannon only, but with the power of the untrammeled reason-the righteousness of the separation at the bar of history. It a satisfied the reason of man by adding 'In proof of this let facts be submitted to a candid world.' Nay, it recognized that even above the conscience of mankind, there as the 'Ruler of Nations,' by whom all acts would be finally and infallibly judged, and therefore the great Declaration concluded by solemnly 'appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions.'

"Such as the spirit, such the purpose, such the crowning glory of the noblest State paper ever drafted by the hand of man or proclaimed by any people.   It proclaimed a new principle in the history of human affairs, that not by armies and navies alone, nor by the power of economic resources, but by the standards of eternal justice, should a nation in the fear of God determine its action. In like spirit as the parting precept of the Father of his Country, 'the counsel of an old and affectionate friend,' voiced in that immortal farewell message, which as his benediction to the people whom he loved so well:

"'Observe good faith and justice towards all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be that good policy does not equally enjoin it? It will be worth·y of a free, enlightened, and at no distant period a great nation to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence.'"

"With this spirit we need not fear to face the future. No problem to confront us will prove too great for our solution, and no work too great for our achievement. Faintly to grasp the future of this country is to bewilder and exhaust the imagination. That past is but the 'happy prologue to the selling act of an imperial theme.' Today as never before we face the world as a united country. If wounds there have been, they are healed; if cause for quarrel, it has gone. East and West, from the Father of waters, north and south of Mason and Dixon's line, we are one today, my fellow men; one in the proud possession of the glorious past, one in a resolute purpose to meet the duties of the hour, and one in an abiding faith in the future of our beloved country. Never before did her flag float as a symbol of possession over so vast a dominion. Not only from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, but in those islands of the sea here the Caribbean breaks, and in that farther archipelago, laved by the China Sea, the Star-Spangled Banner floats today in proudest triumph. Our boast is that of the mother empire, of whose teeming womb we are born, that night no longer falls upon our possessions, for when these joyous festivities shall have ended and day shall fade from yonder lagoon, and when the moon shall silver with its mellow glory these noble temples of art and industry, the sun will be flooding the harbor of Manila, and illuminating that glorious flag under which Dewey and his heroes defended this country's honor. For one land, one people, one flag, and one destiny, let us reverently thank the God of our Fathers. May the glory of the Republic be as lasting as the day which shines upon her flag, and her beneficent influence upon future generations as ceaseless as the majestic flow of the Mississippi to the sea!"

A MASSACHUSETTS DAY—July 11, 1898

The Legislature of the State of Massachusetts having provided for a formal representation at the Exposition, the State officials selected this day for their visit. At the head of the delegation as Lieut-Gov. Murray Crane and staff. Besides the Governor, most of the State officers and numerous members of the Assembly were present. The exercises were held in the Auditorium at eleven   o'clock a. m. Governor Holcomb and staff and State Adjutant-General Barry, Chancellor George E. McLean of the University of Nebraska, Manager Edward Rosewater, and other Nebraskans assisted in the entertainment of the distinguished guests. Mrs. Clement Chase, Chairman of the Bureau of Entertainment, and other members of that Bureau were present. After music, Governor Hale as introduced and heartily welcomed the visitors from the old Bay State.

Lieut. Gov. W. Murray Crane responded in a brief but appropriate address. President Gurdon W. Wattles delivered an address of welcome in which he referred to the fact that at one time the boundaries of Massachusetts extended westward to the Western line of the dominion of the nation, and said that although these boundaries no longer reached to eastern bounds of our State, yet the influence of the New England stock from which many of the residents of the West descended, and the ties of consanguinity which bound the West to the East made the representatives of Massachusetts as welcome as though we were a part of the old Bay State itself.

Hon. George we. Smith, President of the Senate of Massachusetts, delivered a most polished address, after which Mrs. G. W. Johnston sang in a most pleasing manner and as warmly applauded.

Hon. John L. Bates, Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Massachusetts Legislature, as the next speaker. He said that the delegates from Massachusetts brought the hearty good-will of the people of that State and congratulations on the great Exposition and on the boundless possibilities of the great country represented by that enterprise.

Chancellor George E. McLean, of the Nebraska University, then delivered an address, after which more music as rendered, and the meeting as adjourned to luncheon served in the Markel Café. At this luncheon eloquent toasts were responded to by H. Alexander and W. G. Whitmore, natives of Massachusetts residing in Nebraska.

On Tuesday evening, January 12, the Massachusetts delegation as tendered a reception by President Wattles and Mrs. Wattles at their home on Thirty-seventh street. The wide porch and grounds about their residence were A decorated and illuminated for the occasion. Many of the prominent society people of Omaha met the Massachusetts visitors, and the function as pronounced one of the most elaborate and successful of any of the many private receptions given during the entire Exposition.

CHILDREN'S DAY—July 14, 1898

Children celebrated the dedication of the Boys' and Girls' building. Early in the construction period of the Exposition, the school children of Nebraska and Iowa decided to raise by small donations the money for a Boys' and Girls' building, to be erected on the Exposition grounds. This building as located in the northeast corner of the Grand Court, and though not as large as the other buildings on this court, it as well adapted for the uses for which it as   erected, the entertainment of the children. The building as a source of great interest to the thousands of school children who had contributed their dimes toward its cost, and as the admission on this dedication day had been reduced to fifteen cents for children, great throngs of little folks were gathered early to participate in the celebration and vie the sights of the Exposition. The exercises in the building were simple, consisting of a few short speeches and some music, closing with the singing of the Star Spangled Banner, after which all formalities were laid aside and the little ones enjoyed themselves in all parts of the Exposition grounds. The day closed with the usual concert in the evening, which as largely attended.

MILITARY DAY—July 16, 1898

The Third Regiment of Nebraska had been recruited by Colonel Wm. J. Bryan and were about to leave the State for service in the Cuban war. They were in camp at old Fort Omaha and had accepted the invitation of the Exposition officials to attend the Exposition in a body before leaving the State. Great preparations for their comfort had been made by the Woman's Bureau of Entertainment and many assistants had volunteered to serve in distributing the refreshments to the fifteen hundred soldiers who were expected to participate in the demonstration. At ten o'clock a. m., the regiment entered the Exposition grounds at the north gate and were received by General Manager Clarkson, with the Pawnee City Band, and marched down the West Midway over the north viaduct into the Grand Plaza and from there to the Nebraska building, and then countermarched back to the Plaza and over the viaduct to the Grand Court.

Governor Holcomb and staff on horseback, with Colonel Bryan and his aides, preceded the marching troopers, and their bright uniforms contrasting with the beautiful white of the buildings made a scene long to be remembered by those who witnessed it. Many fathers and mothers, brothers and sisters, wives and sweethearts of these volunteers were gathered on the grounds to see and perhaps embrace their loved ones for the last time. Many bands of music and waving flags lent enchantment to the scene. At eleven o'clock the troopers gathered in the Auditorium, and with their friends and visitors completely filled the great building. The public was excluded until the soldiers were seated, and there as not sufficient room for all who sought admittance.

On the stage were seated Governor Holcomb of Nebraska, Governor Leedy of Kansas, Colonel William Bryan, General Barry, Adjutant-General of Nebraska, General. Manager T. H. Clarkson, President Wattles and numerous other Exposition officials. After several selections by the Pawnee City Band, President Wattles introduced General Manager Clarkson, who delivered an address of welcome to the soldiers. He bade them godspeed in the performance of their patriotic duties. He paid eloquent tribute to the men who risked their lives for their country's honor. His address was often interrupted by cheers and at its close the Third Regiment Band increased the enthusiasm by playing "The Battle Cry of Freedom."

 

Governor J. W. Leedy, of Kansas, then spoke briefly, after which there was more music and then Hon. G. M. Hitchcock was introduced and presented the regiment with a set of silk guidons, two for each of the three battalions. These were received by Colonel Bryan, who expressed feelingly the thanks of his regiment for this and other manifestations of good-will which had been showered upon them on every hand. At the close of his address there as more music by the band, after which, Governor Holcomb as introduced and delivered the formal farewell of the State to its volunteers. His address brought tears to many eyes as he assured the boys that after they had gone to the front they would be remembered and honored and their achievements would be the pride of the great commonwealth. At the close of Governor Holcomb's address, it was announced that the Woman's Bureau of Entertainment would serve dinner to the soldiers in their seats in the Auditorium; The women who had volunteered to perform this task and had secured the food for the feast were assigned as follows:

Third Regiment Band—Mrs. Charles Shiverick, assisted by Mrs. J. W. Baum, Mrs. John Wilbur, the Misses Adeline Nash. Edna Coin, Anna Crary, Ethel Morse, Anna Shiverick, and Miss Outcalt, of Lincoln.

Pawnee City Band—Committee of the Women's Relief Corps, Mrs. Sarah A. Potter, Chairman; Mesdames George B. Eddy, John Jeffcoat,'Allen Koch, W. R. Martin, Remington, Omar Whitney, George Rhodes, McCoy, Hough, Deacon Hull, Askith, Sheelar, Bugh, all of Omaha Corps, and Mesdames Ogg, Eastman, Ingersoll, Williams, Fenner and Towl, of South Omaha.

Company A—Mrs. J. M. Metcalf, assisted by Mesdames C. D. Sinclair, J. N. Cornish and J. H. Hertsche, and the Misses Anna V. Metcalf and Lucy Sinclair.

Company B—Mrs. George we. Barker, Mrs. C. We. Squires, Mrs. A. H. Noyes, the Misses Amy Barker, Mary Barker, Louise Squires.

Company C—Mesdames H. T. Clarke, W. F. Allen, Frank Colpetzer, Harry Wilkins, the Misses Gertrude Clarke, Grace Allen, Mabel Taylor, Freda Ranger, Louise Turkey.

Company D—Mrs. J. W. Summers, Jr., Mrs. George Hoagland, the Misses Cora Carney, Belle Beatty, Laura Beatty, Helen Hoagland, May Meighen, Bessie Yates, Caroline Johnson.

Company E—Sanitary Aid Society, Mrs. George B. Eddy, Vice-President; Mesdames Fred Nichols, R. C. Moore, E. V. Lewis, the Misses Flora Holt, Bessie Levitt, Moore, Helene Wyman, Flora Lewis, Jessie Brown.

Company F—Mesdames Patil Charlton, Richard Carrier, George W. Mercer, Charles W. Rainey, the Misses Nellie and Sarah Baum.

Company G—Mesdames Andre Rosewater, T. J. Mahoney, Henry S. Jaynes, the Misses Herberta Jaynes, Edith Smith, Martha Stone, Tot Moores and Lillie Bergh, of New York City.

Company H—Committee of 'Women's Relief Corps.

Company I—Mesdames George A. Joslyn, Charles Offutt, E. A. Nash, A. J. Love, M. A. Hall, Charles Ogden, Miss Laura Barber.

Company K—Mesdames W. A. Reddick, Thomas Kilpatrick, T. M. Orr, W. N. Babcock, E. S. Dundy, D. H. Wheeler, Jr., E. H. Sprague, Alvin Saunders and Miss Dundy.

Company L—Mesdames T. J. Mackay, W. L. Lomax, John Grossman, Robert Purvis, Miss Purvis, Miss Olla Cook.

Company M—Mesdames G. W. Wattles, J. R. Buchanan, Z. T. Lindsey. G. F. Bidell, the Misses Lindsey, Evans, Emma Creighton, Andreeson, Miss Moore of Council Bluffs, Miss Nellie law of Henry, Ill.

 

MINNESOTA DEDICATION DAY—July 20, 1898

The Minnesota building, erected by private subscriptions and donations by the citizens of Minnesota, as unique and unlike any other building on the Exposition grounds. It as typical of life in the pine forests of the State it represented, being constructed entirely of pine logs, when and mortised in an artistic and substantial manner. The building as seventy feet long, sixty feet wide and to stories high. There were to balconies, one at each story, tenty feet wide, with railings made of poles surrounding them. All the materials used in the construction were shipped from Minnesota and illustrated products of that State. The rooms were commodious and filled with easy chairs; the walls decorated with many pictures and heads of animals of the early pioneer life of the State.

Cushman K. Davis, United States Senator

Many distinguished residents of Minnesota came on the to special trains to celebrate the dedication of Minnesota's building and to see the Exposition. Governor Clough and staff, the members of the Minnesota Commission, several of the State officers, and members of the Legislature, were among the visitors. The dedication exercises were held at the building at 10:30 a. m. J. Newton Ninde, chairman of the Building Committee, presiding, who first introduced Governor Silas A. Holcomb of Nebraska, who welcomed the Governor of Minnesota and other distinguished guests. John L. Gibbs, president of the Minnesota Commission, and Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota, responded in a happy manner, after which Governor Clough as introduced and formally accepted the building and in turn delivered it to the Exposition officials. President Wattles of the Exposition accepted it for the management, and after his address and music by the band, Honorable W. H. Eustis, of Minnesota, delivered the closing address. The exercises closed with more music.

A public reception in the parlors of the Minnesota building as tendered Governor Clough and his party after the exercises of the day.

INDIAN DAY—August 4, 1898

Early in the history of the Exposition it as proposed by President Wattles I that an Indian Congress of the principal tribes of North American Indians should be one of the distinctive features of the Exposition. That as all of the Trans-Mississippi territory had, but a comparatively few years past, been occupied by these Indian tribes, and that as they were fast disappearing and their modes of life and customs were gradually changing with the onward march of civilization, it would, perhaps, be the last time that the primitive life of these tribes could   ever be successfully illustrated. As many eastern people had never seen Indians in their semi-savage state, it as argued that this Indian Congress would be a great drawing feature that would bring many eastern people to visit the Exposition.

A bill as introduced in Congress authorizing the assemblage of these Indian tribes, and providing an appropriation of forty thousand dollars to defray the expenses. Much delay as experienced in the passage of this measure, and finally Manager Rosewater as prevailed upon to go to Washington and lend his efforts to those of Congressman Mercer and Senators Allen and Thurston in securing the desired legislation. When the bill as finally passed it as too late to assemble the Indians for the opening of the Exposition, and before the encampment as complete on the Exposition grounds, the first of August had passed. On the day set for the grand parade of Indian tribes which should mark the opening of the Indian Congress, there as encamped on the north tract of the Exposition grounds a goodly number of the following tribes:

Chippeas, Rosebud, Lower Brule, Cheyennes, Sissetons, Flandreau, Standing Rock, Crow, Creek, Sioux, Sacs, Foxes, Assiniboines, Omahas, Winnebagos, Blackfeet, Arapahoes, Jicarilla, Apaches, Nez Perces, Comanches, Wichitas, Bannocks, Pueblos, Osages, Iroquois and Poncas. The Indians were in charge of Captain Mercer. The morning was spent in arranging their camps and in raising the flag, which as accompanied with much ceremony and wild cheering. In the afternoon the parade was formed and marched through the midway over the north viaduct and down the Bluff Tract to the Horticultural building, countermarching back to the Grand Plaza. Several bands formed a part of the parade, and the Indians were dressed in the fantastic manner of their respective tribes. After the parade and a short rest, the afternoon as spent in weird dances, horse racing and other Indian amusements. The day as a great success in point of attendance, and from this the opening day of the Indian Congress, until the close of the Exposition, the Indians proved a great attraction.

FLOWER DAY—August 5, 1898

For several weeks preparations had been going on for a grand flower parade on the Exposition grounds. This parade as one of the decidedly successful features of the Exposition period. The omen of the Bureau of Entertainment, under the supervision and direction of Mrs. H. McCall Travis, assumed full charge of the decoration of vehicles that were to take part in the parade. The pageant formed in the afternoon at the Horticultural building. Those participating with the decorations are given below:

1. Mrs. F. P, Kirkendall, drag with cornflowers and heat.
2. Mrs. H. T. Clarke, white chrysanthemums.
3. Mrs. George A. Joslyn and Mrs. C. C. Chase, scarlet and white poppies.
4. Mrs. George Mercer, law France roses and smilax.
5. Mrs. J. M. Metcalf, shaded pink hollyhocks.
 
6. Mrs. Robert Franklin Smith, pink roses with natural foliage.
7. Miss Mary Mercer. pony cart with Easter lilies and white roses.
8. Mrs. Gurdon W. Wattles and Mrs. Geo. F. Bidell, shaded pink roses.
9. Mrs. John L. Webster, drag with white horses, pink chrysanthemums.
10. Miss Louise Squires, American Beauty roses.
11. Mrs. J. Cornish, royal purple chrysanthemums.
12. Mrs. Thomas W. Taliaferro, white roses and white lilies.
13. Mrs. C. E. Squires, pale blue tarleton and pink and black poppies.
14. Mrs. H. Baldridge, tandem team.
15. Mrs. J. H. Evans and Miss Amy Barker, victoria, heliotrope and white chrysanthemums, design in Vandyke points.
16. The Misses Sharp, white roses and smilax.
17. Mrs. S. A. McWhorter, pale yellow roses.
18. Mrs. J. E. Baum, shaded yellow and black poppies.
19. Miss Elizabeth Allen, golden chrysanthemums.
20. Mrs. John N. Baldwin, pink poppies.
21. Mr. Al. Patrick, the Patrick tallyho coach in the national colors in peonies.
22. Mrs. A. H. Noyes, Ak-Sar-Ben colors of red, green and yellow.
23. Mrs. Charles W. Ford, Marechal Niel roses.
24. Miss Mount and Miss Dickinson, burnt orange and amber chrysanthemums.
25. Mrs. A. J. Love and Mrs. Charles Offutt. trap in morning glories.
26. Miss Bennett, canopy-topped carriage, various shades of violet.
27. Mrs. M. C. Peters, spider phaeton, pink roses and lavender chrysanthemums.
28. Miss Parrotte, water lilies.
29. Mrs. Dons, patriotic colors of red. white and blue.
30. Miss Shiverick, carriage upholstered in white, latticed with smilax, and with borders of pink chrysanthemums.
31. Miss Andreeson, spider phaeton in white chrysanthemums.
32. Mrs. Nicholas L. Guckert, yellow and black poppies.
33. Miss Gertrude Morand, pony cart. Marechal Niel roses.
34. Mrs. Arthur Brandeis, golden butterflies, tea and Marechal Niel roses.
35. Mrs. Jack Cudahy, spider phaeton, white bride roses, ruchings of tarleton.
36. Mrs. W. R. Kelly, trap in pink tarleton, law France roses.
37. Miss Alice Parker, trap in yellow poppies, latticed over in pale green.
38. The Misses Hamilton, victoria in lavender and royal purple chrysanthemums.
39. Miss Adelaide Nash, trap in white and yellow roses.
40. Mrs. G. W. Meageath, cart in law France roses and trimmed in white satin ribbons.

The judges were Mayor Moores of Omaha, Mayor Jennings of Council Bluffs, and Mayor Graham of Lincoln, who bestowed prizes upon the equipages of Mrs. H. Evans, Mrs. Hoard Baldridge and Mrs. John N. Baldin, in the order named.

At a meeting of the Executive Committee the thanks of the Exposition management were tendered to Mrs. T. M. Orr and her assistants for the superb and artistic spectacle their parade had afforded. In particular recognition of the work done by the omen in putting on this elaborate pageant it as decided to present each of the participants with a souvenir Exposition medal.

 

KANSAS CITY DAY—August 6, 1898

The officials and citizens of Kansas City came in goodly numbers to celebrate that day. President Wattles and Mayor Frank W. Moores welcomed the visitors as they gathered in the Auditorium at eleven o'clock a. m., for the ceremonies which had been arranged for the occasion. Mayor Moores, in his usual felicitous manner, extended to the visitors the freedom of the city and presented Acting Mayor A. D. Burros with huge golden keys which he explained would admit the visitors to all the pleasures of our city. Acting Mayor Burros responded and spoke in the highest terms of their admiration for the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, which he declared was far beyond their most sanguine expectations.

Ex-Governor Crittenden, of Missouri, responded in behalf of the State, and after music by the band, President Wattles formally addressed the visitors. This concluded the speech making, after which the distinguished visitors were escorted to the city by Mayor Moores and the city officials and tendered a banquet at the Millard Hotel.

RED MEN'S DAY—August 10, 1898

The members of the Improved Order of Red Men, with their wives, children and friends, had designated this day for their special attendance. Formal exercises were held in the Auditorium, consisting of an—

Invocation ........................... Very Rev. Campbell Fair, Dean of Trinity Cathedral
Address ............................................................... President Wattles
Address ................................................. Mayor Frank W. Moores, of Omaha
Music ..................................................................... Finney's Band
Response ......................... Great Junior Sagamore W. D. Wiley, of Des Moines, Iowa
Music ....................................................................... By the Band
Address .................................... Grand Incohonee Robert T. Daniels, of Georgia

This closed the formal program of the day.

UNITED STATES LIFE—SAVING SERVICE DAY—August 11, 1898

As a part of the United States Government exhibit, the life-saving service crew, with boats and other appliances incident to the United States Life-Saving Service, as one of the decided features of the entire Exposition. The illustrations of this service were begun on this day set aside for special demonstrations, and these exhibitions were given daily thereafter during the remainder of the Exposition. The exhibitions were under the general supervision of Mr. Sumner I. Kimball, General Superintendent U. S. Life-Saving Service, Washington, D. C. and were immediately in charge of Captain H. M. Knowles, Wakefield, R. I.,   assistant superintendent Third Life-Saving District. The participants were as follows:

CAPTAIN,

A Henry Cleary, Marquette, Mich.

SURFMEN.

No. 1. Henry Sinnigan, Milaukee, Wis.
No. 2. Jacob Van Weelden, Grand Haven, Mich.
No. 3. James Scott, Sand Beach, Mich.
No. 4. Henry Walker, Muskegon, Mich.
No. 5. John McLeod, Duluth, Minn.
No. 6. Winfield Adamson, Grindstone City, Mich.
No. 7. Frank Johnson, Holland, Mich.
No. 8. Nelson Sims, East Tawas, Mich.

The daily program was as follows:

Life Savers Go on Patrol; Discover Distress Signals; Line Fired Over Wreck. Man Saved in Breeches Buoy; Man Overboard; Rescue with Lifeboat. The Capsize; Apparently Droned; Resuscitation; Close of Exercises.

ST. JOSEPH DAY—August 13, 1898

The celebration of St. Joseph Day as one of the most successful of any of the city special days. Several thousand of the inhabitants accompanied the Mayor and city officials to the Exposition to celebrate their day. At twelve o'clock fully three thousand Missourians had gathered in the Auditorium and the following program as carried out:

Address of Welcome ......................................................... Mayor Moores
Address ............................................................... President Wattles
Response ................................................. Mayor Kirschner, of St. Joseph
Music by the Band.

This concluded the formal exercises, and the remainder of the day as spent in visiting the Exposition sights.

TEXAS DAY—August 18, 1898

The celebration of Texas Day as one of the most interesting of the many State-day celebrations at the Exposition. The program consisted of:

Address of Welcome ................................ Lieut.-Gov. J. E. Harris, of Nebraska
Response ....................................................... Gov. Culberson, of Texas
Address ............................................................... President Wattles
Music ....................................................................... By the Band
Oration .......................................................... Governor R. B. Hubbard

After the speaking the official guests of the day were entertained at luncheon by the Exposition officials.

 

DES MOINES DAY—August 23, 1898

A large number of excursionists from Des Moines and from other parts of Iowa assembled at the Auditorium for the formal exercises of Des Moines Day. The program was as follows:

John MacVicar, Mayor of Des Moines

Music by the Band.
Address of Welcome .................... Mayor Moores
Response .............. Mayor MacVicar, of Des Moines
Address ........................... President Wattles
Music.
Address ................ President Thomas Hutton, of the Commercial Exchange of Des Moines
Address ......................... Secretary Ward, of the Commercial Exchange of Des Moines
Music.

After the exercises, the visitors were entertained at dinner at the Markel Café.

OMAHA WORLD-HERALD AND NEBRASKA EDITORS' DAY

August 24, 1898

The Omaha World-Herald had requested and been granted a special day in which to celebrate the achievements of this progressive daily newspaper. The occasion of the celebration as the thirteenth anniversary of the founding of the Evening World, which gre to be the World-Herald. The day as the same as that set aside as Nebraska Editors' Day, and the to celebrations were therefore merged. The entertainment consisted of a luncheon served at the Markel Café at the expense of the editor of the 'World-Herald. G. M. Hitchcock, proprietor of that paper, presided. After luncheon the speech-making as started by Mr. Hitchcock, who spoke of the many pleasures the Exposition afforded his friends, and of the numerous trials and great effort by which this grand spectacle had been made possible. He then introduced President Wattles, who spoke briefly of the history and progress of the Exposition, and in closing referred to the grand Peace jubilee which had been planned for the month of October. He referred to the fact that Captain Jones of the 22d Infantry as present, carrying a Spanish bullet in his leg. His reference to Captain Jones as the occasion of great cheering, which called for a short acknowledgment from the Captain. Dr. George L. Miller, founder of the Omaha Herald, responded to the toast "Seed Time and Harvest of Newspaperdom." He spoke in his usual felicitous manner, and elicited much laughter and applause.
W. S. Burr, of the Aurora Register, responded to the toast, "Nebraska: She Leads Them All." He spoke, in part, as follows:

"In some respects I am unfitted by nature to make response to the toast proposed, being of an argumentative disposition and accustomed to reach conclusions only by exhaustive and exhausting discussion. A question with only   one side to it, and no end at all, is a very difficult one for me to handle. when a boy, I remember reflecting on the awful consequences of a supposed encounter between an irresistible force and an immovable body, but they are likely to prove mild in comparison with the result when an interminable talker comes into perihelion with an inexhaustible subject.

"That Nebraska leads them all is a self-evident proposition. "Who would produce statistics to demonstrate that the sun shines or the wind blows? (Especially would it resemble the carrying of coals to Newcastle to attempt to prove by figures or diagrams that the agricultural blows in Nebraska.) The people of this State have acquired a reputation of being a little extravagant and given to exaggeration when speaking of its advantages. I shall, therefore, weigh well my words and be ultra-conservative in every statement made, preferring only the modest claim that Nebraska has the richest soil, the purest air, the best Water, and as manly men and womanly women as can be found on this earth.

"One has but to breathe the lifeless air of the lower altitudes; note the stunted products of the red and yellow putty called farm land throughout the East and South; attempt to swallow the lukewarm solution of clay which hundreds of thousands of good people must use as a beverage, to be keenly sensible of some of the everyday, yet priceless blessings in which Nebraska leads them all. No person who has sweltered through the long night and until four o'clock in the morning for a refreshing breath, or who has felt the touch of malaria in his system, would be willing to exchange our climate for all the big red apples of the universe.

"I am of the West, Western. I have lived here for more than a quarter century, and have passed from boyhood to manhood in a homestead country. I can remember breaking sod day after day when the highest object in sight as the ears of my taller horse.

"I have witnessed the development of our State from a barren, treeless plain to one of the most fertile and beautiful countries ever sung by poets or prosed over by historians. The labor of one generation of men has effected this transformation, and next to the welfare of my family I have no stronger wish than to see Nebraska owned free and clear of encumbrance by the people who have sacrificed so much to make it what it is.

"Long ago in the days of 'hoppers,'
When real estate agents dealt in whoppers.
House of sod with roof poles limber,
Buffalo grass and cottonwood timber;
People poor-with hearts of pity,
Each incipient ton a city;
Hedgerows broke, but roads across 'em,
Folks that let nobody boss 'em;
That's the West as I first knew it.

"The settlers of those days may have had to live largely on 'bread and with it,' but no heroes have greater claims on the World's history than the pioneers of Nebraska. Earnest and indomitable, hard-working and self-denying, they labored   to make homes for their children, and they bore with fortitude—nay, with unexampled good humor—all the misfortunes of frontier life.

"One day in August a forlorn, disheartened-looking team, drawing a rickety wagon, passed through our 'city,' bearing a Western family back East for a winter's visit to the 'wife's folks.' As they drove by, a crowd of young fellows gathered in front of the harness shop, and it became apparent from the looks and gestures of the spectators that they were poking fun at his rig. Quick as a flash the homesteader gave to his willing team the signal to stop, and leveling his long forefinger at the boys, shouted earnestly: 'Look here, strangers, I ain't so darned poor as you think I am. One of these horses isn't mine.'

"Such citizenship is one of the resources of Nebraska. The best harvest of which any land can boast is brave and worthy men and omen. The best heritage we can leave our children is an ancestry that merits their emulation. These if things have left their impress upon Nebraska. Springing from such stock, surrounded by such environments, who orders that everything here is done on a large scale; that our stock fields are so extensive that we are spoken of as the 'fodder land;' that we could furnish a necklace of corn cribs to encircle almost any territory desired, that our commerce, both internal and external, exceeds that of any other commonwealth of equal age, and that in the late Spanish skirmish we made a record that proves us worthy sons of the brave sires who, in the days of rebellion, from a population of thirty thousand—possibly seventy-five hundred families—three thousand three hundred and seven officers and men to fight for freedom.

To conclude, Nebraska is noted for her peculiarities, her possibilities and her productions. The fame of our pure air, Poland China pigs and pop-pop-popular government has gone abroad in the land. Who has not heard of our bright women, brainy men, and Bryan? here can you find the equal of our cattle, corn or country newspapers? Our crops are world-beaters; our Exposition beats the World's Fair; and our H/World-Herald can't be beat.

"The day has come when we can attune our voices not only to the melody of pioneer days:

"A home, a home,
Where the deer and antelope play;
Where seldom is heard
A discouraging word,
And the sky is not clouded all day.

"But remembering the achievements of the years gone by, can watch the more majestic strains:

"From Atlantic to rocky Sierras,
No people more loyal or true,
Nebraska, the gem of the prairies,
The best 'neath' the red, white and blue."

G. W. Hurlbut, of the Aurora Sun, responded to the toast, "A Country's Yokel."

 

W. J. White, of the Exeter Enterprise, responded to the toast, "The Late Unpleasantness."

W. T. Howard, of the Schuyler Sun, responded to the toast, "The Exposition as an Educator." He closed his eloquent address with the following words: "The memory of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition will ever remain an enduring monument to Western energy and civilization, and of the minds who conceived and carried the project to practical results."

The program closed with the toast, "The Country Press: Its Might and Its Mercy," responded to by Edgar Hoard, of the Papillion Times.

SIOUX CITY DAY—August 25, 1898

The Sioux City residents came in force to celebrate their day on the Exposition grounds. They ore badges with the following legend: We are hooping it up for the Mondamin Carnival, Sioux City, October third to eighth, that's what we are hooping for." The Sioux City special as met at the north gate of the Exposition by Manager Clarkson, Mayor Moores, and members of the Omaha City Council, and escorted to the Auditorium, here the usual felicitations were exchanged, with the following program:

Music.
Address of Welcome ............................................ Mayor Moores, of Omaha
Response .................................................... Mayor Quick, of Sioux City
Music.
Address ...................................... General Manager Clarkson, of the Exposition
Address ...................................................... Solicitor Gill, of Sioux City

BOHEMIAN DAY—August 27, 1898

Bohemian Day as celebrated by a parade on the Exposition grounds along the West Midway to Twentieth street, and thence to the Administration Arch, and thence through the Grand Court to the Auditorium. The exercises in the Auditorium were interesting, and consisted of an address of welcome by Manager Rosewater, of the Exposition. In his address he spoke feelingly of the changes that had taken place since he came to Omaha as a boy. He expressed great pride at the celebration of the day, and declared he as never prouder in his life than to see that magnificent audience present.

Music .................................................................Bohemian Chorus
Address ..................................... Prof. B. Sinek, of the Iowa State University
Address ........ Mrs. Joseph Humpal-Zeman, of Chicago, Editress of the Bohemian Journal
Music ................................................................. Bohemian Chorus
Address ......................................... Hon. Cenek Duras, of Wilber, Nebraska

One of the most interesting features of the celebration as the drills of the Bohemian Turner Societies on the Grand Plaza in the afternoon. The societies participating were those of Omaha, St. Louis and Cedar Rapids. These drills were witnessed with much interest by thousands of visitors.

 

CODY DAY—August 31, 1898

Colonel William F. Cody—Buffalo Bill—had asked that a special day be set aside in honor of his visit to the Exposition. He came at the head of his grand parade of the "Men of all Nations," and the many unique features of his great "Wild West Show." Gathered on the Plaza were many distinguished Nebraskans to meet him. No less than four ex-governors besides the present Governor of Nebraska were present. The exercises consisted of speech-making, after which the distinguished guests were escorted through the Indian Encampment grounds and back to the Markel Café, here luncheon had been provided by Colonel Cody for all the distinguished guests. Numerous toasts were given and responded to, and the day as voted a great success.

KANSAS DAY—September 1, 1898

Address of President Gurdon W. Wattles

"At the dedication of the Kansas building on these grounds, it as my pleasure to speak briefly of the material resources, wealth and magnificent proportions and fertility of the State. I can not allow this opportunity to pass without reviewing those historic events which for many years made Kansas the battle-ground of public opinion, and which finally culminated in the Civil War, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the development of a